Hazmat Ops Refresher PowerPoint

Report
HAZMAT OPS REFRESHER
Haz Mat Incidents
• Involve a substance that:
– Poses an unreasonable risk to:
• People
• Environment
• Property
– Has been or may be released from a container
– May be on fire
• Will be more complex than a “routine”
incident
Awareness Level
1–2
Awareness-Level
Training Requirements
• Governmental agencies
– OSHA and EPA
– U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Domestic
Preparedness (ODP)
• Requirements of authority having jurisdiction
(AHJ)
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
1–3
Awareness-Level
Training Requirements
• NFPA Standards
– NFPA 472, Standard for Professional Competence
of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents
– NFPA 471, Recommended Practice for Responding
to Hazardous Materials Incidents
– NFPA 473, Standard for Competencies for EMS
Personnel Responding to Hazardous Materials
Incidents
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
1–4
Awareness-Level
Responsibilities
• Recognizing the presence or potential
presence of a hazardous material
• Recognizing container type and identifying
material
• Transmitting information to appropriate
authority and calling for assistance
• Identifying actions to protect self and others
• Establishing scene control
Awareness Level
1–5
Operational-Level Rescue Actions
• Conducting searches during reconnaissance or defensive
activities
• Conducting searches on the edge of the hot zone
• Directing victims to the decontamination area
• Assisting with decontamination while not coming into
contact with the hazardous material itself
• Assisting with the identification of victims
• Giving instructions to a large number of people for mass
decontamination
Operational Level
4–6
Approaching the Scene Safely
• Identify and evaluate problem locations and
hazardous occupancies during emergency
response planning.
• Include remote observation/assessment steps
in the emergency plan.
• Always approach the scene from uphill,
upwind, and upstream if at all possible.
Operational Level
(1 of 2)
2–7
Approaching the Scene Safely
• Use binoculars, a spotting scope, a camera
lens, or a sight scope for observation.
• Report any unusual conditions to the
telecommunications/dispatch center.
• Use the assessment location as a temporary
staging area if reconnaissance teams must
(2 of 2)
approach on foot.
Operational Level
2–8
Incident Priorities
• Life safety
• Incident stabilization
• Protection of property and the environment
Operational Level
3–9
Assessments to Make
Before Taking Action
•
•
•
•
•
•
Risk to rescuers
Ability of rescuers to protect themselves
Probability of rescue
Difficulty of rescue
Capabilities and resources of on-scene forces
Possibilities of explosions or sudden material
releases
• Available escape routes and safe havens
• Constraints of time and distance
Operational Level
3–10
Confinement
• Controlling the product that has already been released
from its container
• Function — Minimizes the amount of contact the product
makes with people, property, and the environment
• Tactics
–
–
–
–
–
Absorption
Adsorption
Blanketing/covering
Dam, dike, diversion, and retention
Vapor suppression
(1 of 2)
Operational Level
4–11
Confinement
(2 of 2)
Operational Level
4–12
Absorption
• A physical and/or chemical event occurring
during contact between materials that have
an attraction for each other
• One material is retained in the other
• Procedure — The absorbent is spread directly
onto the hazardous material or in a location
where the material is expected to flow
• Refer to Skill Sheet 4–1.
Note: After use, absorbents must be treated and disposed of as
hazardous materials because they retain the properties of the
materials they absorb
Operational Level
4–13
Adsorption and Blanketing/Covering
• Adsorption — The molecules of the hazardous
material physically adhere to the material
• Blanketing/covering — Covering the surface of
the spill to prevent dispersion of materials
Operational Level
4–14
Damming, Diking,
Diversion, and Retention
• A way to control the flow of liquid hazardous
materials away from the point of discharge
• Can be made by using earthen materials or
materials carried on response vehicles
• Procedure — Construct curbs that direct or divert
the flow away from gutters, drains, storm sewers,
flood-control channels, and outfalls
• Refer to Skill Sheets 4–2 through 4–5.
Note: Any construction materials that contact the spilled
material must be properly disposed of.
Operational Level
4–15
Vapor Suppression
• The action taken to reduce the emission of
vapors at a haz mat spill
• Spills of flammable and combustible liquids
may require fire-fighting foams.
• Refer to Skill Sheet 4–6.
Operational Level
4–16
Using Foams
• Application methods
– All fire-fighting foams (except fluoroprotein types) should not
be plunged directly into the spill, but applied onto the ground
at the edge of the spill and rolled gently onto the material.
– Rainfall method — Spraying foam into the air over the target
area in a fog pattern
• Considerations
– Water destroys and washes away foam blankets; do not use
water streams in conjunction with the application of foam.
– A material must be below its boiling point; foam cannot seal
vapors of boiling liquids.
Operational Level
4–17
Other Spill-Control Tactics
• Ventilation — Controlling the movement of air
by natural or mechanical means
• Vapor dispersion
– The action taken to direct or influence the course
of airborne hazardous materials
– Procedure: Using pressurized streams of water
from handlines or unmanned master streams;
streams create turbulence, which increases the
rate of mixing with air and reduces the
concentration of the hazardous material
– Refer to Skill Sheet 4–7.
(1 of 4)
Operational Level
4–18
Other Spill-Control Tactics
• Dispersion — The breaking up or dispersing of a
hazardous material that has spilled on a solid or liquid
surface
• Dilution
– The application of water to a water-soluble material to
reduce the hazard
– Is not typically used for spill control, but during
decontamination operations
– May be used when very small amounts of corrosive
materials are involved
– Refer to Skill Sheet 4–8.
(3 of 4)
Operational Level
4–19
Other Spill-Control Tactics
• Dissolution — The process of dissolving a gas
in water
• Neutralization — The process of raising or
lowering the pH of corrosive materials to
render them netural
(4 of 4)
Operational Level
4–20
Products Most Often
Involved in Haz Mat Incidents
•
•
•
•
Flammable/combustible liquids
Corrosives
Anhydrous ammonia
Chlorine
Awareness Level
1–21
Hazardous Materials States
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
1–22
Potential Ignition Sources
at Haz Mat Scenes
•
•
•
•
Open flames
Static electricity
Existing pilot lights
Electrical sources
• Internal combustion
engines
• Heated surfaces
• Cutting and welding
operations
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
1–23
Potential Ignition Sources
at Haz Mat Scenes
• Radiant heat
• Heat caused by friction
or chemical reactions
• Cigarettes
• Cameras
• Road flares
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
1–24
Potential Ignition Sources in Explosive
Atmospheres
•
•
•
•
Opening or closing a switch or electrical circuit
Turning on a flashlight
Operating a radio
Activating a cell phone
Awareness Level
1–25
Routes of Entry
• Inhalation — Breathing through the nose or
mouth
• Ingestion — Through the mouth by means
other than simple inhalation
• Injection — Through a puncture or break in
the skin
(1 of 3)
Awareness Level
1–26
Routes of Entry
• Absorption — Through the skin or eyes
• Penetration — Radioactive particles and
energy waves
(2 of 3)
Awareness Level
1–27
Routes of Entry
Chemicals often have multiple routes of entry.
(3 of 3)
Awareness Level
1–28
UN/DOT Hazard Classes
•
•
•
•
Class 1: Explosives
Class 2: Gases
Class 3: Flammable and combustible liquids
Class 4: Flammable solids, spontaneously
combustible materials, and dangerous-whenwet materials
• Class 5: Oxidizers and organic peroxides
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2A–29
UN/DOT Hazard Classes
• Class 6:
hazard
• Class 7:
• Class 8:
• Class 9:
Poison (toxic) and poison inhalation
Radioactive materials
Corrosive materials
Miscellaneous dangerous goods
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2A–30
UN Commodity
Identification Numbers
• A four-digit number assigned to each
hazardous material listed in the current ERG
– Often displayed on placards, labels, orange panels,
and/or white diamonds
– May be preceded by the letters NA or UN
– Also appears on shipping papers
• Assists first responders in identifying the
material and referencing it in the ERG
(1 of 4)
Awareness Level
2A–31
UN Commodity
Identification Numbers
• Display methods for UN commodity
identification numbers
– In a white rectangle inside a placard between the
placard symbol and hazard class
– In an orange rectangle beneath the placard
– On a plain white square-on-point display
configuration having the same outside dimensions
as a placard
(2 of 4)
Awareness Level
2A–32
UN Commodity
Identification Numbers
(3 of 4)
Awareness Level
2A–33
UN Commodity
Identification Numbers
• Must be displayed on the following
containers/packages:
– Rail tank cars
– Cargo tank trucks
– Portable tanks
– Bulk packages
– Vehicle containers containing large quantities of
hazardous materials
– Certain nonbulk packages
(4 of 4)
Awareness Level
2A–34
Parts of a DOT Placard
Hazard Symbol
Background Color
Diamond shaped
4-Digit ID Number or
Hazard Class Designation
Hazard Class Number
Awareness Level
2A–35
Containers on Which DOT Placards
May Be Found
•
•
•
•
•
Bulk packages
Rail tank cars
Cargo tank vehicles
Portable tanks
Unit load devices over 640 cubic feet (18 m3)
in capacity containing hazardous materials
• Certain nonbulk containers
Awareness Level
2A–36
DOT Placard Color Codes
Explosive
Oxidizer
Health Hazard
Water Reacative
Awareness Level
Flammable
Nonflammable Gas
2A–37
DOT Symbols
Explosive
Poison
Oxidizer
Radioactive
Corrosive
Awareness Level
Flammable
Nonflammable Gas
2A–38
NFPA 704
Flammability
Health
Instability
(1 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–39
NFPA 704
• Provides a method for indicating the presence
of hazardous materials at:
– Commercial facilities
– Manufacturing facilities
– Institutional facilities
– Other fixed-storage facilities
(2 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–40
NFPA 704
• Not designed for the following situations:
– Transportation
– General public use
– Nonemergency occupational exposures
– Explosive and blasting agents
– Chronic health hazards
– Etiologic agents, and other similar hazards
(3 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–41
NFPA 704
• Benefits of NFPA 704
– Provides an appropriate signal to first responders
that hazardous materials are present
– Identifies the general hazards and degree of
severity for health, flammability, and instability
– Provides immediate information necessary to
protect lives of the public and emergency
response personnel
(4 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–42
NFPA 704
• Health — Blue
– 4 — Severe hazard
– 3 — Serious hazard
– 2 — Moderate hazard
– 1 — Slight hazard
– 0 — Minimal hazard
(5 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–43
NFPA 704
• Flammability — Red
– 4 — Flammable gases, volatile liquids, pyrophoric
materials
– 3 — Ignites at ambient temperatures
– 2 — Ignites when moderately heated
– 1 — Must be preheated to burn
– 0 — Will not burn
(6 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–44
NFPA 704
• Instability — Yellow
– 4 — Capable of detonation or explosive
decomposition at ambient conditions
– 3 — Capable of detonation or explosive
decomposition with strong initiating source
– 2 — Violent chemical change possible at elevated
temperature and pressure
– 1 — Normally stable, but becomes unstable if
heated
– 0 — Normally stable
(7 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–45
NFPA 704
• Special hazards
– Located at 6 o’clock
– Have no special background although white is
most often used
– May contain one of two special symbols
• W — Unusual reactivity with water
• OX — Oxidizer
(8 of 8)
Awareness Level
2A–46
Shipping Paper Identification
• Air transport
– Shipping paper name — Air bill
– Location of shipping paper — Cockpit
– Responsible party — Pilot
• Highway transport
– Shipping paper name — Bill of lading
– Location of shipping paper — Vehicle cab
– Responsible party — Driver
Awareness Level
(1 of 2)
2B–47
Shipping Paper Identification
• Rail transport
– Shipping paper name — Waybill/consist
– Location of shipping paper — Engine or caboose
– Responsible party — Conductor
• Water transport
– Shipping paper name — Dangerous cargo manifest
– Location of shipping paper — Bridge or pilothouse
– Responsible party — Captain or master
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–48
U.S. MSDS Information
• Top — Chemical Identity
• Section I — Manufacturer’s ID and
Information
• Section II — Hazardous Ingredients
• Section III — Physical and Chemical
Characteristics
• Section IV — Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
(1 of 2)
• Section V — Reactivity (Instability) Data
Awareness Level
2B–49
U.S. MSDS Information
• Section VI — Health Hazard Data
• Section VII — Precautions for Safe Handling
and Use
• Section VIII — Control Measures
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–50
Emergency Response Guidebook
• The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) is
primarily for use at a dangerous
goods/hazardous materials incident occurring
on a highway or railroad.
• Explosives are not listed individually but
appear under the general heading Explosives
on the first page of the ID Number Index and
alphabetically in the Name of Material index.
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–51
Emergency Response Guidebook
• The letter P following the Guide number in the
yellow-bordered and blue-bordered pages
identifies those materials that present a
polymerization hazard under certain
conditions.
• First responders should be familiar with the
ERG before using it in an emergency!
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–52
ERG ID Number Index
(Yellow-Bordered Pages)
• Index hazardous materials in numerical order
of their 4-digit ID numbers
• Follow ID number with material’s assigned
ERG Guide number followed by the material’s
name
• Highlight substances that release toxic
inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
Awareness Level
2B–53
Using the ID Number Index
• Example questions:
What material has the ID number 1090?
Is this material a TIH?
What guide page should be consulted?
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–54
Using the ID Number Index
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–55
ERG Material Name Index
(Blue-Bordered Pages)
• Alphabetically index hazardous materials by
name
• Follow the material’s name with the ERG
Guide number and the material’s 4-digit ID
number
• Highlight substances that release toxic
inhalation hazard (TIH) gases
Awareness Level
2B–56
Using the Material Name Index
• Example questions:
What guide page would be used for Sulphuric
(Sulfuric) acid?
Is this material a TIH?
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–57
Using the Material Name Index
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–58
Initial Action Guides
(Orange-Bordered Pages)
• Provide safety recommendations and general
hazard information
• Present each guide in a two-page format
– Potential hazards section
– Public safety section
– Emergency response section
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–59
Initial Action Guides
(Orange-Bordered Pages)
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–60
Initial Action Guides —
Potential Hazards Section
• Describes potential fire and explosion hazards
and health effects upon exposure
• Lists highest potential first
• Should be consulted first, allowing first
responders to make decisions regarding the
protection of the emergency response team
as well as the surrounding population
Awareness Level
2B–61
Table of Initial Isolation
and Protective Action Distances
(Green-Bordered Pages)
• List TIH materials by ID number in Table of
Initial Isolation and Protective Action
Distances
• Include water-reactive materials that produce
toxic gases in Table of Water-Reactive TIH
Materials
Awareness Level
2B–62
Using the Table of Initial Isolation and
Protective Action Distances
• Example questions: Assume you are
responding to a small spill involving a material
with ID No. 1953, liquified gas, flammable,
poisonous, not otherwise specified (n.o.s.)
(Inhalation Hazard Zone B).
What is the initial isolation distance?
What distance should persons downwind be
protected during the day?
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–63
Using the Table of Initial Isolation and
Protective Action Distances
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
2B–64
Small Spills vs. Large Spills
• Small spill — A spill that involves a single,
small package (such as a drum containing up
to approximately 53 gallons [200 L], a small
cylinder, or a small leak from a large package
• Large spill — A spill that involves a spill from a
large package, or multiple spills from many
small packages
Awareness Level
2B–65
Initial Isolation Distance
• Distance within which all persons are
considered for evacuation in all directions
from the actual spill/leak source
Awareness Level
2B–66
Protective Action Distance
• A downwind distance from a spill/leak source
within which protective actions should be
implemented (steps taken to preserve the
health and safety of emergency responders
and the public)
Awareness Level
2B–67
Hazard Control Zones
• Provide scene control
– Protect responders from interference by
unauthorized persons
– Help regulate movement of first responders
– Minimize contamination
• Divide the levels of hazard of an incident
– Hot zone
– Warm zone
– Cold zone
(1 of 2)
Awareness Level
3–68
Hazard Control Zones
(2 of 2)
Awareness Level
3–69
Hot Zone
• An area surrounding an incident that has been
contaminated or has the potential to become
contaminated by a released material
• Generally the same as the isolation distance
and could include the protective action zone
Awareness Level
3–70
Warm Zone
• An area abutting the hot zone and extending
to the cold zone
• Considered safe for workers to enter without
special protective clothing (until
decontamination starts) unless they are
assigned a task requiring increased protection
• Used as a buffer between the hot and cold
zones and the place to decontaminate
personnel and equipment exiting the hot zone
Awareness Level
3–71
Cold Zone
• Encompasses the warm zone and is used to
carry out all other support functions of the
incident or haz mat operations
• Workers in the cold zone are not required to
wear personal protective clothing
Awareness Level
3–72
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• Flammable, explosive, or combustible range
— The percentage of the gas or vapor
concentration in air that will burn or explode if
ignited
(4 of 13)
Operational Level
1–73
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• LEL/LFL (Lower explosive limit/Lower
flammable limit) — The lowest concentration
that will produce a flash of fire when an
ignition source is present
• UEL/UFL (Upper explosive limit/Upper
flammable limit) — The highest concentration
that will produce a flash of fire when an
ignition source is present
(5 of 13)
Operational Level
1–74
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor
Explosion) — Occurs when a liquid within a
container is heated, causing the material
inside to boil or vaporize beyond the vessel’s
ability to relieve the excess pressure
• Melting point — Temperature at which a solid
substance changes to a liquid state at normal
atmospheric pressure
(8 of 13)
Operational Level
1–75
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• Vapor density — Weight of a given volume of
pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of
an equal volume of dry air at the same
temperature and volume
(9 of 13)
Operational Level
1–76
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• Solubility — The percentage of a material (by weight) that will
dissolve in water at ambient temperature
– Non-water-soluble liquids remain separate when combined
with water; water-soluble liquids mix easily when combined
with water.
– Water-soluble agents usually cause upper respiratory tract
infection, quickly resulting in coughing and throat irritation.
– Partially water-soluble agents penetrate into the lower
respiratory systems causing delayed symptoms that include
breathing difficulties, pulmonary edema, and coughing up
blood.
(10 of 13)
Operational Level
1–77
Properties of
Hazardous Materials
• Miscibility/immiscibility — The degree or
readiness with which two or more gases or
liquids are able to mix with or dissolve into
each other
– Miscible — Liquids that dissolve into each other
– Immiscible — Liquids that do not readily dissolve
into each other
• Specific gravity — Ratio of the density
(heaviness) of a material to the density of
some standard material at standard conditions
(11 of 13)
of pressure and temperature
Operational Level
1–78
Types of Radiation
• Alpha particles
• Beta particles
• Gamma rays
• X-rays
• Neutrons
Operational Level
1–79
EPA Levels of Protection
• Note: The following information is taken from
the OSHA requirements for EPA levels of
protective equipment. The NFPA
requirements (listed in Hazardous Materials
for First Responders, 3rd ed.) may differ
slightly.
Operational Level
5–80
EPA Level A Ensemble
• Components
– Vapor protective suit
– Pressure-demand, full-face
SCBA
– Inner chemical-resistant gloves
– Chemical-resistant safety boots
– Two-way radio communication
– Cooling system (optional)
– Outer gloves (optional)
– Hard hat (optional)
Operational Level
(1 of 3)
5–81
EPA Level A Ensemble
• Protection provided — Highest available level
of respiratory, skin, and eye protection from
solid, liquid, and gaseous chemicals
• Used in the following situations:
– The chemical(s) have been identified and have
high level of hazards to respiratory system, skin,
and eyes
– Substances are present with known or suspected
skin toxicity or carcinogenity
– Operations must be conducted in confined or
poorly ventilated areas
(2 of 3)
Operational Level
5–82
EPA Level A Ensemble
• Limitations
– Protective clothing must resist permeation by the
chemical or mixtures present
– Ensemble items must allow integration without
loss of performance
(3 of 3)
Operational Level
5–83
EPA Level B Ensemble
• Components
– Liquid splash-protective suit
– Pressure-demand, full-facepiece
SCBA
– Inner chemical-resistant gloves
– Chemical-resistant safety boots
– Two-way radio communications
– Hard hat
– Cooling system (optional)
– Outer gloves (optional)
(1 of 3)
Operational Level
5–84
EPA Level B Ensemble
• Protection provided — Provides same level of
respiratory protection as Level A, but less skin
protection; provides liquid splash protection, but
no protection against chemical vapors or gases.
• Limitations
– Protective clothing items must resist penetration by
the chemicals or mixtures present
– Ensemble items must allow integration without loss of
performance
(2 of 3)
Operational Level
5–85
EPA Level B Ensemble
• Used in the following situations:
– The chemical(s) have been identified but do not
require a high level of skin protection
– Initial site surveys are required until higher levels
of hazards are identified
– The primary hazards associated with site entry are
from liquid and not vapor contact
(3 of 3)
Operational Level
5–86
EPA Level C Ensemble
• Components
– Support Function Protective
Garment
– Full-facepiece, air-purifying,
canister-equipped respirator
– Chemical-resistant gloves and safety
boots
– Two-way communications system
– Hard hat
– Faceshield (optional)
– Escape SCBA (optional)
Operational Level
(1 of 3)
5–87
EPA Level C Ensemble
• Protection provided — The same level of skin protection as
Level B, but a lower level of respiratory protection; provides
liquid splash protection but no protection from chemical
vapors or gases
• Limitations
– Protective clothing items must resist penetration
by the chemical or mixtures present
– Chemical airborne concentration must be less
than IDLH levels
– The atmosphere must contain at least 19.5%
(2 of 3)
oxygen
Operational Level
5–88
EPA Level C Ensemble
• Used in the following situations:
– Contact with site chemical(s) will not affect the
skin
– Air contaminants have been identified and
concentrations measured
– A canister is available which can remove the
contaminant
– The site and its hazards have been completely
characterized
(3 of 3)
Operational Level
5–89
EPA Level D Ensemble
• Components
– Coveralls
– Safety boots/shoes
– Safety glasses or
splash goggles
– Gloves (optional)
– Escape SCBA (optional)
– Faceshield (optional)
chemical
• Protection provided — No respiratory
protection; minimal skin protection
Operational Level
(1 of 2)
5–90
EPA Level D Ensemble
• Used in the following situations:
– The atmosphere contains no known hazard
– Work functions preclude splashes, immersion,
potential for inhalation, or direct contact with
hazard chemicals
• Limitations
– This level should not be worn in the Hot Zone
– The atmosphere must contain at least 19.5%
(2 of 2)
oxygen
Operational Level
5–91
Categories of Decontamination
• Gross decontamination
– Quickly removing the worst surface
contamination, usually by rinsing with water from
handheld hoselines, emergency showers, or other
water sources
– Performed on the following people in the
following situations:
• Entry team personnel before technical
decontamination
• Victims during emergency decontamination
• Persons requiring mass decontamination
(1 of 4)
Operational Level
6–92
Categories of Decontamination
• Emergency decontamination
– Removing contamination on individuals in potentially lifethreatening situations with or without the formal
establishment of a decontamination corridor
– A type of gross decontamination
• Technical (formal) decontamination
– Using chemical or physical methods to thoroughly remove
contaminants from responders (primarily entry team
personnel) and their equipment
– Conducted within a formal decontamination line or corridor
following a gross decontamination
(2 of 4)
Operational Level
6–93
Categories of Decontamination
• Mass decontamination — Conducting gross
decontamination of multiple people at one time
• Secondary decontamination — Taking a shower
after having completed a technical
decontamination
• Definitive decontamination — Decontaminating
further after technical decontamination
(3 of 4)
Operational Level
6–94
Categories of Decontamination
• Patient decontamination — Decontaminating
injured patients or victims
• Buddy decontamination — Performing
decontamination between entry team personnel
(or others), making it easier to rinse difficult-toreach areas such as the back and backs of legs
and knees
• Self decontamination — Conducting emergency
decontamination on oneself, usually by rinsing
with water or using a blotting/ absorption
method
(4 of 4)
Operational Level
6–95
Importance of
Scene Control Procedures
• First responders must direct victims to a safe
location to await decontamination and
prevent victims from leaving the scene.
• Decontamination prevents secondary
contamination to others.
• All first responders must be sure to also know
the department’s plan for evacuation of
uncontaminated persons from the hazard
area.
Operational Level
6–96
Decontamination Methods
• Wet
– Washing the contaminated surface with solutions or flushing
with a hose stream or safety shower
– Usually necessitates the collection of runoff water in wading
pools or other liquid-retaining devices
• Dry
– Scraping, brushing, and absorption
– May be as simple as removing contaminated clothing and
putting into a 55-gallon (208 L) storage bag
– Does not create large amounts of contaminated runoff
(1 of 2)
Operational Level
6–97
Decontamination Methods
• Physical
– Removes the contaminant from a contaminated
person without changing the material chemically
– The contaminant is contained for disposal
• Chemical
– To make the contaminant less harmful by
changing it through some kind of chemical process
(2 of 2)
Operational Level
6–98
Steps in Emergency Decontamination
1. Remove the victim from the contaminated
area.
2. Wash immediately any exposed body parts
with flooding quantities of water.
3. Remove victim’s clothing and/or PPE rapidly
– if possible, cutting from the top down in a
matter that minimizes the spread of
contaminants.
(1 of 2)
Operational Level
6–99
Steps in Emergency Decontamination
4. Perform a quick cycle of head-to-toe rinse,
wash, and rinse.
5. Transfer the victim to treatment personnel for
assessment, first aid, and medical treatment.
6. Ensure that ambulance and hospital personnel
are told about the contaminant involved.
(2 of 2)
Operational Level
6–100
Factors to Consider when Choosing a
Decontamination Site
• Accessibility
– Must be away from hazards, but adjacent to the
hot zone
– Crucial time periods to consider
•
•
•
•
Travel time in the hot zone
Time allotted to work in the hot zone
Travel time back to the decontamination site
Decontamination time
(1 of 4)
Operational Level
6–101
Factors to Consider when Choosing a
Decontamination Site
• Terrain and surface material
– The decontamination site ideally slopes toward the hot
zone.
– Diking around the site prevents accidental contamination
escaping.
– It is best if the site has a hard, nonporous surface to
prevent ground contamination.
– When a hard-surface driveway, parking lot, or street is
not accessible, some type of impervious covering may be
used to cover the ground.
– Use covers or sheeting to form the decontamination
(2 of 4)
corridor regardless of whether the surface is porous.
Operational Level
6–102
Factors to Consider when Choosing a
Decontamination Site
• Lighting (and electrical supply)
– A site illuminated by streetlights, floodlights, or other
type of permanent lighting reduces the need for
portable lighting
• Drains and waterways
– Avoid locating a site near storm or sewer drains,
ponds, ditches, and other waterways.
• Water supply
– Water (and sometimes detergent) must be available.
(3 of 4)
Operational Level
6–103
Factors to Consider when Choosing a
Decontamination Site
• Weather
– Set up the site upwind in order to prevent the
spread of contaminants into clean areas.
– Make every attempt to shield victims from cold
winds while they are removing protective clothing.
(4 of 4)
Operational Level
6–104
Decontamination Corridor
Operational Level
6–105
AIR MONITORING
• What is a normal Atmosphere?
– Oxygen:
– Carbon Monoxide:
– LEL:
– H2S:
20.8%
0 PPM
0%
0 PPM
• When is the Atmosphere not normal?
AIR MONITORING
• 1% of volume is equal to 10,000 PPM
• SO…WHAT DOES THAT MEAN TO ME?
– What is happening if a monitored space is reading
an Oxygen level of 20.3% O2 and zero on all other
sensors?
– Is there a problem?
AIR MONITORING
• Your meter is reading the following:
– O2:
– CO:
– LEL:
20.7%
999 or HI
.2%
How much CO is in the space you are monitoring?
AIR MONITORING
• LEL of CO is 12.5%
– 12.5% of CO equals 100% LEL meter reading
– .125% of CO equals 1% LEL meter reading
– 1% LEL meter reading equals 1250 PPM of CO
How much CO is in the space you are monitoring?
.2 % LEL meter reading of CO equals 2500 PPM.
IDLH for CO is 1200 PPM
QUESTIONS???

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