Shurley Grammar Unit 1 Sixth Grade Lesson 5 • Today we will learn about synonyms and antonyms. • Synonyms are words that have almost the same meaning. • Examples: held and aid, quick and fast, weak and feeble • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. • Examples: quick and slow, busy and idle, bright and dull, hot and cold. Lesson 5 • What are words with almost the same meaning? • synonyms • What are words with opposite meanings? • antonyms • What is a synonym for quick? • fast • What is an antonym for quick? • slow Identifying Synonyms and Antonyms • • • • • • • Identify the words as synonyms or antonyms. cold, frigid synonyms peace, turmoil antonyms deny, reject synonyms Identifying Synonyms and Antonyms • • • • • • • Identify the words as synonyms or antonyms. low, elevated antonyms question, inquiry synonyms building, edifice synonyms Sentence Jingle 5 Parts of a Sentence • A complete sentence is a group of words that has a subject, a verb, and expresses a complete thought. • A complete sentence should also begin with a capital letter and end with an end mark. Noun Jingle Verb Jingle 4 Kinds of Sentences • There are four kinds of sentences: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory. • These sentences have four purposes: to tell, to ask, to request, or to show strong feeling. 4 Kinds of Sentences • • • • • • • • A declarative sentence makes a statement. It is labeled with a D. Example: Mr. Henry is a very good mechanic. (period, statement, declarative sentence) An imperative sentence gives a command. It is labeled with an Imp. Example: Put the groceries in the pantry. (period, command, imperative sentence) 4 Kinds of Sentences • • • • • • • • An interrogative sentence asks a question. It is labeled with an Int. Example: Do you have an extra pencil? (question mark, question, interrogative sentence) An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling. It is labeled with an E. Example: Someone stop that thief! (exclamation point, strong feeling, exclamatory sentence) Question and Answer Flow • Understanding how all the parts of a sentence work together makes writing sentences easier and more interesting. • Learning how to ask the right questions to get answers will help you identify the parts of a sentence. • The questions you ask and the answers you get are called the question and answer flow. Nouns • The definition says that a noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. • A subject question is used to find the noun that works as the subject in the sentence. • The subject tells who or what the sentence is about. • The subject questions are who or what. • Ask who if the sentence is about people. • Ask what if the sentence is not about people. Sentence 1 • Plane circled. • What circled? plane—subject noun (write SN above plane) • Since plane is a thing, we ask the subject question using what. • The subject noun plane tells what the sentence is about. Verbs • The verb definition says that the verb can show action or state of being. • The verb tells what the subject is doing. • To find the verb, ask what is being said about the subject. • What is being said about plane? plane circled—verb (write V above circled) Lesson 8 Plane circled. Lesson 8 Girl danced. Lesson 8 Wolf limped. Lesson 8 Bulls bellowed! Adverb Jingle Adverbs • An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. • The adverb questions are How? When? And Where? • The adverb label is Adv. Adjective Jingle Adjectives • An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. • Adjective questions are What kind? Which one? How many? • The adjective label is Adj. Adjectives and Adverbs Modify • The adjective and adverb definitions use the word modifies. • Modify means to describe. • When the adverb definition says that an adverb modifies a verb, it means that an adverb describes a verb. • When the adjective definition says that an adjective modifies a noun, it means that an adjective describes a noun. Classifying Sentences with Adverbs The jet plane circled awkwardly above. What circled awkwardly above? plane—subject noun What is being said about plane? plane circled—verb Now we are going to answer some questions that will help us identify the adverbs. 1. Where do you find an adverb? to the verb, adjective, or another adverb 2. Where do you go first to find a an adverb? to the verb 3. What is the verb in this sentence? circled Classifying Sentences with Adverbs The jet plane circled awkwardly above. What circled awkwardly above? plane—subject noun What is being said about plane? plane circled—verb 4. What do you ask after you go to the verb circled? one of the adverb questions: how? when? where? 5. Which adverb question would you use to find the adverb in this sentence? how? Classifying Sentences with Adverbs The jet plane circled awkwardly above. What circled awkwardly above? plane—subject noun What is being said about plane? plane circled—verb Circled how? awkwardly—adverb (write Adv above awkwardly) Circled where? above—adverb (write Adv above awkwardly) Classifying Sentences with Adjectives • Page 41 Article Adjective • Insert pattern and complete subject/predicate page 43 Lesson 8 The jet plane circled awkwardly above. Lesson 8 A little girl danced gracefully. Lesson 8 The injured wolf limped slowly away. Lesson 8 The delightful children performed perfectly. Lesson 8 Several angry bulls bellowed loudly! Singular and Plural Nouns • A singular noun represents one person, place, thing, or idea. • Plural nouns represent more than one person, place, thing, or idea. • Plural nouns usually end in s or es. Common and Proper Nouns • A common noun is a noun that means ANY person, place, or thing. • A common noun is not capitalized, because it does not name a special person, place, or thing. • A proper noun is a noun that names a special or particular person, place, or thing. • Proper nouns are always capitalized no matter where they are found in the sentence. Simple Subject and Predicate • A simple subject is another name for the subject noun or subject pronoun. • The simple subject is just the subject, without all the words that modify the subject. • The simple predicate is another name for the verb. • The simple predicate is just the verb, without all the rest of the words in the predicate. • Insert script for adverb exception and natural or inverted order. Page 52 Lesson 11 The big ugly snake slithered quickly away. Lesson 11 A small girl quietly whimpered nearby. Lesson 11 Yesterday the nimble little monkeys climbed very rapidly. Lesson 11 The extremely polite usher nodded graciously. Parts of Speech • All the words in the English language have been put into eight groups called the Parts of Speech. • How a word is used in a sentence determines its part of speech. • The sentences we’ve been classifying have utilized four of the parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb. • Insert Practice Sentences script pages 61-62 • Insert Improved Sentences script pages 63-64 The Preposition Jingle Object of the Prep Jingle Preposition • A preposition is a joining word. • A preposition joins a noun or a pronoun to the rest of the sentence. • To know whether a word is a preposition, say the preposition word and ask what or whom. • If the answer is a noun or a pronoun, then the word is a preposition. • Prepositions are labeled with a P. Object of the Preposition • An object of the preposition is a noun or a pronoun after the preposition in a sentence. • An object of the preposition is labeled with an OP. Preposition or Adverb • A word can be a preposition or an adverb, depending on how it is used in a sentence. • For example, the word down can be a preposition or an adverb. • If down is used alone, with no noun after it, it is an adverb. • If down has a noun after it that answers the question what or whom, then down is a preposition, and the noun after down is the object of the preposition.