Unit 3

Report
Unit 3
Phrases
By PresenterMedia.com
•LESSON 18
Prepositional Phrases
Review
Lesson 10- Preposition: a word that shows the
relationship between a noun or a pronoun to some other word
in a sentence.
 Example: The cat food is inside the cupboard.
 We’ll go to the movie after lunch.
Preposition Phrase- begins with a preposition and usually ends
with a noun or a pronoun, called the object of the preposition.

The object may be compound or have modifiers.

Example: Our stockpile of snowballs was depleted quickly.

Example: This pudding is made with milk and bread. (compound
object)

Example: I brought back film footage of the horrible storm. (object
with modifier)
•Practice
•
Directions: Circle each preposition phrase in the following
sentences and draw an arrow to the word or words it modifies.
1.
The captain slipped on the wet deck.
2.
We went to the movies at the last minute.
3.
Which of the barbells is heavier?
4.
Melissa earned the money for her new dress.
5.
When Jo forgot her key, she knocked on the
window.
•Practice
•
Directions: Circle each preposition phrase in the following
sentences and draw an arrow to the word or words it modifies.
1.
The captain slipped on the wet deck.
2.
We went to the movies at the last minute.
3.
Which of the barbells is heavier?
4.
Melissa earned the money for her new dress.
5.
v
When Jo forgot her key, she knocked on the
window.
Participles and Participial Phrases
•LESSON 19
• Participle-
a verb form that acts as an adjective
(it modifies a noun or pronoun)
• Example: The car screeched to the twisting road.
•
(The participle twisting modifies the noun road.)
A participle can be past or present tense. A present
participle ends in –ing. A past participle usually
ends in –ed.
• Participial
Phrase- a participle with
complements and modifiers.
•
•
•
•
Acts as an adjective.
It can be in different position in a sentence.
If the participial phrase falls at the beginning of a
sentence, it is usually followed by a comma.
Example: Screeching loudly, the car pulled into
the service station.
•Practice
•
Circle the participial phrase in each sentence and draw an arrow to the
noun or pronoun that it modifies.
•
Example: Donato sat at his desk, listening to a classmate’s oral report.
1.
Waiting patiently, Donato organized his notes.
2.
His oral report, inspired by the World Cup competition, was about a
famous soccer player.
3.
Reading his first note card, he remembered that soccer is called
‘football” in many countries.
4.
This sport, played around the world, is growing in popularity.
5.
Keeping that in mind, he though his classmates would enjoy his report.
•Practice
•
Circle the participial phrase in each sentence and draw an arrow to the noun
or pronoun that it modifies.
•
Example: Donato sat at his desk, listening to a classmate’s oral report.
1.
Waiting patiently, Donato organized his notes.
2.
His oral report, inspired by the World Cup competition, was about a
famous soccer player.
3.
Reading his first note card, he remembered that soccer is called ‘football”
in many countries.
4.
This sport, played around the world, is growing in popularity.
5.
Keeping that in mind, he though his classmates would enjoy his report.
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
•LESSON 20
• Gerund-
is a verb form ending in –ing
that is used as a noun.
• Example: Sewing has never interested me.
• Gerund Phrase- is a gerund with any
complements or modifiers needed to
complete it’s meaning.
• Example: Her enthusiastic cheering
drew people from yards away.
•
Example: Moving the chair was not easy.
•Practice
•
•
Directions: Circle the gerund or gerund phrase in each sentence.
Example: Running for class president requires a lot of work.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I like eating healthy foods.
Recycling gives our family a sense of
accomplishment.
Quitting is almost never the best solution.
Cheryl’s delicious cooking keeps her restaurant
popular.
Leafing through photos is a good was to remember
old times.
•Practice: Answers
•
•
Directions: Circle the gerund or gerund phrase in each sentence.
Example: Running for class president requires a lot of work.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I like eating healthy foods.
Recycling gives our family a sense of
accomplishment.
Quitting is almost never the best solution.
Cheryl’s delicious cooking keeps her restaurant
popular.
Leafing through photos is a good was to remember
old times.
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases:
Appositives and Appositive Phrases
•LESSON 20 CONTINUED
• Appositive-
a noun or pronoun placed next to
another noun or pronoun to further identify it.
• Example: My brother David is an engineer.
• Appositive phrase- contains an appositive and
any other words that modify it.
•
•
•
Usually not essential to the meaning of a sentence.
Appositives are often set off by commas.
Example: My brother David, an engineer in
Philadelphia, enjoys his job.
•Practice
Directions: Circle the appositive or appositive phrase in
each sentence.
• Example: Dontonio, my science partner, helped me write
the alb report.
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mariel, a dancer in her own right, watched the
ballerinas dance.
My Dr., Dr. Enriques, recently moved to our
neighborhood.
Nancy’s dog Molly never barks at anyone.
Meagan, a hard-working student, will run for class
president.
The noise, a piercing wail, made us cover our ears.
•Practice
Directions: Circle the appositive or appositive phrase in
each sentence.
• Example: Dontonio, my science partner, helped me write
the alb report.
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mariel, a dancer in her own right, watched the
ballerinas dance.
My Dr., Dr. Enriques, recently moved to our
neighborhood.
Nancy’s dog Molly never barks at anyone.
Meagan, a hard-working student, will run for class
president.
The noise, a piercing wail, made us cover our ears.
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
•LESSON 21
•
Infinitive- is a verb form usually preceded by the word to.
•
•
•
•
•
•
In this case, to is not a preposition, but a part of the infinitive
verb form.
An infinitive can be used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb.
Example: I love to gather flowers in the spring. (infinitive as a
noun)
Example: Our plans to visit the Civil War battlefields changed
drastically. (infinitive as an adjective)
Example: Your address is difficult to remember. (infinitive as
an adverb)
Infinitive Phrase- included an infinitive and any
complements and modifiers needed to complete its
meaning.
• Example: Many animals can learn to recognize people.
•Practice
•
ADJ
•
Directions: Circle each infinitive, write n if it is used as a noun,
adj if it is used as an adjective, and adv if it Is used as an adverb.
Example: As the center of the government, London is the place
to witness politics in action.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Choosing a setting for a novel is not a decision to
make hastily.
An author must choose the right setting to make a
novel memorable.
For some writers, it was easy to find the best setting.
To live in London is to have the perfect setting.
A novelist can find it interesting to create plots based
on the city’s rich history.
•Practice
•
ADJ
•
Directions: Circle each infinitive, write n if it is used as a noun,
adj if it is used as an adjective, and adv if it Is used as an adverb.
Example: As the center of the government, London is the place
to witness politics in action.
ADJ
Choosing a setting for a novel is not a decision to
make hastily.
ADJ
2. An author must choose the right setting to make a
novel memorable.
ADV
3. For some writers, it was easy to find the best setting.
N
N
4. To live in London is to have the perfect setting.
ADV
5. A novelist can find it interesting to create plots based
on the city’s rich history.
1.
Distinguishing Participial, Gerund, and
Infinitive Phrases
•LESSON 22
There are three types of verbal phrases, participial,
gerund, and infinitive. They are all closely related to
verbs; however, they do not function as verbs, but as
nouns, adjective, and adverbs. The easiest way to
distinguish the phrase is by the way the function in a
sentence and by their forms.
• Infinitive phrases- can function as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. Infinitives are usually preceded by the
word to.
• Participial phrases- function as adjectives. Present
participles end in –ing. Most past tense participles end in
–ed.
• Gerund phrases-function as nouns. Gerunds end in –ing.
•
•Practice
•
Directions: Identify the phrase in italics as infinitive, gerund, or participial.
•
Example: __Gerund__ Harold will never forget fumbling in the big game.
1.
__________ She collects figurines made in the thirties.
2.
__________ Buying fire extinguishers is a good way to save
livers.
3.
__________ Practicing constantly, Mike improved his
tennis game.
4.
__________ Dan has never been one to complain about his
problems.
5.
__________ Jim’s goal, getting elected, was achieved
through hard work.
•Practice
•
Directions: Identify the phrase in italics as infinitive, gerund, or participial.
•
Example: __Gerund__ Harold will never forget fumbling in the big game.
1.
_Participial_ She collects figurines made in the thirties.
2.
_Gerund___ Buying fire extinguishers is a good way to save
livers.
3.
_Participial_ Practicing constantly, Mike improved his
tennis game.
4.
_Infinitive_ Dan has never been one to complain about his
problems.
5.
_Gerund___ Jim’s goal, getting elected, was achieved
through hard work.

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