problem-solution powerpoint

Report
Analytical Thinking and
Writing In All Subject
Areas
Expository Text Structure:
Problem-Solution
Non-fiction Text Structures
(how authors organize nonfiction texts)
Students need to be taught text structures so that
they can successfully read and write non-fiction.
• Compare-Contrast
• Cause-Effect
• Goal-Action-Outcome (procedure/process,
sequential/chronological order, order of
importance)
• Problem-Solution
• Proposition-Support (persuasive, position)
• Concept-Definition (descriptive)
What does a problemsolution text look like?
A problem-solution text informs
readers about a complex, multistep problem and suggests
actions that could be taken to
remedy this problem.
Brainstorm topics in
your content area that
present problems for
which solutions can be
created.
Students’ awareness of text structures
improves reading comprehension.
Use “It Says/I Say” to help your students
make inferences as they read.
Tool for Problem-Solution
Thinking and Writing
Problem: causes
Introduction
Solution 1
Body
Advantages/
Disadvantages
Solution 2
Solution 3
Advantages/
Disadvantages
Advantages/
Disadvantages
Which solution do you propose? Summarize the
advantages and call for consideration of the proposed
solution.
Conclusion
Tree Map
Order of Operations for Essay Writing
Begin with your topic.
Brainstorm on a Thinking
Map, jot list, etc.
Analyze and summarize information on the Thinking
Map, etc. to determine your thesis statement.
Use information on Thinking Map,
etc. to determine supporting ideas
and write topic sentence for each
idea.
Find supporting evidence to
explain supporting ideas in
detail in the body paragraphs.
Write your hook (tells why
we care, states thesis).
Incorporate transitions to
combine and explain your
ideas.
Write your conclusion (rewrite
the thesis, revisit main points
from body paragraphs and
hook).
Using the Writing Order
of Operations in Science
1. Begin with a topic:
Air pollution
2. Brainstorm on a Tree Map.
Problem:
air pollution caused by automobile exhaust leading
to asthma, reduction in lung capacity, heart problems, cancer
Solution 1
mass
transportation
Adv.
Save time
Reduce air poll.
Solution 2
Solution 3
Bicycling
Walking
Adv
Exercise
Disadv.
Reduce
Fare hikes
air
Attracting riders
Unreliable service pollution
Disadv.
Safety
weather
Adv
Exercise
Reduce air
pollution
Disadv.
Safety
Weather
More time
3. Analyze the Tree Map to
determine a thesis statement.
Problem:
.
air pollution caused by automobile exhaust leading
to asthma, reduction in lung capacity, heart problems, cancer
Solution 1
mass transportation
Adv.
Disadv.
Save time
Fare hikes
Reduce air poll. Attracting riders
Unreliable service
Solution 2
bicycling
Adv
Exercise
Reduce
pollution
Disadv.
Safety
weather
Solution 3
walking
Adv
Exercise
Reduce air
pollution
Disadv.
Safety
Weather
More time
Summary of the problem and why it needs to be dealt with:
Despite their disadvantages, mass transportation, bicycling,
and walking instead of driving would reduce health problems
associated with air pollution.
4. Create a thesis statement
based on the analysis of the
Tree Map.
The problem + the solution = thesis statement
THESIS: Walking, riding a bike, or taking public
transportation instead of driving, will reduce
air pollution.
Remember: The thesis statement is the
most important element of the essay!
Now it’s your turn……
1. Choose a topic from your group’s
previously created list of topics which
offer problems and solutions.
2. Create a Tree Map explaining the
problem and possible solutions.
3. Analyze the Tree Map and summarize
the problem and why it needs to be dealt
with.
4. Create a thesis statement for a problemsolution essay.
Tips for Writing a
Problem-Solution Essay
Introduction
•
Hook (How will this problem-solution essay help
someone better understand what the problem is and
why it needs to be solved AND why is the solution
important to the big picture?)
•
Thesis statement (summarizes both the problem and the
possible solution and should answer a question)
•
The introduction should give the reader enough
background information to understand the problem.
(Why is it a problem? What are the root causes? )
The Body
• Writers need solid supporting ideas to develop
an argument.
• Each paragraph should be focused on a single
idea that supports the thesis.
• HOWEVER, write as many paragraphs as
needed to support the thesis.
The Body
• After describing the problem in the introduction,
the essay should move to a possible solution.
• What are the alternatives?
• What are the advantages/disadvantages to
each alternative?
• What is the solution?
• How well is the solution working? OR How well
will the solution work?
Problem-Solution Transitions
Use transition words to help
the reader follow the flow of ideas.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the cause is
results are
corrected
improved
remedied
issues
possibilities
analysis
preferences
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
situation
obstacle
choice
outcome
succeed/successful
problem/problematic
attempt/attempted
explanation
Conclusion
• Restate the thesis statement using
different wording and/or;
• Revisit the main points from the
body paragraphs and/or;
• End on some memorable thought,
such as a relevant quotation,
interesting twist of logic, or some call
to action that is related to the hook.
Teachers of all subjects are
responsible for:
• Thesis statements
• Organization
• Transitional language
• Content
Remember! Content-area teachers are
not responsible for GUM (grammar,
usage, mechanics, and spelling).
Back in the Classroom
• Post the problem-solution transition words in your
classroom.
• Model “It Says/I Say” for your students and provide them
with guided and independent practice in using the
strategy when reading problem-solution texts.
• Use the annotated problem-solution essays to help your
students become analytical readers and writers.
• Have your students write a problem-solution essay using
the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning
page.
• Model each part of the essay planning page and provide
feedback during the drafting stage.

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