Africa Regional Report - United Nations Economic Commission for

Report
ALMATY PROGRAMME OF ACTION
Africa Regional Report
AFRICAN REGIONAL REVIEW MEETING
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
16-18 July 2013
Dr. Robert M. Okello
[email protected]
Lyciar
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Dare to Know
1
PRIORITIES OF APOA
•Fundamental Transit Policy Issues.
•Infrastructure Development and Maintenance.
•International Trade and Trade Facilitation.
•International Support Measures.
•Implementation and Review.
16 July 2013
2
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
16 AFRICAN LLDCs
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3
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
2003 - 2013
•Africa as a whole made good and steady
progress:
HDI improved and Gap narrowed between
LLDCs and Transit Countries.
MDG Achievements significant – LLDCs as
well as Transit Countries.
But inequalities increased among and within.
• ODA is still significant, but FDI and
Remittances now more important.
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4
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
PRIORITY 1: FUNDAMENTAL TRANSIT TRANSPORT POLICY
ISSUES
3 Major Dimensions of Transit
Transport:
•International legal frameworks govern
facilitation of the transit transport
•Institutional framework for operations and
management of transit transport
•Infrastructure for transport mode - road,
railways, port, airport, inland waterways,
pipelines.
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5
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
International Legal Frameworks for Transit Transport in Africa
3 Levels of Participation:
African Participation in International Treaties
and Conventions on Transit Transport
Africa Regional Treaties and Conventions on
Transit Transport
Africa Sub-Regional Treaties and Conventions
on Transit Transport (RECs)
pipelines.
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6
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
International Legal Frameworks for Transit Transport in
Africa
16 July 2013
Treaty/Convention
Year Adopted
African Parties
Barcelona Convention on Freedom of Transit
1921
Burundi, Chad (2)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade –
GATT/WTO
1947/
1995
Sub-Sahara Africa (38), except Ethiopia, Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea,
Guinea Bissau, S&P
New York Convention on Transit Trade of
Landlocked Countries
1965
BF, Burundi, Cameroon, CAR, Chad, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria,
Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia (16)
Brussels Convention Establishing a Customs
Cooperative Council.
1950
Kyoto Convention on Simplification and
Harmonization of Customs Procedures.
1973
Customs Convention on the International
Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR
Carnets; also called the TIR Convention.
Nairobi Convention on Mutual Administrative
Assistance for the Prevention, Investigation
and Repression of Customs Offences.
Geneva Convention on Harmonization of
Frontier Control of Goods.
1975
Nigeria, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe (4)
1977
Malawi, Niger, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe (6 LLDCs); CI,
Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo (7 costal).
1982
South Africa, Lesotho, Liberia (3)
Montego Bay Convention on Landlocked
Countries.
1982
Landlocked Countries (15); SSA Coastal Countries (27)
Almaty Programme of Action.
2003
Landlocked Countries (16); SSA Coastal Countries (27)
7
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Africa Regional Treaties and Conventions on Transit Transport
Instrument
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Year
OAU Addis Ababa Charter
1963
Monrovia Declaration
1979
Lagos Plan of Action
1980
Abuja Treaty
Establishing the African
Economic Community (AEC)
1991
African Maritime Transport Charter
1993
African Union
2002
NEPAD
2002
African Maritime Transport Charter
2009
Key Issues
Initial signature by 32 governments, with South Sudan becoming the 55th member
in July 2011. Article II aims, inter alia, “to promote international co-operation,
having due regard to the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights”, and calls upon the Member States to co-ordinate
and harmonize their general policies, especially in the fields economic cooperation, including transport and communications.
In pursuit of the objectives of the New International Economic Order, the OAU
“Council committed to implement completely the programme of the United
Nations Transport and Communications Decade in Africa.”
Called for the creation of an African Common Market by 2000, and in this regard
assigned to the Regional Economic Communities the objective: “.. to reinforce
effectively sectoral integration in transport.”
The policy objectives include: “To promote economic, social and cultural
development as well as integration of African economies”, including in the area of
trade and transport, “the harmonization of policies …. and removal of obstacles to
movement of persons, goods and services, with special measures for the
landlocked countries”.
Chapter VII on issues of Landlocked Countries. Transit Partner States agree to
grant facilities and benefits to landlocked countries and to apply nondiscriminatory administrative, fiscal and Customs measures. They agree to
coordinate their policies of acquisition and use of land, river, air and maritime
transport and port. They are encouraged to enter into bilateral and multilateral
conventions on transit and to ratify those in force.
Transformed OAU into AU. The objectives contained in the Constitutive Act,
include “Promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural
levels as well as the integration of African economies.”
Establishment of AU) was accompanied with the formulation of the New
Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as the new framework for economic
and social development of Africa and the achievement of the MDGs in Africa. RECs
remain the anchor of regional mechanisms for achieving the African Union
programs, and continue to place priority on enhancing interconnectivity and
facilitating trade by focusing on transport corridors as microcosms of integration
and spatial development on the continent.
Update of the 1993 Charter and a call to include it in the national legislations. It
calls for emphasis on cooperation between LLDC and Transit States, development
of Multimodal Transport, Ports and ICT applications.
8
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Institutional Framework for Management and Operations of
Transit Transport Corridors
Issue for Harmonization
Vehicle
Load
and
Dimensions Control (Axle
load and Gross Vehicle
Mass limits)
Road Transit Charges
Southern Africa
SADC
Central Africa
ECCAS
CEMAC
Yes.
Axle Load/GVM
Weighbridges installed
Yes.
Axle Load/GVM
Weighbridges installed
Harmonized with SADC
Harmonized
COMESA and EAC
Third Party Motor Vehicle
Insurance Schemes
Yellow Card
Yellow Card (of COMESA)
Road Customs Transit
Declaration Document
COMESA
Declaration
(CD-COM)
Road check points
Significant reduction
Regional Customs Bond
Customs Bond Guarantee
Scheme - Harmonized
with SADC
15 OSBP envisaged; 7
under development
Carrier
License
Transit Plates
West Africa
ECOWAS
UEMOA
Yes – Inter-State Road
Transport (TIE).
Axle Load/GVM
with
and
Border Posts Operations
ICT for Vehicle Tracking
and Fleet Management
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East Africa
EAC
COMESA
ASCYUDA
Customs
Document
Orange Card
ECOWAS Brown Card
insurance
scheme
(Convention A/P1/5/82) ECOWAS "Carte Brune"
(Brown Card) and CIMA
Code
ECOWAS’ Interstate Road
Transit Scheme (ISRT) –
Convention
A/P4/5/82
and Supplementary
Convention A/SP.1/5/90
ECOWAS Interstate Road
Transport
(IST)
–
Convention A/P.2/5/82
Customs Agreements on
Inter-State Road Transit
(TRIE Convention)
ASCYUDA
ASCYUDA
Single
Administrative
Document (SAD)
Customs Bond Guarantee
Scheme - Harmonized
with COMESA and EAC
Chirundu OSBP Pilot;
Other OSBP Projects in
NSC
ASCYUDA
9
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Institutional Framework for Management and Operations of
Transit Transport Corridors
Vehicle Load and Dimensions Control (Axle
load and Gross Vehicle Mass limits):
EAC/COMESA: Yes - Axle Load; GVM;
Weighbridges installed
SADC: Yes - Axle Load; GVM; Weighbridges
installed
ECOWAS: Yes – Inter-State Road Transport
(TIE); Axle Load; GVM
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10
United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Institutional Framework for Management and
Operations of Transit Transport Corridors
• Road Transit Charges
 EAC/COMESA/SADC: Harmonized
 ECCAS and ECOWAS: None
• Third Party Motor Vehicle Insurance Schemes
 EAC/COMESA/SADC: Yellow Card
 ECCAS: Orange Card
 ECOWAS: Brown Card/Carte Brune insurance
scheme (Convention A/P1/5/82) – ECOWAS CIMA
Code
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
11
Institutional Framework for Management and Operations of
Transit Transport Corridors
• Road Customs Transit Declaration Document
 EAC/COMESA: COMESA Customs Declaration
Document (CD- COM)
 SADC: Single Administrative Document (SAD)
 ECCAS: None
 ECOWAS: Interstate Road Transit Scheme (ISRT) –
Convention A/P4/5/82 and Supplementary
Convention A/SP.1/5/90
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
12
Institutional Framework for Management and
Operations of Transit Transport Corridors
• Regional Customs Bond
 EAC/COMESA/SADC: Customs Bond Guarantee Scheme Harmonized
 ECCAS – None
 ECOWAS - Customs Agreements on Inter-State Road Transit
(TRIE Convention)
• Border Posts Operations
 15 OSBP envisaged; 7 under development in East Africa
 Chirundu OSBP Pilot; Other OSBP Projects in NSC
 ECCAS and ECOWAS - None
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
13
Institutional Framework for Management and
Operations of Transit Transport Corridors
• Road Check Points
 EAC/COMESA: Significant reduction
 ECOWAS: Interstate Road Transport (IST) –
Convention A/P.2/5/82
• ICT for Vehicle Tracking and Fleet Management
 All RECs: ASCYUDA
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
14
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE.
s
TAH ALLIGNMENTS
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
15
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE.
• East Africa Corridors.
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
16
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE.
•



East Africa Corridors.
Northern Corridor (TAH 8) – Mombasa Port; Multimodal
Central Corridor (TAH 4)– Dar es Salaam Port; Multimodal
Djibouti – Addis Ababa Corridor (TAH 6)– Djibouti Port; Road
and Rail
 LAPSSET – Lamu Port; Project Stage
 Mwambani Economic Corridor – Tanga Port; Project
Conception Stage
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
17
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE
• Southern African Corridors
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
18
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE
• Southern Africa






-
Dar es Salaam Corridor (TAH 4) – Multi-Modal
Maputo Corridor – Multi-Modal
Nacala Corridor
Beira Corridor (TAH 9)
North-South Corridor (TAH 9) – Multi-Modal
Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG):
Trans Caprivi Corridor (TCC)
Trans Kalahari Corridor (TKC) – TAH 10
Trans Cunene Corridor
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
19
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE
West Africa
Corridors
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
20
PRIORITY 2: INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND
MAINTENANCE
•





West Africa
Dakar – Bamako Corridor (TAH 5): Multimodal
Tema – Ouagadougou Corridor: Road
Abidjan – Ouagadougou: Road and Rail
Lome – Ouagadougou: Road
Cotonou – Niamey: Road and rail
• Central Africa
 Douala – Bangui Corridor
 Douala – Ndjamena Corridor
 Point-Noire Corridor (TAH 3)
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
21
PRIORITY 3: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE FACILITATION
• Africa’s External Trade performance – Global Share Marginal
Increase from 2.3% in 2000 to 3.2% in 2010.
• However, significant increase in export values of African
LLDCs, except Swaziland.
• African LLDCs Export Concentration in2010/2011 very high on
raw commodities (Mali 79% Gold, Botswana 75.6% Diamonds,
Malawi 58.4% Tobacco, etc.)
• African Export Market Concentration shifting from Traditional
EU dominance towards Emerging Economies (China)
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
22
Africa Export Trade Concentration
Country
16 July 2013
1st.
Year
%
Botswana
2011
Diamonds, not mounted or set
75.6
Burkina
Faso
Burundi
2010
Gold
68.6
2010
Coffee
59.5
CAR
2009
Diamond not mounted or set
61.9
Ethiopia
2009
Coffee
32.4
Lesotho
2010
Food, Beverages, Tobacco
8.2
Mali
2010
Gold
79.1
Malawi
2011
Unmanufactured tobacco
58.4
Niger
2009
Uranium or thorium
Rwanda
2011
Tin ores and Concentrates
24
Swaziland
2007
Mixed odoriferous substances for industrial use
29
Uganda
2010
Coffee
18
Zambia
2010
Copper in all forms
78
Zimbabwe
2010
United
Nations
Commission
for
Nickel
oxide Economic
sinters, ores
and (mattes,
concentrates) Africa
22
23
Trade Facilitation
• Trade Costs and Major Bottlenecks:
 Ease of Doing Business:
 LLDCs showed encouraging improvement in key indicators between
2006 and 2012 – DE/I, TE/I, CE/CI
 LLDCs continue to perform below Transit countries in all aspects.
 Logistics Performance Index:
 Few African LLDCs and Transit Countries improved Global Rankings
between 2007 and 2012: Botswana, Malawi, Uganda, Niger,
Zimbabwe; and Benin, Tanzania, Namibia, Togo, Ghana.
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
24
Trade Facilitation Initiatives
• National Initiatives: Rwanda, Mali, Swaziland,
s Faso, Kenya, Tanzania,
Malawi, Cameroon, Burkina
Senegal, Zambia, Zimbabwe
• Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA)
• One-Stop Border Posts (OSBP) or Joint Border Posts
(JBP)
• Aid for Trade (AfT)
• Trade Facilitation Facility – US$40m Trust Fund for
LDCs
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
25
PRIORITY 4: INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT MEASURES
• Global Support to Africa
s Inter-Agency
 UN – OSSA, OHRLLS, UNECA,
Coordination
 Global Initiatives (Brussels and Johannesburg)
 G8 – Kananaskis – AAP (2002); Evian –
OECD/APF(2003); Gleneagles – Blair Commission
(2005), etc.
 WTO – AfT
 WCO – Capacity Building
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United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
26
PRIORITY 4: INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT MEASURES
• Bilateral Support:
 EU – EBA, EPA
 UK/DFID – Country; Regional (TradeMark);
Continental (AFTI, EIF)
 USA/USAID – Continental (AGOA); Regional (Trade
Hubs); Country (MCC)
 JAPAN/TICAD-JICA – Regional (OSBP)
 CANADA/CIDA – ATC
 France, China, India, Brazil, Turkey
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
27
PRIORITY 4: INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT MEASURES
• IFIs:
 WB - SSATP
s
 AFDB – (NEPAD, ICA, IPPF, PIDA)
 Arab Funds – IDB, BADEA, KDF
 Other African Infrastructure Funds – AFC, PAIDF, ICF,
AFP.
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
28
PRIORITY 5: IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEW
• Country Reports on National Implementation and
s
Review – Burkina Faso, Burundi,
Swaziland, Zambia
• Implementation and Review at the Global Level
• African Regional Review
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
29
Emerging Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Civil Conflicts – Kenya, CI, CAR
Greater Regional Integration
Global Economic and Financial Crises
Climate Change
Population, Urbanization and Migration
Technological Advances
Emergence of New Economic Power Poles
Governance and Natural Resources Management
16 July 2013
s
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
30
Way Forward
• Development of Fundamental Transit Transport
s
Policy – Accession and Implementation
of
International Agreements
• Improving Transport Infrastructure
 Alternate Routes to LLDCs
 Greater Inter-Modal Balance
 Supportive Infrastructure – ICT and Energy
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
31
Way Forward
• Strengthening International Trade and Trade
s
Facilitation
 Developing Productive Capacity and Diversifying the Export
Base
 Management of Natural Resources
 Promoting Investment
• Facilitation of Trade
 Deepening Regional Cooperation and Integration
 WTO Trade Negotiations
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
32
Way Forward
• International Support Measures
s
 Framework for Partnership with Emerging Markets
– China, India, Brazil, Turkey, etc.
• Harnessing Demographic Dividends
• Special Case of CAR, CHAD, South Sudan
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa
33
Thank You
[email protected]
16 July 2013
United Nations Economic
Commission for
34
Africa

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