ENG 528: Language Change Research Seminar Sociophonetics: An Introduction Chapter 4: Consonants Vowel synthesis exercise • 1. Record yourself saying a short sentence and digitize it. • 2. Apply some sort of filtering (lowpass, highpass, bandpass, or band zeroing) to the signal in a way that would be useful in a perception experiment. • 3. Using the “To Manipulation” function in Praat, change the F0 and timing of the utterance. You may change different parts of the utterance in different ways. • 4. Using the “To KlattGrid” function, change some of the formant values enough so that the affected vowels sound like different phonemes. • 5. Send me your original digitized utterance and each of the three modified soundfiles. Due October 3. Field marks for stops Stops are characterized by “stop gaps.” Voiced stops (right) show a murmur; voiceless stops (left) don’t. As a rule, stops are followed by bursts unless the stop is unreleased. Field marks for nasals Nasals show formants in their stop occlusions. They may or may not show a burst. Shown: [m]. Field marks for fricatives Fricatives show frication noise, though its robustness varies. Shown: [f] (left), [v] (right). Field marks for affricates Affricates show a stop gap followed by frication, with a burst in between. Shown: [pf] (left), [bv] (right). Field marks for approximants Lack of a stop gap or frication; otherwise, there aren’t any consistent commonalities, as [w] (left) and trilled [r] (right) show. Featured variables involving manner of articulation • Interdental fricatives vs. stops • Weakening of voiced stops in Spanish after vowels • Tapping/flapping in American & Australian English • Affrication of stops in Scouse and Québec French • Affricate/fricative confusion in Mexican American English Stopping of word-initial /ð/ after a consonant in Pearsall, Texas 70 Mexican Americans Anglos 60 50 Percentage of Realization as [d] • E.g., keep that pronounced [khip dæt] • Cases such as had that pronounced [hæd dæt] that are ambiguous between stopping and assimilation are not included in the stopping tally • Ordinary Least Squares Regression used • Ethnicity was a significant predictor (p=.007) and education was close (p=.051), but year of birth and sex were not significant. 40 30 20 10 0 1920 1940 1960 Year of Birth 1980 2000 Place of Articulation (1) What—tube models again??! 6000 F6 F6 5000 F6 F5 F5 F5 F6 F5 F5 F6 F6 F5 F5 F5 F4 F4 F4 3000 F3 F3 palatal velar uvular 14 12 10 8 pharyngeal alveolar F2 1000 F4 F3 F3 2000 F4 F2 glottal F4 bilabial labiodental dental frequency in Hz 4000 0 16 6 4 distance constriction is from glottis in cm 2 0 Place of Articulation (2) Place of Articulation General effect on: F1 F2 F3 Bilabial lowered Lowered lowered Labiodental lowered lowered lowered Dental lowered raised next to back rounded vowels, lowered next to front vowels slightly raised except next to high front vowels Alveolar lowered slightly raised except next to high front vowels Retroflex lowered Palato-alveolar lowered raised next to central and back vowels, lowered next to mid and high front vowels raised next to back vowels, lowered next to front vowels raised Palatal lowered strongly raised slightly raised Velar lowered raised lowered Uvular lowered? lowered slightly lowered Pharyngeal raised strongly lowered strongly lowered strongly lowered raised Locus Equations } Stop Gap } Visible Transition F2 of [ti] Locus F2 of [t] 3000 F2 of [tu] 2000 time F2 of onset 2500 F2 of onset frequency F2 of [t ] 1500 2000 1000 1500 /b/ /d/ / / /b/ /d/ / / 1000 500 500 1000 1500 F2 of vowel 2000 1000 1500 2000 2500 F2 of vowel 3000 Featured variables involving place of articulation • Interdental fricatives vs. labiodental fricatives in English (especially British dialects) • Dental, alveolar, and retroflex consonants • Alveolar (or dental) vs. velar nasals Frication: Peak location Comparison of adult male and girl smoothed spectra for sibilants Unsmoothed spectrum of [x] 25 peak 20 adult male  adult male [s] 10-yr.-old girl  10-yr.-old girl [s] 20 15 peak peak 0 10 peak Amplitude in dB Amplitude in dB 10 -10 -20 5 0 -5 -10 -30 -15 -40 -20 -50 -25 0 2000 4000 6000 Frequency in Hz 8000 10000 -30 0 2000 4000 6000 Frequency in Hz 8000 10000 Frication: Spectral moments • Moment 1=mean frequency; whether the energy is relatively high- or low-frequency • Moment 2=variance; range of energy, i.e., how concentrated the energy is • Moment 3=skewness; gets at spectral tilt • Moment 4=kurtosis; how much of a peak there is in the spectrum Frication: Ad, Sp, and S´p • Jesus and Shadel (2002), applied to Portuguese F 30 _ F Amplitude in dB 20 Ad S'p 10 0 Sp -10 -20 -30 0 5000 10000 Frequency in Hz 15000 20000 Featured variables involving fricative spectra • Laminal and apical [s] • Dorsal fricatives: [ç], [x], [ ], and their voiced counterparts • Aspiration vs. frication: note that formants (including low formants) are visible in aspiration, while only high formants or none at all are visible in frication Direct measurement of articulation • X-ray microbeams: phoneticians have used them for a long time • Electropalatograph (EPG): useful for contact between tongue and roof of mouth • Ultrasound: mostly for tongue because ultrasound can’t handle air spaces Voice Onset Time (VOT) • Well-known term in phonetics • Relevant only for syllable-onset or ambisyl. stops • Lead, short-lag, and long-lag VOT Measuring VOT • Length of time between the burst and the onset of vocal fold vibration • VOT will be negative for lead VOT (pre-voicing) and positive for lag VOT (voiceless, especially aspirated) • Judge onset of vocal fold vibration by onset of F2 • Go with the last burst if there are more than one • For intervocalic stops, measure from offset of F2 for preceding vowel • Aspiration tends to be shortest for labials and longest for dorsals, with coronals in between VOT in Pearsall (labials shown) 35 Number of Tokens 30 25 20 /p/ after voiced, Mex. Am. /p/ after pause, Mex. Am. /b/ after voiced, Mex. Am. /b/ after pause, Mex. Am. /p/ after voiced, Anglo /p/ after pause, Anglo /b/ after voiced, Anglo /b/ after pause, Anglo 15 10 5 0 <-170 <-120 <-70 <-20 VOT <30 <80 Glottalization • Important variable for British dialects • Slowed glottal pulsing is the key Cues for the voicing distinction property adjacent F0 contour adjacent F1 contour approach of F1 to closure duration of closure duration of preceding vowel glottal pulsing intensity of burst after closure associated phonation “voiced” (lenis or non-spread glottis) depressed strongly depressed closer “voiceless” (fortis or spread glottis) elevated not depressed as much less close shorter longer longer shorter may be present greater absent lesser aspiration and glottalization less likely aspiration and glottalization more likely Stop releases • Main issue is whether release is present or absent Stop release for Pearsall (left), Robeson County, NC (right) Laterals: clear and dark /l/ • F2 frequency is the key Clear and dark /l/ in Pearsall 9.0 Mexican Americans Anglos curve for Mexican Americans 8.5 Mean Z2-Z1 for /l/ Midpoint 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 1920 1940 1960 Year of Birth 1980 2000 Other lateral variation • Velar [ ] vs. vocalized: hard to tell acoustically; F3 bandwidth is everybody’s best guess now, but in addition F1 & F2 may be a tad higher for vocalized • Palatal lateral [ ] vs. palatal central approx. [j]: [j] shows a higher F3, maybe a higher F1 Rhotics • No common features of rhotics—mainly, they’re all spelled with r • Lots of variables in different languages • We’ll focus on a couple of kinds of variation here • Since we won’t cover assibilation, here’s what it sounds like Uvular /r/ forms • Important if you want to study Continental European languages • Uvularization is characterized by lowering of F2 and maybe a little raising of F3 • Lots of variation in uvular /r/ Bunched vs. retroflex /r/ • Important in English • Frequency of F4 (!) turns out to be crucial • How do you normalize it for interspeaker variation? (We haven’t covered normalization yet.) Non-rhoticity • For English, F3 frequency is the crucial factor • My advice: use a combination of auditory judgment and examination of F3 on spectrograms (compare with F3 of nearby vowels) • Pearsall results (unstressed /r/) shown below Percent Rhotic in Unstressed Syllables 100 90 80 70 60 Mexican Americans Anglos 50 1920 1940 1960 Year of Birth 1980 2000 Question for discussion • What steps would you take in figuring out how to tell the difference, acoustically, between a pair of sounds not covered in this chapter—for example, velar [k] vs. uvular [q], alveolar [n] vs. palatal nasal [ ], or lateral fricative [ ] vs. post-alveolar [ ]? Formant plot fun 300 i u 400 oi r e 600 o u vo e . #. r e . .. e N .. æ æ: 500 ai ai # vo r ai r r l o o au =o o ai 600 .. r ' v o 700 æ au u v au æ 800 700 2000 l u r F1 F1 e 400 r ' i oi r r =o <here> 500 i 1800 1600 1400 1200 F2 1000 800 600 2500 2000 1500 F2 1000 500 References • The diagrams on slides 9, 21, 27, and 32 are taken from: • Thomas, Erik R., and Janneke Van Hofwegen. 2011. Consonantal Variation in the English of a Spanish-Substrate Community. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology, London, Ontario, 5 August. • The diagram on slide 25 is taken from: • Miller-Newman, Sara E., and Hayley E. Heaton. 2011. Final stop accommodation in married couples. Poster presented at the 161st meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Seatle, WA, 27 May. • Other reference: • Jesus, Luis M. T., and Christine H. Shadle. 2002. A parametric study of the spectral characteristics of European Portuguese fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 30:437-64.