Building Essays: Using the Four Square Writing Method

Report
Building Essays:
Building Essays:
Using the Four Square Writing Method
English Language Fellow, Taiwan
Objectives
Participants will……
• Become familiar with the Four
Square Writing Model.
• Examine examples of the Four
Square Writing Model.
? Create your own essay using
the Four Square Model.
Teaching and Learning
Company
1204 Buchanan St.,
P.O.Box 10
Carthage, IL 623210010
Introduction
We know different languages have a different
structures for writing.
Mandarin
(1) Introduction/Topic
(2) Expand on Topic
(3) Compare & Contrast
(4) Conclusion
English
(1) Introduction /Topic:
(2-3/4) Reason
 Detail
• Example
 Detail
• Example
 Detail
• Example
(4) Conclusion – Summarize, Re-state Thesis
Introduction
When we
teach math
teach science
teach reading
give you formulas
we
give you a scientific method
give you decoding skills
4 Square Method is a way to learn to write.
(for any grade or any subject)
What is the 4 Square Writing Model?
• „Four-Square
writing is a method
of teaching basic writing skills
that is applicable across grade
levels and curriculum areas.
Forms of Composition
•
•
•
•
•
Expository
Narrative
Descriptive / Opinion
Persuasive
Compare & Contrast
What is the 4 Square Writing
Model?
• Prewriting and organizational skills are
taught through the use of a graphic
organizer.
• This visual and kinesthetic aid is employed
to focus writing, to provide detail and to
enhance word choice.
• „The visual organizers help students to
conceptualize, understand, and structure a
piece of written discourse successfully.
Guidelines
• Four-Square instruction should be done weekly
to bi-weekly.
• „It should be accompanied by other writing
activities. Ex. Journal Writing
• „It is recommended to use the same prompt
repeatedly when introducing the steps because
the familiarity will aid instruction.
• „It is important for students to understand the
relationship of ideas as demonstrated in the four
square format before moving on to paragraphs.
4-Square Primary
Categorizing
Pets
4-Square Primary
Categorizing with Words
lion
zebra
Zoo
monkey
elephant
4-Square Primary
Examples with a Feeling Sentence
lion
zebra
Zoo
monkey
I like going to the zoo
to see the animals
4-Square Primary
Using Complete Sentences
Box 2
Box 3
Reason:
Reason:
We learn here.
We meet friends.
Complete Sentence:
School is a great
place.
Box 4
Box 5
Reason:
Feeling:
We do experiments.
I love school.
Writing a Paragraph
• Paragraphs are
several sentences on
the same topic (5 or
more).
• Now we will transfer
the sentences from
the four blocks to
lined paper for
paragraph building.
• While class modeling
it is best to teach
this.
School
School is a great place.
We learn here. We meet
friends. We do experiments. I love school.
Adding More Detail
• To move from a 5 sentence paragraph to an 8
sentence paragraph; go back to the 4 Square.
• Add one additional detail sentence in each box.
• Elaboration: tell more about the topic or tell what is
so great about it.
Reason: We learn here.
Reason: We meet friends.
Detail: I like to learn
science.
Detail: My best friend is
in my class.
Complete Sentence:
School is a great place.
Reason: We do experiments.
Feeling Sentence:
Detail: I built a volcano
yesterday.
I love school.
School
School is a great place. I like to
learn science. It is my favorite subject.
We meet many friends here. My best
friend is in my class. Her name is Elsa.
We do many experiments in school.
I built a volcano yesterday. I love school.
Moving to a Multiple Paragraph Essay
Reason: Friends
Reason: Learn
1. Read (ex. letter/sounds)
2. Math (ex. numbers/ add)
1. Share lunches (ex. diff. food)
2. Invite over (ex. after studying)
3. Do homework together
3. Science (ex. world)
(ex. have Qs)
School is a great
place.
Reason: Play
1. In centers (ex. edu. game)
2. On playground (ex. Recess)
3. Recess (ex. 10 min. break)
School is a great place
because we learn, meet
friends, and play.
School
School is a great place.
We learn here. We learn letters and sounds for reading. We study numbers
and addition for math. We are also taught about the world around us in science.
We meet many friends at school. I like to share my lunch with my friends, so I
get different foods. I like to invite my friends from school over to my house when
we are done studying. Sometimes, I need to ask my friends how to do the
homework assigned by the teacher.
There are many opportunities to play during school. I can play educational
games during centers. I play with my friends on the playground during recess.
I also play with my friends during our 10 minute breaks between classes.
School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play.
Adding Connecting Words to Provide
Transition Between Ideas
• By now the thesis is
developing into three reasons.
• These reasons should be
different from each other and
therefore necessitate the use
of transitions & connecting
words.
• Connecting words can be
explained as the “little sticking
out part” of the puzzle
Connecting words hold the
different parts of the puzzle
together!!
Wall Poster
Green
Yellow
Yellow
Red
Color the border of this wall poster
green.
One reason
First
For example
One example
To begin with
To start with
Color the border of this wall poster yellow.
Second
Third
Another reason
Another example
Also
As well as
Too
In addition
Additionally
Color the border of this wall poster red.
Last
Finally
In conclusion
In summary
In short
So you can see
As one can see
To summarize
Hence
Adding Connecting Words to Provide Transitions
Between Ideas
First,
Learn
1. Read
Also,
Friends
1. Share lunches
2. Math
2. Invite over
3. science
3. Do homework together
In addition,
Play
1. In centers
2. On playground
3. Recess
School is a great
place.
As you can see,
School is a great place
because we learn, meet
friends, and play.
School
School is a great place.
First, we learn here. We learn letters and sounds for reading. We study numbers
and addition for math. We are taught about the world around us in science.
Also, we meet many friends at school. I like to share my lunch with my friends, so I
get to try different foods. I like to invite my friends from school over to my house when
we are done studying. Sometimes, I need to ask my friends how to do the homework
assigned by the teacher.
In addition, there are many opportunities to play during school. I can play educational
during centers. I play with my friends on the playground during recess. I also play
with my friends during our 10 minute breaks between classes.
As you can see, school is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play.
Expanding the Introduction
Use the Same Graphic Organizer!
• Topic Sentence
(Center of 4 Square & Box 2)
• Prepare your Readers
(Give them a little more information in
boxes ¾)
• Wrap-Up Sentence
(Without connecting word in box 5)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ultimatum
Question
Proverb
Quote
Expanding the Introduction
Hook:
Prepares Readers:
For students, this
environment can be either
a prison or a gateway for
freedom, however;
You can expand your mind
and socialize with many
new companions.
School is a great
place.
Prepares Readers:
Ideas are created and
formed as you prepare
for the future.
Wrap-Up Sentence:
School is a great place
because we learn, meet
friends, and play.
Improving the Concluding Paragraph
• Wrap-Up Sentence with Connecting Word /
Words
• Personal / Reflective Sentence, Question, or
Exclamation
Example:
As you can see, school is a great place
because we learn, meet friends, and play. I will
always cherish the friendships and relationships I
made while learning.
ALWAYS MODEL!
• When moving from the
information from the 4-Square
to the multiple paragraph essay,
model by:
– The whole class builds a 4-Square.
– Build the story one sentence at a
time
– As the composition is built one
sentence at a time, students copy
it down.
– During this time, the teacher
integrates rules of composition.
Make Your Own 4-Square Template
Connecting Word:
Connecting Word:
_______________________________
________________________________
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
(4.)
(4.)
Connecting Word:
________________________________
1.
2.
3.
(4.)
.
Connecting Word:
Wrap-Up Sentence:
_______________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
Different Types of Essays
• ExpositoryUsually nouns in boxes 2-4
• NarrativeBoxes 2-4 are events or verbs
• Descriptive & PersuasiveInformation in boxes 2-4
Narrative
In the beginning
During the commercial
Cat food commercial came
My cat got angry
on
1. Arched his back
1. Dancing cats
2. His hair stood up
2. Singing about food
3. Hissed aloud
3. I said “How cute”
The day my pet spoke to me
Who? My cat and I
What? Relaxing
Where? At home
Just then
When? In the evening
He spoke to me
Why? It had been a long day
1. Called the commercial
Since that day
foolish
Never spoken again
2. Said the food was gross
Stopped buying food
3. Told me never to buy it
My cat is not allowed to
again
watch TV.
One evening I was relaxing at home. My cat and I were watching
television. It had been a long day, and I needed some time to wind down.
In the beginning of our favorite show, a commercial came on for a brand
of cat food I usually buy. This commercial had adorable little dancing cats. The
cats were singing about the cat food. I thought it was cute, and I laughed out
loud.
During this commercial my cat got angry. He stood up and arched his
back. The hair on his back was standing up. He let out an ear-splitting scream.
Just then, he started talking. He called the commercial foolish and
snarled at the television. My cat told me that brand of cat food was gross.
Then he told me never to buy it again. I had always thought that he liked the
stuff!
Since that day my cat has not spoken again. I did stop buying that
brand of cat food. But because of his ill-mannered hissing and growling, my cat
has had a limit placed on his television time.
One reason
The grass
1. Green
2. Neat
3. No weeds
Descriptive Essay
Also
Memorial Park
1. Plaques
2. Jerseys
3. Baseballs
Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place.
Too
As one can see
The electricity
Yankee Stadium is a
beautiful place because
1. Always there
of the grass, Memorial
2. Shouting fans
Park and the electricity
3. Memory of greatness in the air.
Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place. The beauty can be seen in the
grass and Memorial Park, and it can be felt in the electricity in the air. I love
to visit there.
One reason it is so beautiful is the grass. It is always frog-green.
The lawn is manicured and perfectly cut. Weeds are prohibited from entering.
Also, Memorial Park is a special place. One can view the plaques that
have so delicately engraved in remembrance. There are jerseys to view that
were well-worn by the greats. They have tattered, old baseballs which have
priceless signatures.
The electricity in the air is beautiful, too. It is always there, and you
can see it in the eyes of the children visiting. The shouting of the fans sounds
like the Mormon Tabernacle Choir to the ears of a baseball lover. One can
sense the memory of greatness because their spirits live in the air at Yankee
Stadium.
As one can see, Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place because of the
grass, Memorial Park and the electricity in the air. You should catch a game
today.
Expository Essay
One reason
Also
Big Kitchen
Fireplace
1. Room to cook
1. Warm
2. Lots of food
2. Crackling
3. Big refrigerator
3. Smoky smell
My home is a special place.
Third
My Porch
1. Screened
2. Relaxing
3. Cool
In summary
My home is a special
place because it has a
big kitchen, a fireplace
and a porch.
My home is a special place. It is special because it has a
fireplace, a big kitchen, and a porch. It is a wonderful place to
live.
One reason my home is special is because I love my big
kitchen. It has plenty of room to cook. There is a lot of room
for all the food I like to eat. I like my large refrigerator most of
all.
Also, my fireplace is wonderful. On chilly nights it keeps
my warm as a mitten. I love to listen to the crackling. The
smoky smell reminds me of the days when I go camping.
Third, my home has a terrific porch. The porch is
screened, which is lucky for me. I am a bug magnet! My porch is
a great place for relaxing. Even on warm nights the porch is cool
because you can enjoy the evening breezes.
In summary, my home is special because it has a big
kitchen, a fireplace and a porch. I couldn’t imagine living
anywhere else.
Persuasive Essay
One reason
Chores
1. Trash
2. Walk dog
3. Do dishes
Also
Study Hard
1. Spelling
2. Math
3. Science
Kids should get bigger allowances.
In addition
Use Manners
1. Please
2. Thank you
3. Cover mouth when
I yawn
Hence
Kids should get bigger
allowances because we do
chores, study hard and use
our manners.
Kids should get bigger allowances because we do chores. Kids
are always studying hard. We even use manners! It isn’t easy being
a kid, and we deserve a little reward.
One reason for a larger allowance is all the chores we do.
We take out stinky trash every night. Walking the dog is really not
fun. And who likes doing dishes?
Also, kids study hard, and that should be worth something.
Spelling words take a long time to learn. For math we have to add
and subtract. Science homework keeps us busy, too.
In addition, kids use their manners, so they should get something in
return. Why do you think we say “please”? “Thank you” is another
way we are polite. Let’s face it, we don’t cover our mouths while
yawning for nothing.
Hence, kids should get bigger allowances because we do chores, study
hard and use our manners. How can you disagree?
Four Square in the Language
Classroom
Four square is a way to organize thoughts. It is not the
writing program. However, four square exercises can be
published by following the writing process.
•
•
•
•
•
Brainstorming: Generating ideas
Organizing: Four square or other methods
Drafting: Rough or first draft
Revising: Revision of content and style
Editing: Editing for surface features, punctuation,
spelling, capitals, etc.
Remember this is a slow process. Try not to over teach.
Other Uses
• Speeches: Use the format for organizing and
giving a speech.
• Reading Comprehension:
– Have Ss create a 4-Square from a passage written
by an author. Discuss the organization.
– Have students create a 4-Square using a paper
written by another student.
– Cut apart a Ss composition by sentences. Have Ss
draw a sentence at a time and reconstruct the
composition, then reproduce it on char paper.
Other Uses
• An excellent way to review or summarize
information learned about a specific process.
What are they?
Where are they?
Volcanoes
How do they
operate?
Volcanoes are a
powerful, natural
force.
Workers
Resources
Community
Transportation
The workers, resources,
and transportation are
important to a
community.
But Ellen…..
What about
motivation??
CHOICE!

Select a person in one of the folders and
describe their life.
Athletes
Authors
Artists
Film Stars
Scientists
Musicians
Political
Leaders
Writing Bingo
Try for one more BINGO this month. Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work .
Recipe
Invitation
Newspaper
Article
Thankyou Note
Email request Letter to a pen
for Information pal, friend or
relative
Short Story
Advertisement Cartoon
Strip
Letter to
Your
Teacher
Letter to
the editor
Proposal to
Improve
Something
FREE
Directions to
one place to
another
Skit or scene
YOUR Choice
Grocery or
shopping list
Poem
Instructions
Journal for a
Week
Design a
web page
Rules for
a game
Interview
Schedule for
your work
Greeting
Card
Book Think
Aloud
Let’s Try!
Prepare the
graphic
organizer.
Now fold your
paper into 4
squares.
Writing Prompts
• Writing Situation: Everyone has a
fond memory of a special birthday.
• Think about a birthday that stood out
among all the others.
• Directions for Writing: Write a
paragraph/ essay telling about your
favorite birthday.
Early in the day,
My grandmother threw me a
surprise party.
1. favorite cake
After lunch,
My parents gave me a
wonderful gift.
1.
golden retriever
2. tons of presents
2.
named Goldie
3. exciting games
3.
best friend
I will never forget my sixth
birthday.
Later,
My friends and I went to
Indeed,
the zoo.
It was the best birthday
1. elephant ride
ever.
2. walked for miles
3. rode train
Getting a year older may be bad for some, but I will never
forget my sixth birthday. The attention that I received from friends and
family made me feel warm inside. It was a very special day for me.
Early in the day, my grandmother threw me a surprise party.
She baked my favorite chocolate fudge cake. I got tons of presents.
We had such fun playing exciting games.
After lunch, my parents gave me a wonderful gift. They
surprised me with a golden retriever puppy. I named her Goldie. She
is my best friend today.
Later, my friends and I went to the zoo. We rode the elephants.
The zoo was so large we walked for miles. Finally we gave up and rode
the train.
Indeed, it was the best birthday ever. The wonderful surprises
from my family and friends will stay with me forever.
Directions: Complete the
four square with three
sentences and a feeling
sentence. Then write the
paragraph on the lines
below.
__________ __________
__________ __________
__________ __________
______
It’s great to______
have a
pet.
__________
Feeling
__________ Sentence:__
__________ __________
__________ __________
________
______
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
Writing Assessment Scoring Rubric
Criteria
Score 1
Deficient
Score 2
Flawed
Score 3
Limited
Score 4
Competent
Score 5
Strong
Score 6
Outstanding
Organization
Incoherent
Weak
organization
Inadequate
organization
Adequately
organized
Generally well
organized
Well organized
Development
Undeveloped
No details
Not developed
Little or no
relevant details
Not developed
Does not explain
develop key ideas
Developed
Explains and
illustrates some
key ideas
Generally well
developed
Explains and
illustrates most
key ideas
Well developed
Clearly
explains and
illustrates key
ideas
Language Syntax
Limited or
inappropriate
word choice
Limited or
inappropriate
word choice
Limited or
inappropriate word
choice
Adequate facility
in the use of
language
Demonstrates
some syntactic
variety
Facility in use
of language
Strong
Syntactic variety
Mechanics
Serious and
persistent
writing errors
Serious errors in
mechanics,
usage, sentence
structure, or word
choice
Accumulation of
errors in mechanics,
usage, sentence
structure
Some errors in
mechanics/ usage
Generally few
errors in
mechanics/
usage
Few errors in
mechanics/
usage
Resources to Help!
• Four Square Writing Method: A Unique
Approach to Teaching Basic Writing Skills for
Grades 1-3 by Judith S. Gould.
• Four Square Writing Method Grade 4-6 by
Judith S. Gould.
• Four Square: The Total Writing Classroom for
grades 5-9 by Judith S. Gould.
• Writing Workouts That Work: By the Authors
of Four Square Writing by Judith Gould.

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