Building Essays: Building Essays: Using the Four Square Writing Method English Language Fellow, Taiwan Objectives Participants will…… • Become familiar with the Four Square Writing Model. • Examine examples of the Four Square Writing Model. ? Create your own essay using the Four Square Model. Teaching and Learning Company 1204 Buchanan St., P.O.Box 10 Carthage, IL 623210010 Introduction We know different languages have a different structures for writing. Mandarin (1) Introduction/Topic (2) Expand on Topic (3) Compare & Contrast (4) Conclusion English (1) Introduction /Topic: (2-3/4) Reason Detail • Example Detail • Example Detail • Example (4) Conclusion – Summarize, Re-state Thesis Introduction When we teach math teach science teach reading give you formulas we give you a scientific method give you decoding skills 4 Square Method is a way to learn to write. (for any grade or any subject) What is the 4 Square Writing Model? • „Four-Square writing is a method of teaching basic writing skills that is applicable across grade levels and curriculum areas. Forms of Composition • • • • • Expository Narrative Descriptive / Opinion Persuasive Compare & Contrast What is the 4 Square Writing Model? • Prewriting and organizational skills are taught through the use of a graphic organizer. • This visual and kinesthetic aid is employed to focus writing, to provide detail and to enhance word choice. • „The visual organizers help students to conceptualize, understand, and structure a piece of written discourse successfully. Guidelines • Four-Square instruction should be done weekly to bi-weekly. • „It should be accompanied by other writing activities. Ex. Journal Writing • „It is recommended to use the same prompt repeatedly when introducing the steps because the familiarity will aid instruction. • „It is important for students to understand the relationship of ideas as demonstrated in the four square format before moving on to paragraphs. 4-Square Primary Categorizing Pets 4-Square Primary Categorizing with Words lion zebra Zoo monkey elephant 4-Square Primary Examples with a Feeling Sentence lion zebra Zoo monkey I like going to the zoo to see the animals 4-Square Primary Using Complete Sentences Box 2 Box 3 Reason: Reason: We learn here. We meet friends. Complete Sentence: School is a great place. Box 4 Box 5 Reason: Feeling: We do experiments. I love school. Writing a Paragraph • Paragraphs are several sentences on the same topic (5 or more). • Now we will transfer the sentences from the four blocks to lined paper for paragraph building. • While class modeling it is best to teach this. School School is a great place. We learn here. We meet friends. We do experiments. I love school. Adding More Detail • To move from a 5 sentence paragraph to an 8 sentence paragraph; go back to the 4 Square. • Add one additional detail sentence in each box. • Elaboration: tell more about the topic or tell what is so great about it. Reason: We learn here. Reason: We meet friends. Detail: I like to learn science. Detail: My best friend is in my class. Complete Sentence: School is a great place. Reason: We do experiments. Feeling Sentence: Detail: I built a volcano yesterday. I love school. School School is a great place. I like to learn science. It is my favorite subject. We meet many friends here. My best friend is in my class. Her name is Elsa. We do many experiments in school. I built a volcano yesterday. I love school. Moving to a Multiple Paragraph Essay Reason: Friends Reason: Learn 1. Read (ex. letter/sounds) 2. Math (ex. numbers/ add) 1. Share lunches (ex. diff. food) 2. Invite over (ex. after studying) 3. Do homework together 3. Science (ex. world) (ex. have Qs) School is a great place. Reason: Play 1. In centers (ex. edu. game) 2. On playground (ex. Recess) 3. Recess (ex. 10 min. break) School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. School School is a great place. We learn here. We learn letters and sounds for reading. We study numbers and addition for math. We are also taught about the world around us in science. We meet many friends at school. I like to share my lunch with my friends, so I get different foods. I like to invite my friends from school over to my house when we are done studying. Sometimes, I need to ask my friends how to do the homework assigned by the teacher. There are many opportunities to play during school. I can play educational games during centers. I play with my friends on the playground during recess. I also play with my friends during our 10 minute breaks between classes. School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. Adding Connecting Words to Provide Transition Between Ideas • By now the thesis is developing into three reasons. • These reasons should be different from each other and therefore necessitate the use of transitions & connecting words. • Connecting words can be explained as the “little sticking out part” of the puzzle Connecting words hold the different parts of the puzzle together!! Wall Poster Green Yellow Yellow Red Color the border of this wall poster green. One reason First For example One example To begin with To start with Color the border of this wall poster yellow. Second Third Another reason Another example Also As well as Too In addition Additionally Color the border of this wall poster red. Last Finally In conclusion In summary In short So you can see As one can see To summarize Hence Adding Connecting Words to Provide Transitions Between Ideas First, Learn 1. Read Also, Friends 1. Share lunches 2. Math 2. Invite over 3. science 3. Do homework together In addition, Play 1. In centers 2. On playground 3. Recess School is a great place. As you can see, School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. School School is a great place. First, we learn here. We learn letters and sounds for reading. We study numbers and addition for math. We are taught about the world around us in science. Also, we meet many friends at school. I like to share my lunch with my friends, so I get to try different foods. I like to invite my friends from school over to my house when we are done studying. Sometimes, I need to ask my friends how to do the homework assigned by the teacher. In addition, there are many opportunities to play during school. I can play educational during centers. I play with my friends on the playground during recess. I also play with my friends during our 10 minute breaks between classes. As you can see, school is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. Expanding the Introduction Use the Same Graphic Organizer! • Topic Sentence (Center of 4 Square & Box 2) • Prepare your Readers (Give them a little more information in boxes ¾) • Wrap-Up Sentence (Without connecting word in box 5) 1. 2. 3. 4. Ultimatum Question Proverb Quote Expanding the Introduction Hook: Prepares Readers: For students, this environment can be either a prison or a gateway for freedom, however; You can expand your mind and socialize with many new companions. School is a great place. Prepares Readers: Ideas are created and formed as you prepare for the future. Wrap-Up Sentence: School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. Improving the Concluding Paragraph • Wrap-Up Sentence with Connecting Word / Words • Personal / Reflective Sentence, Question, or Exclamation Example: As you can see, school is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play. I will always cherish the friendships and relationships I made while learning. ALWAYS MODEL! • When moving from the information from the 4-Square to the multiple paragraph essay, model by: – The whole class builds a 4-Square. – Build the story one sentence at a time – As the composition is built one sentence at a time, students copy it down. – During this time, the teacher integrates rules of composition. Make Your Own 4-Square Template Connecting Word: Connecting Word: _______________________________ ________________________________ 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. (4.) (4.) Connecting Word: ________________________________ 1. 2. 3. (4.) . Connecting Word: Wrap-Up Sentence: _______________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ Different Types of Essays • ExpositoryUsually nouns in boxes 2-4 • NarrativeBoxes 2-4 are events or verbs • Descriptive & PersuasiveInformation in boxes 2-4 Narrative In the beginning During the commercial Cat food commercial came My cat got angry on 1. Arched his back 1. Dancing cats 2. His hair stood up 2. Singing about food 3. Hissed aloud 3. I said “How cute” The day my pet spoke to me Who? My cat and I What? Relaxing Where? At home Just then When? In the evening He spoke to me Why? It had been a long day 1. Called the commercial Since that day foolish Never spoken again 2. Said the food was gross Stopped buying food 3. Told me never to buy it My cat is not allowed to again watch TV. One evening I was relaxing at home. My cat and I were watching television. It had been a long day, and I needed some time to wind down. In the beginning of our favorite show, a commercial came on for a brand of cat food I usually buy. This commercial had adorable little dancing cats. The cats were singing about the cat food. I thought it was cute, and I laughed out loud. During this commercial my cat got angry. He stood up and arched his back. The hair on his back was standing up. He let out an ear-splitting scream. Just then, he started talking. He called the commercial foolish and snarled at the television. My cat told me that brand of cat food was gross. Then he told me never to buy it again. I had always thought that he liked the stuff! Since that day my cat has not spoken again. I did stop buying that brand of cat food. But because of his ill-mannered hissing and growling, my cat has had a limit placed on his television time. One reason The grass 1. Green 2. Neat 3. No weeds Descriptive Essay Also Memorial Park 1. Plaques 2. Jerseys 3. Baseballs Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place. Too As one can see The electricity Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place because 1. Always there of the grass, Memorial 2. Shouting fans Park and the electricity 3. Memory of greatness in the air. Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place. The beauty can be seen in the grass and Memorial Park, and it can be felt in the electricity in the air. I love to visit there. One reason it is so beautiful is the grass. It is always frog-green. The lawn is manicured and perfectly cut. Weeds are prohibited from entering. Also, Memorial Park is a special place. One can view the plaques that have so delicately engraved in remembrance. There are jerseys to view that were well-worn by the greats. They have tattered, old baseballs which have priceless signatures. The electricity in the air is beautiful, too. It is always there, and you can see it in the eyes of the children visiting. The shouting of the fans sounds like the Mormon Tabernacle Choir to the ears of a baseball lover. One can sense the memory of greatness because their spirits live in the air at Yankee Stadium. As one can see, Yankee Stadium is a beautiful place because of the grass, Memorial Park and the electricity in the air. You should catch a game today. Expository Essay One reason Also Big Kitchen Fireplace 1. Room to cook 1. Warm 2. Lots of food 2. Crackling 3. Big refrigerator 3. Smoky smell My home is a special place. Third My Porch 1. Screened 2. Relaxing 3. Cool In summary My home is a special place because it has a big kitchen, a fireplace and a porch. My home is a special place. It is special because it has a fireplace, a big kitchen, and a porch. It is a wonderful place to live. One reason my home is special is because I love my big kitchen. It has plenty of room to cook. There is a lot of room for all the food I like to eat. I like my large refrigerator most of all. Also, my fireplace is wonderful. On chilly nights it keeps my warm as a mitten. I love to listen to the crackling. The smoky smell reminds me of the days when I go camping. Third, my home has a terrific porch. The porch is screened, which is lucky for me. I am a bug magnet! My porch is a great place for relaxing. Even on warm nights the porch is cool because you can enjoy the evening breezes. In summary, my home is special because it has a big kitchen, a fireplace and a porch. I couldn’t imagine living anywhere else. Persuasive Essay One reason Chores 1. Trash 2. Walk dog 3. Do dishes Also Study Hard 1. Spelling 2. Math 3. Science Kids should get bigger allowances. In addition Use Manners 1. Please 2. Thank you 3. Cover mouth when I yawn Hence Kids should get bigger allowances because we do chores, study hard and use our manners. Kids should get bigger allowances because we do chores. Kids are always studying hard. We even use manners! It isn’t easy being a kid, and we deserve a little reward. One reason for a larger allowance is all the chores we do. We take out stinky trash every night. Walking the dog is really not fun. And who likes doing dishes? Also, kids study hard, and that should be worth something. Spelling words take a long time to learn. For math we have to add and subtract. Science homework keeps us busy, too. In addition, kids use their manners, so they should get something in return. Why do you think we say “please”? “Thank you” is another way we are polite. Let’s face it, we don’t cover our mouths while yawning for nothing. Hence, kids should get bigger allowances because we do chores, study hard and use our manners. How can you disagree? Four Square in the Language Classroom Four square is a way to organize thoughts. It is not the writing program. However, four square exercises can be published by following the writing process. • • • • • Brainstorming: Generating ideas Organizing: Four square or other methods Drafting: Rough or first draft Revising: Revision of content and style Editing: Editing for surface features, punctuation, spelling, capitals, etc. Remember this is a slow process. Try not to over teach. Other Uses • Speeches: Use the format for organizing and giving a speech. • Reading Comprehension: – Have Ss create a 4-Square from a passage written by an author. Discuss the organization. – Have students create a 4-Square using a paper written by another student. – Cut apart a Ss composition by sentences. Have Ss draw a sentence at a time and reconstruct the composition, then reproduce it on char paper. Other Uses • An excellent way to review or summarize information learned about a specific process. What are they? Where are they? Volcanoes How do they operate? Volcanoes are a powerful, natural force. Workers Resources Community Transportation The workers, resources, and transportation are important to a community. But Ellen….. What about motivation?? CHOICE! Select a person in one of the folders and describe their life. Athletes Authors Artists Film Stars Scientists Musicians Political Leaders Writing Bingo Try for one more BINGO this month. Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work . Recipe Invitation Newspaper Article Thankyou Note Email request Letter to a pen for Information pal, friend or relative Short Story Advertisement Cartoon Strip Letter to Your Teacher Letter to the editor Proposal to Improve Something FREE Directions to one place to another Skit or scene YOUR Choice Grocery or shopping list Poem Instructions Journal for a Week Design a web page Rules for a game Interview Schedule for your work Greeting Card Book Think Aloud Let’s Try! Prepare the graphic organizer. Now fold your paper into 4 squares. Writing Prompts • Writing Situation: Everyone has a fond memory of a special birthday. • Think about a birthday that stood out among all the others. • Directions for Writing: Write a paragraph/ essay telling about your favorite birthday. Early in the day, My grandmother threw me a surprise party. 1. favorite cake After lunch, My parents gave me a wonderful gift. 1. golden retriever 2. tons of presents 2. named Goldie 3. exciting games 3. best friend I will never forget my sixth birthday. Later, My friends and I went to Indeed, the zoo. It was the best birthday 1. elephant ride ever. 2. walked for miles 3. rode train Getting a year older may be bad for some, but I will never forget my sixth birthday. The attention that I received from friends and family made me feel warm inside. It was a very special day for me. Early in the day, my grandmother threw me a surprise party. She baked my favorite chocolate fudge cake. I got tons of presents. We had such fun playing exciting games. After lunch, my parents gave me a wonderful gift. They surprised me with a golden retriever puppy. I named her Goldie. She is my best friend today. Later, my friends and I went to the zoo. We rode the elephants. The zoo was so large we walked for miles. Finally we gave up and rode the train. Indeed, it was the best birthday ever. The wonderful surprises from my family and friends will stay with me forever. Directions: Complete the four square with three sentences and a feeling sentence. Then write the paragraph on the lines below. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ ______ It’s great to______ have a pet. __________ Feeling __________ Sentence:__ __________ __________ __________ __________ ________ ______ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Writing Assessment Scoring Rubric Criteria Score 1 Deficient Score 2 Flawed Score 3 Limited Score 4 Competent Score 5 Strong Score 6 Outstanding Organization Incoherent Weak organization Inadequate organization Adequately organized Generally well organized Well organized Development Undeveloped No details Not developed Little or no relevant details Not developed Does not explain develop key ideas Developed Explains and illustrates some key ideas Generally well developed Explains and illustrates most key ideas Well developed Clearly explains and illustrates key ideas Language Syntax Limited or inappropriate word choice Limited or inappropriate word choice Limited or inappropriate word choice Adequate facility in the use of language Demonstrates some syntactic variety Facility in use of language Strong Syntactic variety Mechanics Serious and persistent writing errors Serious errors in mechanics, usage, sentence structure, or word choice Accumulation of errors in mechanics, usage, sentence structure Some errors in mechanics/ usage Generally few errors in mechanics/ usage Few errors in mechanics/ usage Resources to Help! • Four Square Writing Method: A Unique Approach to Teaching Basic Writing Skills for Grades 1-3 by Judith S. Gould. • Four Square Writing Method Grade 4-6 by Judith S. Gould. • Four Square: The Total Writing Classroom for grades 5-9 by Judith S. Gould. • Writing Workouts That Work: By the Authors of Four Square Writing by Judith Gould.