Presentation - Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education

Report
Geographical area = 3,42,239 sq km
Forest area = 32,494 sq km (9.5%)
Forest cover= 16,367 sq km (4.8%)
Geographical area = 1,96,022 sq km
Forest area = 18,999 sq km (9.7%)
Forest cover= 15,152 sq km (7.7%)
Geographical area = 491sq km
Forest area = 204 sq km (45%)
Forest cover= 169 sq km (34.1%)
AFRI Organizational Chart
DIRECTOR
CO(F)
IT CELL
PURCHASE
GCR
ACCO
UNTS
Silviculture
Forest
Ecology
Forest
Genetics
& Tree
Breeding
Forest
Protection
Non
Wood
Forest
Products
Agroforestry &
Extension
ESTT. &
HINDI
SECTIO
N
PATENS AND PUBLICATIONS
SNo.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Total
Impact factor
<0.5
0.5-1.0
1.0-2.0
2.0-5.0
>5.0
-
Nos. of papers
India
9
21
0
0
0
335
365
Abroad
10
46
19
20
82
91
194
Total
%
19
67
19
20
8
446
559
3
12
3
4
1
76
100
STORE
COMPLETED AND ONGOING RESEARCH
PROJECTS IN 2013-14
 Completed projects by up to 2012-13
 Completed projects (2013-14)
 Ongoing projects




ICFRE funded projects
Externally aided ongoing projects
Externally aided new projects
Consultancy
: 18
: 08
: 05
: 03
 Project concluded during 2004-2014
SNo.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Division
Forest Ecology Division
Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Division
Forest Protection Division
Non Wood Forest Product Division
Silviculture Division
Agroforestry & Extention Division
Information Technology Cell
Total
:93
: 09
: 34
:64
Projects concluded (Nos.)
15
10
11
7
15
5
1
64
REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED HILLS
Use of different rainwater harvesting devices and mixed plantation
Variables
Run-off losses
Soil losses
Nutrient losses
Soil water
Soil bulk density
Fine earth fraction
Soil nutrients (NH4-N, NO3N & PO4-P)
Soil carbon
Plant growth
Herbaceous diversity
Regeneration diversity
Diversity of fauna
Fodder availability
Fuelwood availability
Trend after work initiation
Decreased (by 2% of total rainfall)
Decreased (from 3.43 to 0.19 g l-1)
Decreased
Increased
Decreased
Increased (greater in higher slope)
Increased
Decreased in lower slope
increased in upper slope
Increased
Increased (39 to 92 species)
Increased (22 to 42 species)
Increased
Increased
Increased
and
Soil formations stages
BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT
 A total 144 plant species (15 tree species, 17 shrub species, 82 herb species and 30
grasses/ sedges) recorded in Hydrocarbon Project Area of arid Rajasthan.
 Survey of 123 sacred groves in Rajasthan revealed dominance of 26 tree and 25 shrub
species. These are: A. pendula >P. juliflora >Salvadora oleoides> Capparis decidua> P.
cineraria>Tectona grandis >Acacia leucophloea >Acacia nilotica>Butea
monosperma>Zizyphus rotundifolia.
 There are 31 sub-types of forest in Rajasthan, where P. juliflora, A. pendula, Acacia
tortilis, A. leucophloea, A. senegal, B. monosperma, P. cineraria, C. decidua, D.
melanoxylon and M. emarginata were recorded in >10% forest block.
Biological invasions
 P. juliflora of >30 cm, 10-30 cm girth and saplings in varying density were observed in
47.2%, 46.3% and 30.9% sacred groves, whereas L. camara was recorded in 8.9%
sacred groves.
 Invasive species P. juliflora and Lantana camara observed in 36.7% and 7.2% forest
block distributed in 32 and 15 district, respectively in Rajasthan forests .
 P. juliflora has also been reported as new host for 15 species of insects belonging to
orders-Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera from Rajasthan,
India. P. juliflora can be utilized for rearing of cantharidin producing beetles
Mylabris species.
CLIMATE CHANGE: CARBON IN RAJASTHAN
FORESTS
Component
Above-ground
Below-ground
Total
Live biomass
27.31
16.68
38.98
Herbaceous
0.77
-
0.77
Dead material
1.24
-
1.24
SIC
-
142.60
142.60
SOC
-
121.60
121.60
Total (million tons)
305.19
REHABILITATION OF STRESS SITES
 Use of Gypsum (100 % soil GR), FYM and nitrogen enhanced
growth (30-70%) depending upon treatments for all the plant species
in Rajasthan.
 FYM + Wheat husk was best for black soil in Gujarat.
 Application of Phosphorus with FYM enhanced the plant growth and
fruit yield in S. Persica.
 Zinc influenced seed size and no of seed/g were 45 in FYM +
K2SO4(50 g K2O) treatment in Acacia ampliceps.
 There is overall improvement in soil properties (SOC, pH, EC) and
biodiversity of the treated areas.
 Maximum growth and biomass was recorded in E. rudis followed by
Corambia tessellaris, E. camaldulensis and E. fastigata.
 Ground water level receded by 145 cm in E. rudis plot. In C.
tessellaris, E. camaldulensis and E. fastigata, water level receded by 90
cm, 70 cm and 60 cm respectively.
 A. nilotica and T. aphylla showed higher tolerance towards salinity
compared to E. camaldulensis. However, under water logging condition
at shallow depth E. camaldulensis outperformed others.
STUDIES ON TRAITS & DEVELOPMENT OF SEED
TESTING PROTOCOLS
Studies have been performed to refine and
develop seed testing protocols of
• A. indica
• Acacia nilotica, A. catechu
• D. sissoo
• E. camaldulensis
• P. cineraria
• Capparis decidua
• Tectona grandis
• Salvadora persica
• Commiphora wightii
• Other medicinal plant species
Studies on seeds collected from Seed
Stands / SPAs / SSOs / CSOs of important
species of Gujarat State has also been
taken up.
STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS
STANDARDIZATION OF SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES
Cassia angustifolia (Senna)
Commiphora wightii (Guggal),
Aloe vera (Guarpatha),
Catharanthus roseus (Sada Bahar),
Withania somnifera (Aswagandha),
Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi),
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari)
PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES
Correct harvesting period prescribed for Calotropis procera,
Tribulus rajasthanensis, Pluchea lanceolata. Alkaloid
contents were high in summer while steroids were high in
winter in C. procera flower. Maximum content of secondary
metabolite (sterols-2.65% & alkaloids-8.0%) was from ACZIA (Jaisalmer region).
GERMPLASM BANK
Established germplasm bank of 150 medicinal plants at
AFRI model nursery
Screened germplasm (204 sources) & more than 115
Plus plants of Jatropoha curcas for higher seed and oil
yield and agri-techniques developed
Cassia angustifolia
FINDINGS ON GUGGAL PROGRAMMES

21 clonal accessions were selected from Rajasthan and their
performance and agritrial laid. Jaipur and Tonk accessions
performed best. Germ plasm bank established.

Developed low cost macro- and micro-propagation protocol
and established field trial. Guidelines were prepared for seed
germination and vegetative propagation.

Out of 33 districts surveyed in Rajasthan, maximum Guggul
population was in Barmer (58 plants/ per ha). So far no male
plant was observed.

Ethephon (a plant growth regulator) injection gave
encouraging results, where Guggul plants are surviving even
after three time gum exudations. Application of FYM has
helped maintain plant survival.

Plants are tapped thrice in four years. Their yield was ranging
from 50.0 to 80.0 g per plant and they are surviving.

Germplasm of Guggal was characterized by DNA marker
studies.
PLANTING STOCK IMPROVEMENT
Established genetic resources: Selected CPTs, established SPAs, SSOs, CSOs and VMG for
Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Gujarat and
Rajasthan.
Reproductive biology, Oil and Azadirachtin content and fodder value studied for A. indica.
Genetic Field Trials: Provenance (A. indica-47 and A. nilotica-31), progeny (A. indica-30, T.
undulata-40, Jatropha curcas-116 CPP, Prosopis cineraria-52 and Tectona grandis-28, Melia
dubia-24) and clonal (E. camaldulensis-35, D. sissoo-30, Jatripha curcas-185, Commiphora
wightii-22) trials established at different locations and evaluated. 0
Demonstration Trials: A large scale field trials of tissue culture raised plants of Dendrocalamus
strictus and Bambusa bambos were established and evaluated in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
Six bamboo species were also tried for their performance where D. stricus showed maximum
survival (77%), followed by B. bambos (58.3), B. valgeris (52.1), B. nutans (35.4) and B. tulda
(30). Survial was minimum in D. asper plants (only 2%).
Genetic evaluation: Genetics and inheritance of seed and growth traits investigated for western
Indian Teak investigated. Twelve elite parents of Tectona grandis were identified.
Genetic estimates for pods and germination parameters of khejari were estimated and its
inheritance was investigated which was hitherto unknown
DNA Marker and Gene Expression: DNA marker studies were carried out on Neem, Guggul,
Rohida for studying genetic diversity, clonal fidelity tests and other desired genetic traits. Under
gene expression studies, out of nine putative genes identified, three have possible role in abiotic
stress physiology (a halophyte- Lepidium sativum).
VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES
Macropropagation
Micropropagation
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Azadirachta indica
Ailanthus excelsa
Acacia nilotica
Tecomella undulata
Dalbergia sissoo
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Azadirachta indica
Ailanthus excelsa
Acacia nilotica
Balanites aegyptiaca
Commiphora wightii
Jatropha curcas
Terminalia arjuna
GROWTH & YIELD MODELLING AND REGRESSION
EQUATIONS
 Growth and yield models (i.e., volume functions, site index equations, potential
density, mortality and basal area projection models) developed for A. indica, E.
camaldulensis, D. sissoo, T. undulata, A. nilotica and E. hybrid.
 Aboveground biomass equation for neem, volume equations for A. tortilis and
generalised height-diameter equations for A. indica and Tecomella undulata have
also been constructed and validated.
 Preliminary growth models developed for P. cineraria and A. excelsa trees.
 Common regression equations have been developed for predicting both above-
ground and below-ground biomasses and carbon accounting of trees, shrubs,
undershrubs and Euphorbias in Rajasthan.
 Tree and shrub species based equations have also been developed for Hardwickia
binata, C. mopane, P. juliflora, L. pyrotechnica and Calligonum polygonoides for
their biomass assessment .
i.e., tree above-ground biomass (kg) = 0.181494261*D2.058650773
PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION & VALUE
ADDITION OF NTFPs
Potential Famine Foods: Bark of Acacia leucophloea, Acacia nilotica and
Prosopis cineraria contains 13.7% to 23.1% Crude Protein
Leaf protein concentrates: Prepared from Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera
and Achyranthes aspera
Oil extraction: Oil content in Salvadora oleoides seeds ranges from 39.5% to
44.8% and S. persica from 38.4% to 45.3 % in different agro-climatic zones.
Neem oil content ranges from 32.4% to 43.2%.
Utilization of Lesser Known Timber species: Shelf-life of chemically treated with
CCA, 2% and seasoned woods of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia tortilis and Prosopis
cineraria has increased and value added products like sofa set, utility box and
pen stand etc. have been made from these treated woods.
Potentials of Sandal Cultivation: Survey of sandal population in south and eastern
Rajasthan indicated presence of its natural stands, where heartwood and oil
content varies with place and age ranging from 0.9 to 3.0%.
NTFPs: Survey conducted in Udaipur region showed that NTFP contribute 35-40%
to the annual income of tribal families.
MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS AND DISEASES
 A check- list of 49 insect species associated with Tecomella undulata has been prepared.
 A diverse population of 105 species of butterflies and 115 species of moth (Lepidoptera)
have been identified from Gir National Park. Besides, a checklist of total 220 species of
lepidopteron fauna have also been prepared.
 Relative resistance of Neem provenances were tested against Patialus tecomella, where
Bhaislana and Osian provenances were found the most resistant.
 Neem provenances from Palanpur and Jhansi exhibited the best resistance against neem
weevil, Myllocerus tenuicornis.
 Beauveria bassiana- a fungus and root decoction of Datura metel have been found very
effective against Neem defoliator.
 Datura metel root extract was also found most effective in controlling the sap-sucking
insects and semilooper attack on Mehndi.
 For rapid composting litter decomposing mycoflora have been isolated and identified.
Mycorhizal association
 About 30- 40% greater growth recorded in VAM inoculated seedlings of Tecomella
undulata, Prosopis cineraria, Azadirachta indica and Dalbergia sissoo. Indigenous strains
of Glomus fasciculatum and G. aggregatum performed better than non- indigenous strains .
 Glomus multicaulae and Sclerocystis indica are new records from the region.
KHEJRI MORTALITY IN RAJASTHAN AND IT’S CONTROL MEASURES
KHEJRI MORTALITY (20-25%)
BIOTIC FACTORS
Ganoderma lucidum
Root borer,
Acanthophorous
serraticornis
Tractorization
Indiscriminate lopping
ABIOTIC FACTORS
Exploitation of water
ROOT TREATMENT
Root
treatment
containing
Bavistine (0.1%)+ Chloropyriphos
(0.1%)+ Agromin ( 2ml/lit) @ 20 lt
aqueous suspension per tree
quarterly)
Depletion in water
table
Silvicultural Management
Alternate Year lopping
Two third lopping
 Young trees should not be lopped
AGRI-SILVI AND SILVIPASTURE MODELS
FOR DRY AREAS
 Ailanthus
excelsa,
Colophospermum
mopane, Cordia myxa, Prosopis cineraria,
and Zizyphus mauritiana are potential
species for farmlands. At 5 years age
reduction in wheat yield significantly in P.
cineraria: Z. mauritiana combination plots.
 Canopy removal and root trenching had
positive effects on crop and grass production.
 Out of 9 tree species & grass combinations
tried, Zizyphus mauritiana + Cenchrus ciliaris
based silvipastoral model was best in arid,
frosty and degraded forest lands followed by
Ailanthus excelsa + C. ciliaris and Cordia
gharaf + C. ciliaris
T. undulata + V. radiata
Z. mauritiana + C. ciliaris
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED BY AFRI
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Prosopis cineraria based agroforestry for hot arid region of Gujarat and Rajasthan
Use of surface vegetation in sand drifts control and sand dune stabilization of hot arid region
Rehabilitation of degraded land through seed sowing to increase land productivity and combat
desertification
Rehabilitation of degraded hills through afforestation and rainwater harvestings
Enhancing productivity of arid salt affected soils through afforestation techniques
Utilization of wastewater in afforestation to increase aesthetic value and fuelwood supply in suburban
areas of desert cities
Reclamation/rehabilitation of waterlogged soil in canal command area of IGNP using principle of
biodrainage
Mulching and weeding for conservation of soil moisture and enhancing plant growth
Micro-catchments for plantation establishment
Silvipastoral approach for augmenting the fodder availability during lean seasons in arid regions
Growth and yield models for some forest plantations in Rajasthan and Gujarat for their sustainable
management
Isolation and mass multiplication of VAM for improvement of planting stock in forest nurseries
Seed germination protocol for Capparis decidua
Post harvest treatment and enhancement of germination of seed of Commiphora wightii (Arn.)
Bhandari (guggal)
Development of refined technology for in vitro propagation of Commiphora wightii (Arn.)
Bhandari (guggal)
Development of grafting technique for clonal propagation of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
Optimum harvesting time of important medicinal plants of Rajasthan for their secondary
metabolites
Protein rich food supplements for desert population
FORESTRY RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR NEXT 20-25 YEARS
Thrust
Research Activities
1
• Economic impact of desertification and strategies (including sequential restoration) to mitigate it.
• Developing package of practices to enhance productivity of degraded lands through multidisciplinary
approaches like ecology, silviculture, biofertilizers, genetics including biotechnological tools.
• Designing effective mechanism to manage insect pests and diseases associated in forest nurseries,
plantations and natural forests.
• Studies on nano particles produced either intra- or extracellular and their application.
• Phyto-chemical evaluation , value addition and development of packages for various food, NTFPs
and medicinal plants.
• Survey and study on availability and collection of NWFPs and its role in socio-economic status of
local people.
2
• Examining the climate -driven effects of biodiversity on water processing, nutrient cycling and
carbon storage.
• Endemism and relationships between soil and vegetation diversity.
3
• Studies on impact of increasing CO2 concentration and climate change on seed traits, plant
physiology and biological diversity in degraded drylands.
• Assessment of pollution load on existing vegetation and designing of green belts in urban areas.
4
• Utilization of genetic variation in different trees species like Prosopis cineraria, Tecomella undulata,
Tectona grandis, Anogeissus pendula, Capparis decidua etc in productivity enhancement.
• Utilization of clonal forestry in enhancing forest productivity.
• Development of state-of-the-art molecular biology lab to carry out research on genetic engineering
and molecular characterization etc.
5
• Studies on appropriate extension mechanism and developing better linkages and effective
coordination for effective transfer of research outcomes to the end users.
• Publications of outreach material for scientific professionals and end users.
CASE STUDIES AND EXTENSION
Training imparted:
About 8928 trainees including farmers, N.G.O.s, S.H.G.s, V.F.P.C.
Members, Watershed Cluster Members, Watershed Development Teams, Forest Field Officials,
and 324 school children have been exposed to the research finding
• Participation in Trade fairs/Exhibition every year
• Organized farmers fairs
Establishment of VVK
• VVK Bichhwal, Bikaner, Rajasthan
• VVK Chipardi beedi, Rajkot, Gujarat
Publication of extension materials
• Newsletter: 01 (Quarterly in Hindi)
• Brochures- 50; Proceedings-3; Pamphlets-25
Demo Village: Technology package like live fencing, pasture development,
Rainwater harvesting etc demonstrated at Demo village Salavas, JodhpurdeTec
WEB portal: A bilingual web application of the 160 important plants species
developed and hosted on the web server at URL http://www.seracharidplants.in.
Direct to Consumer: Some successful programme have been taken to field
functionaries through training, workshop and field visits/demonstration under this
scheme.
Thank you

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