TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914

The New Imperialism 1870-1914
Section III - 13 questions (32.5%)
Part 2
On to Asia!
• Not quite Africa
– _____________ served as the main realm for imperial
expansion during the late 19th century
– Beginning in the early 20th century, however,
___________became the site for aggressive Expansionism
• The Middle East
• The British began to withdraw support for the
________________________in the late 19th century
– This bankrupt political power suffered from
• commercial decline
• internal dissent
– In 1869, the opening of the __________________caused the
Ottoman Empire to lose its strategic role to Britain
– Previously, the Ottoman Empire had served as the British
__________________to Asia
India was a major
supplier of raw
Indians must
produce raw
materials for
Jewel in the Crown
Tea, indigo, coffee,
cotton, and jute,
Indians must
buy finished
goods from
South and Central Asia
• India retained its status as the jewel of the British
– The British monarchy ruled India directly after 1857
– Indian trade and capital investment remained a crucial
part of Britain
• London financiers provided upwards of £________________
to India from 1875 to 1900
• Most of this money went to the construction of railroads
– India emerged as Britain’s chief market for export
goods by World War I
British politicians often worried about
the security of India
• Russia and other expansionist powers
threatened India’s borders
• The ________________War
– The allied forces
• British,
• French, and
• Ottoman Turks
– fought the Russians
• lasted from ______ to _______
The Great Game
The Great Game
The Great Game
• The Great Game was the formal and informal
diplomacy between ______and ______ at the
– The Anglo-Russian Entente of _______
• brought the Great Game to a close
• settled British and Russian differences over
– Tibet,
– Afghanistan, and
– Persia
– ____________ was separated into Russian and British
spheres of influence
– Russia consolidated its hold on Central Asia
Southeast Asia and the South Pacific
• The Dutch strengthened their hold on the Dutch East
Indies in the era of new imperialism
– The Dutch East India consisted of the Indonesian islands
• Sumatra,
• Java,
• Borneo, and
• the western half of New Guinea
– Rubber and coffee sustained the colonial plantation
• The British expanded through Southeast Asia
– Burma was annexed in ______
– The British also appropriated part of Malaya in ______
French Expansion
• late 19th century: French expanded
holdings in Southeast Asian
• French commercial interests existed in
Indochina from the early 19th century
• ________ & ________in Vietnam
became part of the French Empire in
– The Black Flags resisted French
• This well-organized militant group appealed
for help from the Chinese
• The Chinese had formerly ruled over Vietnam
• The French seized Cambodia and Laos in
• France formed the
__________________Union in 1894
Mid-19th Century Competition
in the South Pacific
• Europeans saw
South Pacific
Islanders as
needing European
• Imperial powers
soon came to
dominate Oceania
Mid-19th Century Competition
in the South Pacific
• Imperialists split Samoa into _________Samoa
and _____________ Samoa
• The South Pacific provided cheap labor for
Australian sugar plantations
– Fiji enjoyed a prosperous sugar economy
American Imperialism
in the South Pacific
• Traditionally, the United States had remained
• In 1898, however, the nation annexed ________
– This strategic naval base in the Pacific Ocean also
enjoyed economic prosperity from growing sugar cane
and producing pineapples
• The United States received Spanish territories after
the Spanish-American War
– Control over Cuba had sparked these hostilities
– Territories included
– Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico
American Imperialism
in the South Pacific
• The _______________ mounted a
great resistance movement against
the United States
– The United States officially declared
the Philippines an American
territory after three years of fighting
– _____________________________
_led the Filipino insurrection
• The United States captured him prior to
declaring the Philippines a territory
• South Pacific expansion and
increased economic and political
influence in Latin America
transformed the United States into
a global power
East Asia
• China’s continued decline and Japan’s rise to global power
constituted the main East Asian developments of the late
19th century
– Chinese conservatives opposed reformers’ attempts at
• Proposed improvements included railroad constructions
• The pattern of European domination in China from the mid
19th century continued
– The United States and European powers annexed territory,
forced trade concessions, and lent money to the Chinese
government on adverse terms
– The Chinese needed to borrow money from Europe following
the _____________________ War from 1894 to 1895
• The Japanese extracted a war indemnity from the Chinese following
the conflict over Korean control
• Europeans subsequently received trade privileges and permission to
construct railroads
• Two ___________ missionaries in China were
murdered in 1897
– Europeans took full advantage of this situation to
exploit China
– The Chinese granted Germany a lease on the port city
of ____________
• Germans also received the right to build railroads in the
province of Shandong
– Russia seized _______________
– The French obtained a lease on __________ Bay
• A sphere of influence in southern China soon followed
The Open Door Policy
• The United States instituted the Open Door
policy in _________
– This agreement prevented further dividing up of
– All colonizing nations except ________ agreed to
the Open Door policy
– All nations received equal ___________rights
throughout China
• China thus retained some territorial integrity
The Open Door Policy
Secretary John Hay.
Give all nations equal
access to trade in China.
Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken
over by any one foreign power.
The Open Door Policy
The Boxer Rebellion: 1900
• The _____________________________protested the
corrupting influences of _______________
– This group is known as the ____________ because of its
members’ martial arts training
– Foreign devils included
• soldiers,
• traders, and
• missionaries
• The rebellion mostly occurred in northern China
– Foreign embassies in Beijing endured a two-month siege
– Boxers attacked Chinese, American, and European Christians
in the province of _____________
– Railroads also became a target of sabotage
The Boxer Rebellion: 1900
• Sent 20,000 troops crushed the revolt
– Japan,
– Britain,
– France,
– Italy,
– Germany,
– the United States, and
– Russia
• The _________ dynasty was forced to pay a
substantial indemnity
Rise of the Chinese Nationalists
Fall of the Qing Dynasty
• The Chinese nationalist movement overthrew
the Qing Dynasty in ___________
– ___________led this revolution
– Imperial economic exploitation fueled the
• Railway leases allowed imperialists to exploit colonies
The Chinese Empire under Siege
Empress Dowager Cixi, 1835-1908
HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller
• Japan experienced a wildly different fate than
– The _______ Restoration of 1868 transformed
Japan into an industrial giant
– The Japanese soon sought global influence
• Japan gained a foothold in Korea in ________
from a Korean revolt against Chinese influence
– The Chinese lost the ______________War from
1894 to 1895
• Japan subsequently annexed ________and gained
trading privileges and political influence in ____________
Japan vs. Russia
• Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War from
_____to _______sent out global shockwaves
– Influence in Chinese-held _____________ and Korea formed
the basis for war
• Conflict occurred following Russian attempts to take
____________Province in China
– The Russians especially sought the ice-free harbor of
– The Japanese controlled this port after the Sino-Japanese War
• Japan retained possession of Liaotung following the
country’s victory over Russia
– The Russians ceded their sphere of influence in Manchuria to
– Japan also gained control over half of ______________ Island
and Russian railroads in Manchuria
The Limits of Imperial Power
• Europeans suddenly realized the limits to their
imperial power following the Russo-Japanese
– Colonial subjects found______in European defeat
– The Russo-Japanese War also played a part in the
first ________________________in 1905
• This revolt against the regime of Tsar Nicholas failed
Japan annexed Korea in 1910
3.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86)
Place value.
3.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86)
Place value.
3.10 IDENTIFY (pp. 84-86)
Place value.
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Great Game
• Political maneuverings-both formal and
British and Russians
ending with the AngloRussian Entente of 1907
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Anglo-Russian Entente
of 1907
• Agreement that finally
resolved British and
Russian differences over
Persia, Tibet, and
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Black Flags
• A well-organized
militant Vietnamese
resistance movement
fighting French
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Sino-Japanese War
• 1894-95 war fought
over control of Korea
where the Chinese were
forced to borrow
money from Europeans
to help finance the war
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Open Door Policy
• A 1898 agreement
allowing all colonizing
nations except Japan
equal trading rights in
all parts of China
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Boxer Rebellion
• A 1900 protest against
foreign influence in
China that was
suppressed by a force of
colonizing troops
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Meiji Restoration
• 1868 series of reforms
that thrust Japan into a
seat of industrial power
3.11 DEFINITIONS (pp. 86-87)
• Russo-Japanese War
• 1904-05 clashes over
Manchuria and Korea
which was won by the
The Mission of New Imperialism
• Introduction
– New imperialism contained different ideological
foundations than the concept of the liberal empire
– Factors contributing to the mission of new
• Anticolonial revolts in India
• the European Darwinian revolution
– Europeans began redefining their cultural,
biological, and political relationship to colonial
Liberal empire’s failure
• Europeans gradually abandoned the idea of
Europeanizing non-Western peoples
– The idea to improve colonial subjects within their
own cultural context arose instead
– Imperial rule by force replaced paternalistic
justifications for empire
• Attempts to legitimize imperialist presence began
disappearing by the mid 19th century
– ________________ of cultural differences supplanted
these ideas up through the era of new imperialism
Belief in Biological Inferiority
• By the late 19th century, many Europeans
believed that imperial subjects were
– As a result, colonists believed that they could not
bridge the ______ or improve their subjects
– Europeans thus let themselves off the hook for
the responsibility of civilizing subjects
• The ___________________________of 1857 also
contributed to these ideas
• British expectations regarding colonial subjects
changed drastically following this event
Rudyard Kipling
• Rudyard Kipling represented the
______________view of many imperialists in
the late 19th century
– This British poet wrote ______________________
• The poem chronicles the thankless and futile task of
bringing civilization to colonial subjects
– The supposedly uncivilized peoples returned European
kindness with _______________
– A civilizing mission ultimately would fail as primitive peoples
only slid back into their natural states
‘‘The White Man’s Burden’’
~ Rudyard Kipling
‘‘Take up the White Man’s
________--And reap his old reward;
The ______ of those ye better,
The hate of those ye guard---And when your goal is nearest
The end for others sought,
Watch _____and heathen ____
Bring all your hopes to nought”
‘‘The White Man’s Burden’’
~ Rudyard Kipling
The influence of Darwin
• European ideological
developments had a
greater effect on the
than the politics of
imperial rule
• In the late 19th
century, the
Darwinian revolution
forever changed
what it meant to be
Herbert Spencer
The influence of Darwin
• The theory of evolution presented by Charles Darwin
most affected European views about the capacity of
primitives to become civilized in the late 19th century
– Social Darwinists _____________ the theories of Darwin to
explain cultural differences
– Decades of scientific research on racial development and
differences between races had already weakened the
Enlightenment idea that only one human ________ existed
• Social Darwinism fought against many key beliefs of
_____________________ thought
– Darwin raised the idea of the animal nature of all humans
– He linked all humans to a common ape ancestor
• Europeans sought to distance themselves and
their civility from the primitiveness of other
– This desire caused Europeans to stray from the
Enlightenment belief that all cultures occupied
different parts of the same path to civilization
• Debates raged as to __________
– _________ opposed this idea
Legacies of Imperialism
• Empire & Society
• Colonial Conflict
• Scientific Racism
• Popular Racism
Illustration from
Indigenous Races
of the Earth.
HIST 2322 / IDST 2373 Dr. Keller
Natural selection
• Natural selection challenged European ideas
about humans’ ability to make choices and
influence their world
– The theory of ____________________holds that the
primary means of species evolution is the inherent
picking of traits best adapted for _____________
– 19th-century Europeans began to believe that
______________determined ________________
• Enlightenment thinkers held that natural and social
environment shaped culture
– Socially engineered __________ became impossible
under social Darwinism
Social Darwinism stressed the
permanence of racial traits
• Enlightenment thinkers believed in humans’ ability to
• Darwin held that the physical distinctions between races
emerged early on through __________selection
– These sexually selected traits provided no benefit for survival
• As a result, these traits did not evolve or did so very slowly
• Examples include skin color and hair texture
• Many race scientists in the late 19th century assumed racial
traits to be __________
– Charles Darwin never professed this belief himself
• Misrepresentations of Darwin’s work resulted in the
abandonment of Enlightenment beliefs in humans’ ability
to progress and change
– The ideological foundations of new imperialism began to
replace those of the ______________ empire
Public views of race
• Social Darwinism widely affected the
collective European consciousness
– Newspapers, imperial adventure novels, and
periodicals reinforced the ideas espoused by
• Europeans came to see colonial natives as
both culturally and biologically___________
– Ideas about the inability of indigenous peoples to
improve also spread throughout the public mind
• Racist propagandists had appeared for decades
before Darwin’s works
– Count __________ and Robert________published works almost
a decade before Darwin
– The ideas of Charles Darwin appeared to grant new legitimacy
to racial works
• Europeans assumed that Africans enjoyed an especially
close relationship with ____________
– Scientific evidence backed up this long-presumed link
– Some extreme social Darwinists stated that Africans
were biologically defective
• ___________________published Social Evolution in 1894
• This work averred that white rule in Africa and black
extinction were inevitable
– _____________ now became an inescapable
biological inferiority
Eugenics and the science of race
• Charles Darwin’s works also influenced scholarly views
of colonial natives
– Race scientists distorted Darwinian views to support
______________ theories of race
• Darwin and late 19th century race scientists advocated
the _______________ determinants of civilization
– These professionals regarded _________ determinants as
• Race scientists, however, went further than Darwin
– These quasi-scholars advocated the permanence of race
traits and the irredeemable _______ between different
race-culture groups
• Eugenics became a highly prestigious branch of science
by the early 20th century
• This new science heavily influenced public policy
– So-called unfit groups, such as people suffering from
mental impairment, underwent forced ________________
– _____________________stymied the influx of racial
• Eugenicists actually consisted of a variety of individuals
– Eugenics often connotes Hitler-like ideas due to similarities
between eugenics and the Holocaust
– ___________ was a Victorian liberal
• He believed in the ability of human progress
– ________________advocated for the expulsion of blacks
from British South Africa to biologically and morally purify
the colony
Francis Galton
The Victorian Liberal
Eugenics = progress!
Not to be confused with FRANCIS GALTON!!!!!
Father of Eugenics
Cousin of Darwin
Teacher of Pearson
Let’s just expel all
the black people
from British South
PURIFY the colony
Karl Pearson
• Karl Pearson lived from 1857 to _______
• The English mathematician studied math, law, social
philosophy, and political philosophy at ____________
• Pearson also held the first chair of ____________ at
University College in London
– He later became director of the eugenics laboratory at the
• Pearson followed the teachings of Francis ________ (NOT
– Gabon desired to implement ________________________ to
improve the human race
– Pearson used statistical methods to study biological problems
• He especially focused on evolution and heredity
• Pearson termed this new science biometrics
• Contemporary scholars view Pearson’s views on
eugenics as racist and problematic
– Pearson claimed to be a _____________
• He wanted to “uplift the masses”
– According to Pearson, a nation’s progress depended
on replacing a country’s _____________to the
detriment of inferior races
– The 20th century saw eugenics applied in many
undesirable situations
• The _________ in Germany carried out mass exterminations
in the name of eugenics
These arguments appeared in
Pearson’s work, National Life
from the Standpoint of
Science (1901)
History shows me the only
way in which a high state of
civilization has been
produced. This method is
the struggle of race with
race, with the mentally and
physically fitter race
surviving. This struggle
produces intense suffering
while in progress, but the
struggle has allowed the
white man to reach his
present stage of
development. Because of
this progress, the white man
no longer lives in caves
feeding on roots and nuts.
This progress redeems the
struggle for race, despicable
as it may seem. You, the
audience, may hope for a time
when agriculture
replaced war. You may hope
for a time when English,
German, and American
traders no longer compete for
raw materials, a time
when white and black men
share soil. When this day
comes, mankind will no longer
No factor will encourage progress
and evolution among mankind. No
natural factor will restrict the
fertility of inferior stock. Heredity
will no longer be guided by natural
selection and man will reach a
plateau. Unless an end to fertility
comes, catastrophe will rise,
whether famine or pestilence. The
East currently experiences this
disaster. Physical selection does
the work much more ruthlessly
than the race struggle.
Physical selection also does this
process in a much more inefficient
manner, as seen in China and India
throughout history.
A race struggle exists just as a
national struggle exists. This
struggle originated out of
tribal warfare. Currently, the
civilized white man attempts to
adapt his country to an
ever-changing environment. The
nation must predict where the
struggle will exist. Maintaining a
strong national position
becomes more and more a
preparatory act. White men must
act with insight on coming
We do well to remember
that the law of
inheritance governs
mankind. Mankind will
suffer if we raise the
inferiors in our society to
produce children. If any
social or class prejudices
allow tampering with this
barbaric imposition of
natural selection, our
character will sharply decline
in a few generations.
This ‘‘scientific view of a
nation’’ allows an extremely
efficient internal organization
for a country. The country
constantly improves its
populace through this race
struggle. The struggle for
trade-routes and the struggle
for sources of raw materials is
only one additional way the
race struggle presents itself. I
have taken the natural
history view of mankind here.
I do not think you can
effectively fight against the
tenets of
this logic.
The growth of anthropology
• The theories of Charles Darwin also influenced
the new scientific field of _______________
– This branch of science emerged in the late
– Anthropology studies the stages of human cultural
• Anthropologists strive to identify _______________ cultural
traits of mankind through comparatively studying cultures
• Archaeologists and anthropologists debated the
ancestry of 19th century savages
– Theories ranged from being remnants of the Europe
of old to degeneration from higher level civilizations
– Arguments also occurred over savages’ ability to
Edward Burnett Tylor
• Edward Burnett Tylor advanced
his doctrine of _________ to
attempt to answer the debate
• This ____________________
anthropologist advocated that
contemporary savages provided
Europeans a rare opportunity to
view their past
• The liberal _____________ in
Tylor acknowledged the
_______traits in savage culture
– This culture contrasted with a few
moral defects in European society
Edward Burnett Tylor
• Tylor’s theory ultimately
held that savage culture
developed outside of the
____________ of evolution
• Africans especially deviated
from the normal cultural
evolution of humans
• He therefore believed that
European societies and
cultures would always
remain _____________
European colonizers used anthropology
to implement imperialism
• Governments often sponsored ethnographic research
in the 19th century to understand “primitive culture”
• This application of scientific research to political
control essentially continued the tradition from the
– Captain _____________South Pacific expeditions and
Mungo Park’s African voyages exemplify this scientificpolitical mingling
• The mixing of scientific and political motives branched
out into its own version in the late 19th century
– Europeans believed their cultural superiority stemmed
– This permanent superiority also gave them the
______________to rule the world
The Height of New Imperialism
Reaching the apex
• Europeans transformed the lives of colonial subjects by the dawn of
the 20th century
– Cultural practices, economic influences, social orders, and
constructed environments of subjects all originated from Europe
– The construction of colonial cities and establishment of a cash crop
economy altered the makeup of the colonies
– Introduction of Western education and the remapping of indigenous
social hierarchies constituted two more important changes
• The first anti-colonial _________________ movements responded
to these transformations
• Ordinary Europeans became more aware of these transformations
as well
– Colonies entered the political consciousness of Europe by World War I
more than ever before
– The possession of empire allowed non-Western culture to trickle back
to Europe
3.12 CHARTING (pp. 84-89)
3.12 CHARTING (pp. 84-89)
3.12 CHARTING (pp. 84-89)
3.13 CHOICES (pp. 88-89)
Natural selection. Identify whether the statements below describe Darwinian
or Enlightenment thought. Mark both if the statements apply to both schools
of thought.
3.13 CHOICES (pp. 88-89)
3.13 CHOICES (pp. 88-89)
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 1. Meiji Restoration : Japan :: Taiping Rebellion
: ____________________
• China
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 2. Benjamin Kidd : Social Evolution ::
____________________: National Life from
the Standpoint of Science
• Karl Pearson
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 3. Charles Darwin : Natural Selection ::
____________________: Doctrine of survivals
• Edward Burnett Tylor
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 4. Mungo Park : Africa ::
____________________: Pacific
• Captain James Cook
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 5. Kaiser Wilhelm II : Germany :: King Leopold
II : ____________________
• Belgium
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 6. Bechuanaland : Botswana :: Rhodesia :
• Zimbabwe
3.14 ANALOGIES (pp. 80-89)
• 7. Boxers : China :: Black Flags :
• Vietnam
Colonial infrastructure construction
• Europeans turned to constructing colonial
_______________________ and implementing
colonial administration at the beginning of the 20th
– By this point, global conquest had largely come to an end
– Imperialists built colonial cities, ports, and towns in less
urbanized regions of empires
• Gateways, clock towers, hospitals, and schools soon filled these
– Europeans also undertook modernization projects in cities
and ports such as Cairo, Bombay, Lagos, and Singapore
• Slums were cleared and new housing and roadways constructed
– Highway systems, bridges, canals, and railway networks
served as new methods of transportation
The Telegraph
– The telegraph and other methods of
communication became a part of the colonies
– Telegraph lines first connected Europe to India in
– By 1871, a cable ran from _________________ to
Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Singapore
European Models of Administration
• European models of administration became a part of colonial
– ___________services, the armed forces, judiciary authorities, and
the police all underwent administrative changes
– European-style education, including instruction in European
languages, was also somewhat available
• Western-style medicine was another education topic granted to colonies
• Imperialists saw these tasks as crucial to colonial rule
– The efficient transport of goods depended on _________ layouts
in colonial ports and cities, as well as the construction of railroad
• European commercial exploitation depended on these advances
– Infrastructure also held ____________& ___________importance
• Railroads and telegraphs prompted quick ______________________of
European troops
• Street grids in urban areas allowed for the ______________________ of
local populations
Regulation of Race Relations The Modernization Agenda
• Europeans and natives received different areas
within modernized cities and ports
– Imperialists often received more ______________
and better ventilated residential areas
• These settlements were often nearly military settlements
• European institutions such as polo fields, clubs, and
churches were designated as “white-only”
– Natives clustered in unhealthy and crowded urban
• The British successfully divided Madras into
European and Indian quarters
– Europeans inhabited __________ Town and Indians
lived in __________Town
• Global trade had long run counter to the best interests
of Africa and Asia
– European conquest and the Industrial Revolution only
widened this gap
• Industrial states in Europe exported manufactured
goods to colonies
– Colonies provided cash crops and other raw materials in
– More countries began flooding colonial markets by the late
19th century
– The rise of __________________________ in the 1880s
prevented colonies from entering into trade relationships
outside of their colonizing country
Conquest and Coercion
• Late-19th century conquests ensured that colonists
could coerce their subjects to implement and support
agricultural and labor regimes
– The use of a ________-based agricultural economy
allowed peasants to move beyond subsistence farming
– The production of crops for European industrial raw
materials or ________ labor replaced more traditional
work methods
• Wage labor appeared on both small farms and European-run
• British India served as a major producer of cotton, indigo, opium,
rice, and tea during this period
– Many peasants paid a high price for the abrupt transition
in their economies
– The abandonment of subsistence farming left peasant
populations more vulnerable to _______________
Commercial Fluctuations and Taxation
• International commerce fluctuations also affected
indigenous peoples much more than they had in
the past
– ____________________in the early 20th century
rendered Indian indigo completely obsolete
• Thousands of Indian indigo farmers went bankrupt
– Indigo had previously served as the pinnacle of the
British textile industry
• _________ remained high despite weakened
economic positions
– Many peasants migrated to cities and towns to work
as urban laborers
Global migration of labor
• Modern transportation allowed Europeans to send millions
of ______________ laborers to construct irrigation systems
and railroads
– Work in plantations and in mines was also common
• Migrant labor divided families and upset local demographic
– _________________ laborers from Vietnam worked French
Cambodian plantations
– Tens of thousands of coolies migrated to British territories
• ________________ were Indian and Chinese laborers
• The location of coolies’ migrations included Burma, Australia, Malaya,
Fiji, Ceylon, East Africa, the West Indies, and South Africa200
– Ceylon is now known as Sri Lanka
– Indentured labor from existing colonies occasionally assisted in
the colonization of new regions
• Laborers from India helped the British settle East Africa through the
construction of railroads
• Western cultural influence spread throughout the
– Education, law and order, group relations, language,
and dress code restructured the fabric of society
– Dakar and Delhi currently exhibit European styles of
– African and Asian ___________networks demonstrate
European cultural influence
– Inhabitants of the West Indies and South Africa enjoy
the British sport of___________
– Missionaries to India often wore a European blouse
with a traditional sari
Colonial society included new divisions
and hierarchies
• The founding of Western-style schools produced a
Western-educated _________ in the colonies
• Imperialists hoped to create loyal subjects to serve in
lower-level colonial administrative positions
– European colonizers often favored the
__________________ instead of newly educated
professional classes
• Western-educated colonial subjects found themselves
in the worst of both worlds
– Europeans looked down upon them and excluded them
from positions of power
– Local populations also ostracized these local “traitors”
• Educated Algerians favored French over Arabic
European colonizers emphasized social
identities of the colonized
• Social conflict bred between different indigenous groups as
a result
– British politicians in India in the late 19th century reinforced
caste divisions
• The caste system divided up society based on birth
– The British stated that caste was the foundation of traditional
Indian society
• Caste served as only one of multiple social markers in pre-colonial
• British authorities increasingly relied on _________
– The ___________ and the__________were labeled “martial”
• These two groups were considered good recruits for the British army
– The _______________ became inherently “criminal” and met
suspicion and disgust
– Classifications became more rigid as time went on
• Social boundaries became harder to surmount within Indian society
3.15 EITHER/OR (pp. 90-91)
• 1. Karl Pearson was a student of (LAW,
political psychology at (CAMBRIDGE, OXFORD)
• 2. Pearson held the (FIRST, SECOND) chair of
eugenics at the (UNIVERSITY, LONDON)
College and later became the (DIRECTOR,
FOUNDER) of Eugenics there.
3.15 EITHER/OR (pp. 90-91)
• 3. He studied under Francis Gabon, the
(FOUNDER, OPPONENT) of eugenics, the goal
of which was selective (BREEDING,
ENROLLING) of humans in order to improve
the human race.
• 4. Pearson claimed to be a (COMMUNIST,
SOCIALIST) but by (TODAY’S, HIS) standards his
views are troubling and quite racist.
3.15 EITHER/OR (pp. 90-91)
• 5. He claimed that a country should (REPLENISH,
CREATE) its “better” stock of humans at the
“SUPERIOR”) races in order to make progress and
improve itself.
• 6. His principles of eugenics were carried out by
(MANY, A HANDFUL) in the twentieth century in
the (WESTERN, EASTERN) world, most notably
perhaps the German (NAZI, NATIONAL) Party.
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
1. “History shows me one way, and one way only, in which a
______________________ state of ______________________ has been
produced, namely, the _____________________ of race with race, and
______________________ of the ______________________ and
______________________ fitter race.”
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
2. “The struggle means ______________________, intense suffering, while it is in
______________________; but that struggle and that suffering have been the
stages by which the white man has reached his present stage of ____________
and they ______________________ for the fact that he no longer lives in caves
and feeds on roots and nuts.”
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
3. “You may hope for a time when the ______________________ shall be turned
into the ______________________, when American and German and English
traders shall no longer compete in the markets of the world for their raw material
and for their food ______________________, when the white man and the dark
shall share the ______________________ between them…when that day comes
______________________ will no longer progress; there will be nothing to check
the ______________________ of inferior ______________________.”
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
4. “In the early days of that struggle it was a blind, ______________________
struggle of barbaric ______________________. At the present day, in the case of
the ______________________ white man, it has become more and more the
______________________, carefully directed attempt of the nation to fit itself to
a continuously ______________________ environment.”
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
5. “We have to remember that man is subject to the ______________________
law of ______________________, and that a ______________________ of
capacity may arise if we ______________________ our society from the inferior
and not the ______________________ stock.”
3.16 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 90-91)
6. “You will see that my ______________________ …is that of an _____________
whole, kept up to a high pitch of internal ______________________ by insuring
that its numbers are substantially recruited from the better stocks, and kept up a
high pitch of ______________________ efficiency by contest, chiefly by way of
war with inferior races, and with equal races by the struggle for ______________
and for the sources of raw material and of food supply.”
3.17 LISTING (p. 91)
• 1. Four areas of colonial life that Europeans
-constructed environment
-economic life
-social order
-cultural practices
3.17 LISTING (p. 91)
• 2. Four specific ways that Europeans sought to
consolidate and exploit their power over the
-building colonial cities
-establishing cash crop economies
-introducing Western education
-remapping indigenous social hierarchies
3.17 LISTING (p. 91)
• 3. Four examples of places where cities and
ports existed and Europeans undertook big
modernization projects.
3.17 LISTING (p. 91)
• 4. Four new modes of transportation brought
to the empires.
-highway systems
-railway networks
Governing the colonies through…
…brute force
• King Leopold II of Belgium ruled the ________________
through brute force
– The racist view of the colonial savage reached its logical endpoint
through this colonial rule
• Belgian troops forced Congolese men into hard labor at
gunpoint from 1898 to 1905; two common activities:
– Construction of roads
– military service
• After discharge from the military, Congolese men often worked as rural
– The rural police force caused the abandonment of subsistence
farming and the implementation of _____________ production
• Natives who resisted were ____________ by the police
• These police then turned over baskets of severed ___________ to
Belgian authorities as proof of punishment
– Not all of these hands belonged to corpses
King Leopold II:
(r. 1865 – 1909)
Harvesting Rubber
Punishing “Lazy” Workers
Belgium’s Stranglehold on the Congo
Leopold’s Conscience??
5-8 Million Victims!
(50% of Popul.)
It is blood-curdling to see them (the
soldiers) returning with the hands of the
slain, and to find the hands of young
children amongst the bigger ones
evidencing their bravery...The rubber from
this district has cost hundreds of lives, and
the scenes I have witnessed, while unable
to help the oppressed, have been almost
enough to make me wish I were dead... This
rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the
natives were to rise and sweep every white
person on the Upper Congo into eternity,
there would still be left a fearful balance to
their credit.
-- Belgian Official
Governing the colonies through…
…brute force
• European powers condemned Leopold’s de facto
enslavement of Congo
– Murder and maiming particularly constituted moral
– The ____________________assumed control of the
colony in ______________
• An official Belgian commission asserted that Leopold’s
brutal methods cut the Congolese population in _____
– Scholars have recently estimated the effects of Leopold’s
reign to be far worse
– Some academics estimate that the population dropped
from between ___ & _____million down to _____ million
• The _________________ also used brutal force in their
African colonies
Governing the colonies through…
indirect rule
• ____________ utilized indirect rule in its empire more than any other
European power
– The _____________________served as evidence that direct colonial
involvement did not work in practice
• Hands-off policies delegated large amounts of power to chiefs, kings,
and princes
– These rulers were compelled to carry out the orders of colonial officials
– Colonial __________ experienced the fullest use of British indirect rule
• Indirect rule prospered in the British Empire for multiple reasons
– Dependence on local people ________ Britain far less than direct rule
– The British also gained ________________ from colonial subjects
through a reliance on tradition and indigenous leaders
• This legitimacy ostensibly stabilized colonial administrations and allowed them to
better withstand local insurrection
Governing the colonies through…
indirect rule
• Indirect rule also created many negative consequences for
British colonies
– Indigenous cultures did not remain intact, despite British claims
to the contrary
• Indirect rule typically removed limitations previously in place on local
• Chiefs only had to answer to British colonial officials instead of local
– The British essentially cleared the path for the rise of ________
• Fulani Emirs in ______________ largely acted as dictators
– Britons also promoted ___________________to the detriment
of other loyalties and social affiliations
• Indirect rule promoted tribal divisions and ethnic conflicts
– Indirect rule neglected the higher ________of colonial subjects
• Western-educated Africans were seen as a threat to British rule
Governing the colonies through…
the civilizing mission
• The French adopted a third method of rule over their
African colonies
• Many parts of the French Empire experienced direct
rule by French officials based on French laws and codes
– This method of governance reflected the French _
• translates to “civilizing mission”
• The French sought to _______________ natives to the French
– Even after other European nations moved away from ideas
regarding assimilation, the French retained this method of
colonial rule
Governing the colonies through…
the civilizing mission
• Multiple ideas explain this idea in tandem
– French _____________ partially accounts for the
retaining of assimilation ideas
– The French also believed that they had guarded
European civilization for centuries
• The idea had its origins in universal ________________and
Enlightenment ________________
• French ___________________ incorporated these ideas into
the French consciousness
– _____________________had a lesser impact on
French society
• French philosophy and science emphasized the role of
_____________________ in human development
Governing the colonies through…
the civilizing mission
• The French colonial government system had
mixed results
– This system of government destroyed cultural and
political _____________ more fully than the British
– Natives, however, were viewed as potential
• These colonial subjects could gain rights as French
______________after undergoing a civilizing process
– France granted colonial subjects citizenship rights in
some instances
• ________________ males received voting rights in ______
– ________________________went from Senegal to the French
Governing the colonies through…
the civilizing mission
• The promise of French _______________
involved acknowledging greater dependence on
colonial masters
– __________________ and self-autonomy were lost
for colonial subjects in the process
• _________ often undermined French ideals of
democracy and republicanism
– Africans were often excluded from
_______________posts in West Africa
– These same subjects did not possess the right to
__________ their own representatives
One Final Comparison
French and British rule
• The French and British forms of colonial governance did not actually
differ that greatly
– Both counties relied on a combination of direct and indirect rule
• A European official often ruled in tandem with paid locals
• The French focused their ____________________ efforts on
colonies with the greatest potential for Westernization
– ____________ represents one such colony
– The French otherwise only tried to improve natives within their own
cultural contexts….three such colonies
• Indochina,
• Morocco, and
• Madagascar
• Darwinian ideas gradually gained strength in France
– The debate over the possibility and desirability of colonial assimilation
grew heated
– The French abandoned the mission civilisatrice following __________
• French and British rule differed more in theory than in _________
3.18 OUTLINING (pp. 91-92)
I. Europeans transformed the constructed
_______________________ in their colonial
possessions in many ways.
a. New methods of _______________________
i. Highway systems
ii. Bridges
iii. _______________________
iv. Railway networks
b. New systems of ________________
3.18 OUTLINING (pp. 91-92)
II. Europeans imposed their own models of
_______________________ in the colonies
a. Reorganized current systems
i. Police
ii. _______________________
iii. Judiciary
iv. _______________________ service
b. Introduced new Europeans ideas in some areas
i. Education
ii. _______________________
3.18 OUTLINING (pp. 91-92)
III. All these changes were made for the safety and
efficiency of the Europeans and their colonial goals
a. _______________________ layouts in colonial cities
and ports for easy transport of goods
b. Railways and _______________________ for the
rapid _______________________of European troops
c. Colonial _______________________ cities to keep
Europeans separated from natives
d. Creation of _______________________ -style
i. Clubs
ii. _______________________ fields
iii. _______________________
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 1. The gap between metropole and colony in
the late nineteenth century widened.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 2. British India became a major producer of
cash crops during the late nineteenth century,
especially tea.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 3. Indian indigo was long a staple of the British
textile industry even after the invention of
synthetic dyes in the early twentieth century.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 4. The diaspora of migrant labor made the
construction of infrastructure like railways and
irrigation systems easier and also united
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 5. Europeans conquered by military,
diplomatic, and economic means but did little
to change culture in colonial areas.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 6. One example of the influence of western
culture is the popularity of soccer in the West
Indies and South Asia.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 7. Western-educated colonial subjects were
able to bridge the gap between colonizers and
the colonized.
3.19 FALSE (pp. 92-93) Fix!
• 8. The British rejected the caste system
already in place in India.
3.20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94)
Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the
statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.
3.20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94)
Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the
statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.
3.20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94)
Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the
statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.
3.20 CHOICES (pp. 93-94)
Those Belgians didn’t waffle! Identify whether the
statements below describe Belgian or British imperialism.
3.21 IDENTIFY (pp. 81-85, 92)
3.21 IDENTIFY (pp. 81-85, 92)
3.22 WHO’S WHO? (pp. 84-94)
3.22 WHO’S WHO? (pp. 84-94)
3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp. 93-94)
1. The French and the British
a. employed strictly indirect rule.
b. shared little in common in their ideologies or methods
of rule.
c. relied on purely direct rule and violent means to
control the colonial population.
d. combined direct rule through a European official with
indirect rule through local officials as well.
e. abandoned assimilation early on in their imperialist
3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp. 93-94)
2. British rule
a. cleared the way for benevolent local leaders to
come to power.
b. promoted higher education amongst colonial
c. embraced and empowered Western-educated
d. left indigenous culture intact.
e. was less direct in Africa than it had been in India.
3.23 MULTIPLE CHOICE (pp. 93-94)
3. The French
a. granted citizenship to all of its colonial subjects.
b. and their policy of governance was less destructive to
indigenous institutions than even British policy.
c. Abandoned their policy of assimilation, or mission
civilisatrice, as official policy after World War I.
d. Were influenced by Darwin’s ideas earlier than many
others in Europe.
e. Policy of assimilation grew out of the Enlightenment
and its basic principles.

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