Introduction to the Center for Nanoscale Materials

Report
An Introduction to the
Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)
Andreas Roelofs
Deputy Director
Nanoscience and Technology Division
Center for Nanoscale Materials
http://www.nano.anl.gov
Center for Nanoscale Materials
National user facility providing expertise, instruments and infrastructure
for nanoscience and nanotechnology
Cross-cutting facilities:
 Computational nanoscience
 Dedicated hard X-ray nanoprobe
at the APS
 Materials synthesis and assembly
 Nanofabrication research
 Proximal probes
~ 60 Staff, 20-30 Postdocs
 Supports basic and applied research as well as the development of advanced instrumentation to
generate new scientific insights and create innovative materials with novel properties
 Academic, industrial, and international researchers have access via peer-reviewed proposals
 Strong internal science program (50% own research, 50% supporting users)
…has to be Nanoscience
2
An Integrated Vision for the CNM
Nanofabrication of novel
architectures
Materials design and
discovery
CNM
a scientific user facility to create,
explore and control the nanoworld
Simulations of
the nanoworld
Imaging and
visualization at
the nanoscale
3
Six integrated research groups
Electronic & Magnetic
Materials and Devices
(EMMD)
Theory and
Modeling
(TMG)
Nanophotonics
(NPG)
Nanobio
Interfaces (NBI)
CNM
Facility
Nanofabrication
and Devices
(NFD)
X-ray
Microscopy
(XMG)
4
CNM Facilities and Capabilities

Hard X-ray Nanoprobe – beam-line attached to
the APS and co-managed
– Received R&D100 award in 2009

~13,000 sq. ft. of conventional research
laboratories
 Chemical labs
 Characterization instruments
 Laser-controlled area (LCA)

~11,500 sq. ft. of cleanroom laboratories and
support areas

~6000 sq. ft. high-bay facility for scanning probe
microscopes
 4 are under construction
 Also contains an LCA

High-Performance Computing Cluster
Carbon (3000 cores, 25 TeraFLOPS)
5
CNM’s User Community
Sweden


Ontario
Access is free for nonproprietary work, including for
industrial users
Users from 38 states plus
Puerto Rico, in addition to a
further 20 countries
Taiwan
Recent Industrial Users
Hewlett-Packard
IBM
Toyota
Seagate
AKHAN Technologies
Advanced Diamond Tech.
BAE Systems
GE
6
Attracting Industrial Users

Leverage our Staff to reach out to industry
– explain benefits of increasing the interaction with industry
(diversity, great research done at industry – let’s participate!)
CNM website:
– how/where to find and engage with industry (conferences,
papers, notice industry affiliations)
– target “5-10 years out” industry projects

Website for industrial users (at CNM and ANL website)

Held workshop targeted at industrial users in May 2013

Established one collaborative research and development
agreement

2 licenses to CNM Staff patents granted
7
Examples of Highlights
8
CNM Staff Highlight Sequential Infiltration Synthesis (SIS)
US Patent App 13209190
US Provisional Patent App
 SIS is a process by which inorganic materials can be grown within polymer
films and where the reactions can be selective for specific blocks within a
block copolymer film
 SIS-enhancement of resists for e-beam lithography, photolithography, and
block copolymer lithography will enable simple fabrication of high-aspectratio nanostructures
Seth Darling
Jeff Elam (ES)
100 nm
100 nm
9
CNM User Highlight: Mapping of Strain Fields in Semiconductor
Structures using the X-ray Nanoprobe
• Clarifying the spatial distribution of the
strain enables optimization of strain-induced
CMOS device efficiency
• The Si3N4 liner transfers stress into the
silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material
Cross-section of a SOI/Si3N4 stressor
structure
• In situ mapping of the subsurface strain with
high spatial resolution using the Hard Xray
Nanoprobe at CNM enabled a good model of
the stress distribution to be obtained.
C. E. Murray1, A. Ying2, S. M. Polvino2, I. C. Noyan2, M. Holt3,
and J. Maser3, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 083543 (2011).
1) IBM; 2) U Columbia; 3) CNM
Measured and calculated lattice-tilt in the SOI
under the Si3N4 stressor.
Inset: cross-sectional geometry of the sample
and the direction of lattice tilt
Observing the nanoscale origins of memory resistive
switching using the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe
• Users from Hewlett-Packard Labs
• High resolution x-ray fluorescence microscopy identified nanoscale metallic channel
regions formed during memristive switching in a TaO metal/oxide/metal device
structure
Images show the presence of a Ta-rich Ta oxide phase at site of low
resistance channels
J. P. Strachan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 242114 (2011).
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Nanobio Interfaces – User Science
Biofunctionalized magnetic-vortex microdiscs for
targeted cancer-cell destruction
ac magnetic field
Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Argonne
Nature Materials, 2010, Kim et al.
ABC News Healthbeat Segment: Shaking Up Cancer (3 min video)
http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/health&id=7245605
~10s Hz
Catalytic Production of Clean Fuel
Batteries Get a Quick Charge
with New Anode Technology
Methane dissociation on Zn doped La2O3(001) to
produce H2 without CO2

Catalytic dissociation of methane is an
environmentally friendly approach
towards CO2-free production of hydrogen

First-principles computations of nanoscale
surface regions show that doping oxides
with low-valence atoms increases
efficiency
Users from U California- Santa Barbara
E. W. McFarland and H. Metiu, Chem. Rev., DOI:
10.1021/cr300418s; B. Li and H. Metiu, J. Phys. Chem. C 115
(37), 18239 (2011)
• Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes self-organize
to crystalline cubic phase during Li
cycling
• Capacity and recharging rate greatly
increased
Users from CNM, CSE, XSD, U Chicago
H. Xiong et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 116, 3181 (2012)
13
Surface Properties of Graphene
60 nm
Synthesizing graphene for large-scale integration is
a key challenge: atomic-resolution STM helps
guide us towards defect-free graphene
L. Gao et al., Nano Lett. 10, 3512 (2010)
Graphene provides a novel support of
transition metal catalyst nanoparticles
Users from U Wisconsin-Madison
E. Cho et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 26066 (2012)
in ea
then
Development of Plasmonic
shel
of A
Nanophotocatalysts
AgC
(Fig.
easil
appr
A
large
indu
gaps
with
visib
effic
their
hybr
class
Methylene blue dye is
used as an optical probe unde
of organic degradation mod
nano
nega
from
AgCl:Ag hybrid nanoparticles exhibit high pola
efficiency and recyclability for catalysis of organic
surfa
pollutant decomposition in sunlight.
Ag/ A
Users from U Illinois Urbana-Champaign and phot
phot
State Key Lab on Petroleum, China
hybr
C.H. An et al., Adv. Mater. 22, 2570 (2010)
of
14 v
Nanotechnology at the CNM:
Solar energy conversion
Energy storage
Catalysis
Advanced medical therapies
Information processing and storage
Sensors and electronics (detectors!)
Light emitting devices
Lithography
X-ray optical elements
90 nm
500 nm









15
Nanostructured Carbon Based Materials
3D
Micro & Nanotribology
Diamond nanowire
sensors
C
1D
2D
Diamond microresonators
Nanowire
production from
diamond template
CNT carbon
nanotube based
bio-sensors
Graphene-ondiamond devices
Diamond based
MEMS switch
Ani Sumant, Nanofabrication & Devices Group
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Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Nanoparticles
Ag
Ag
Ag
MnO2
Impact is in nanosized catalysts and photocatalysts, plasmonic
nanoparticles for nanophotonic applications, batteries, sensors…
Yugang Sun, Nanophotonics
Elena Shevchenko, Nanobio Interface
Xiao-Min Lin, Electronic & Magnetic Mat. and Devices
Iron oxide & gold
quasicrystal
17
Metrics: Scientific Impact
Calendar Year

5737 citations so far for publications from CY10-CY12
– 4761 citing articles; 1363 citations for top 8 articles

IP: 71 invention reports; 36 patents filed, 10 issued
2 licensed patents
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CNM User Access

http://nano.anl.gov
Open submittal and review processes
– public information on website
– 3 calls per year
– Multi-facility proposal portal
– projects last for up to one year
– Access is free for non-proprietary work

Flexible access modes
 Proprietary & non-proprietary
 Collaborative & independent
 General & partner

Reviews & allocations based on feasibility & scientific merit
– internal technical feasibility
– external, 100+ member Proposal Evaluation Board

Notifications occur within 6-8 weeks

CNM Facility is open 40 hours/week
423 Institutions with Argonne
Master User Agreements in place
(as of 9/13/11)
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CNM: a Scientific User Facility
We provide State-of-the-Art
capabilities and expertise
444 individual Users
(2012)
~ 40 Scientific
Staff
Innovative staff science shapes the user program and keeps it vibrant
Innovative user science helps formulate future scientific directions
User facility: a unique place where many scientist gather and exchange
ideas and interact
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Going forward: Increase in complexity
 Nanotechnology by design
 Combining many different functionalities and
different materials
 Add complex nanomaterials into devices
 Embrace non-linarites
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