Nineteenth-Century Empires
Section II – PART 5
13 questions – 32.5%
The Tools of Empire
The Tools of Empire: Technology and
European Imperialism in the
Nineteenth Century (Excerpts)
By Daniel R.Headrick
Momentous consequences
• Two events of the 19th century had momentous
consequences for the entire world
– European domination and exploitation of
____________and ________________
– the power and progress of _______________________
• _______________________
– traces the connections between these two events
– Historians up to now have only studied these
occurrences separately instead of in tandem
New imperialism
• European imperialism of the 19th century
differed in its extent and legacy from previous
forms of imperialism
– Called _____________________
– In 1800, Europeans controlled or occupied
________of the land surface of the world
• _____ by 1878
• _____ by 1914
New imperialism
– The British Empire alone experienced
substantial increases in influence in the
19th century
• In 1800: British empire
– ________million square miles and
– Population: ______________
• During the 19th Century
– The amount of land increased _____________
– the population jumped by _____________
Legacy of New Imperialism
• The legacy of new imperialism is hard to
• European religious and political ideas
marginally remain in Asia and Africa
• These ideas are modern equivalents of
– Hadrian’s Wall
– the Mosque of Cordoba
The Triumph of Europe
• The real triumph of European civilization has been
___________________ not ________________
– Europeans have prevailed in
printing presses,
napalm, and
– Very few people currently live without industrial products
– The Western conquest of the world with industrial
technology remains unchallenged
The Triumph of Europe
• The European technological triumph began in the 19th
– Europeans wove their technology into their expanding
European empires
– Connections between technology and history must be
studied from both a technological and a historical
• The history of technology remains a popular form of literature
• Bookstores often offer a wide variety of books detailing
histories of cars, planes, guns, and furniture
– Most of these books are ________________histories
• compilations of facts and pictures but are separated from their
historical context
• The social history of technology aims at comprehending
the ________,___________, and _____________of
– Social historians take a piece of technology and examine it in
this view
• e.g.,“How did firearms change warfare during the late Middle Ages?”
• Reversing these questions also yields insight into the
historical process
– Examining how technological forces shaped the development
of a particular historical phenomenon is an important skill
• Historians have failed to answer the question of
how technological forces shaped the development of
new imperialism
Article Focus: The Period of Imperial
• Stages: European imperialism in Asia and Africa
• at different times and in different ways
– KEY TECH - Europeans penetrated and explored new regions:
• Steamers
• quinine
– KEY TECH -The conquest of indigenous peoples and the imposition of
European rule followed
• Rapid-firing rifles
• machine guns
– KEY TECH – estab. of a communications and transportation network
The Suez Canal,
colonial railroads,
steamship lines, and
submarine telegraph cables
• Each of these steps involved hundreds of products and processes
– Headrick focuses on innovations which either
• made imperialism possible or
• cost-effective
• Headrick
– Doesn’t destroy other interpretations
– provokes fresh thinking
• Technology = added to the list of factors
that historians have explored regarding European
• Imperialism sought to create ___________________
and ________________________colonies
– Most territories achieved these aims prior to
– The resulting economic networks and technologies that
entered into the development of colonial societies must be
left alone for now
According to Headrick…
• ____________parts of the world experienced
____________effects from technological
change during the 19th century
– India and Africa were much more affected than
Persia or China; the KEY =
• The proximity
– The attention
• Headrick gives to different world regions is
representative of the attention that Europeans gave
those same regions in the 19th century
The European Penetration of Africa:
• _________________ - coast of Africa in the 1430s
– remained the dark continent for 350 + years
– The interior of Africa often blank on maps
– Europeans chose to explore and conquer
• the Americas,
• Oceania, and
• Asia
• Little motivation to penetrate Africa prior to the 19th century
– Slave traders sought no disruptions to their profitable operations
– Merchants had little evidence of the profitability of penetrating
• The penetration of Africa resulted from
– missionary and
– abolitionist movements
against the slave trade
European Penetration of Africa
• Europeans lacked the ___________ to penetrate Africa
– Entering Africa had to be done in dugout canoes or on foot
• A series of _______________ covers most of Africa
• Rivers flow through a series of __________________from the highlands to
the sea
• Mangrove swamps and ___________________line African coasts
• Animal
– trypanosomiasis
– nagana
….kill off pack animals in African tropical regions
• Europeans, however, had explored the Americas with primitive
transportation means
• Disease
– The effect of European steamships did not have an impact on Africa
until decades after their arrival
• H.G. Wells could have been writing about it in ______________
– aliens invade Earth in futuristic vehicles
As the aliens are about to conquer Earth, an invisible
_______________forces them to flee
Portuguese Expeditions
• Portuguese captain _________sent an expedition
up the ____________River
– Casualties reached such high levels within a few days
that Cão cancelled the expedition
• Francisco _________ led a voyage up the
____________ valley in ________
– The objective was to establish contact with the
kingdom of __________________
– _____________________ claimed the cattle and
horses miles upriver
• The men contracted _________________
– African or part-African agents carried on Portuguese
communications with the Zambezi valley until _____
Early European Expeditions
• _____ out of 152 Europeans died during
William _____ exploration of __________ Bay
– This journey lasted from _______ to ________
• Mungo _____ _______ expedition of the
upper _______River led to the death of all
Europeans involved
• Captain James ________ led a party up the
________ River from ______ to _____
– _____ of the 54 Europeans on the voyage died
Disease did not restrain European
attempts to explore Africa
• Each generation: new explorers willing to
risk death in order to explore the unknown
• 19th century: New reasons to explore Africa
– A resurgence of Christian mission work,
– the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, and
– scientific research funded by the wealthy
provided ample motivation to enter Africa
Macgregor Laird
• played a key role in opening _________to
– son of shipbuilder ___________Laird whose
• early _____s: firm began building iron
– Macgregor was 23
• Macgregor did not want to remain the
junior partner in a struggling business
– A restless spirit of exploration stirred him
• scientific curiosity,
• missionary fervor, and
• commercial hope
• In _____: Laird’s explores the Niger River
– _________________had reached the upper reaches of the river
in the first decade of the 19th century
• Park reached the __________ Rapids
• Brothers Richard and John ___________ traveled
downriver in a canoe in 1830
– first ventured north from Lagos
– proved that the Niger River and____River were the same river
– The Niger River flows into the ________________through a
mangrove swamp
• Laird realized that a steamer carrying a cargo of trade up
the Niger River could open up a large section of Africa to
British influence
Laird realized steamer’s potential
Niger River trade could open up a large section
of Africa to British influence
…and dats
DE truff!
‘‘[This journey will please] those who look upon
the opening of Central Africa to the enterprise
and capital of British merchants as likely to create
new and extensive __________ markets for our
manufactured goods, and fresh sources whence
to draw our supplies; and those who, viewing
mankind as one great _________, consider it their
duty to raise their fellow creatures from their
present DE________, DE_________________,
and DE______________ state, nearer to Him in
whose image they were created.
The African Inland Commercial
established “for the
commercial development
of the recent discoveries of
the brothers __________
on the River Niger”
• founded by
– __________________and
– __________ merchants
• The treasury refused
to grant the company a __________ and a
charter, but these setbacks did not slow
down the company
• ___________Lander was hired to lead the
The African Inland Commercial Co.’s
–The brig _____________- storeship
• Quorra
• Alburkah
• Quorra –
–the larger steamship of the journey
–________ and __________ built the ship out of
–measured _______by _______ feet
–drew _______ feet on the river and _____ feet
at sea
–__________-horsepower engine
–needed a _____-man crew
–carried a _____-pound swivel gun, an ___pound carronade, and 8 ____-pound carriage
guns, as well as plenty of handguns
The Alburkah
• M. Laird built the smaller
steamship Alburkah
– The boat measured ___by ___feet
– drew _____feet ____ inches
• made of iron except for the deck
• Powered by a _____-horsepower
_________ and ___________
• crew of _______men
• Firepower aplenty!
– In addition to handguns,
– a _____-pounder and
– Six ____-pounder swivel guns
• The expedition reached
the Niger delta without
– left the ____________ in
the Bight of ________,
continuing upriver in the
two steamers
– Laird hoped to found a
trading post at the
convergence of the Niger
and _________ Rivers
• sought to buy _________
at low prices
• steamers succeeded in navigating the Niger
– Laird earned his reputation as
• an explorer and innovator
• The expedition as a whole failed to accomplish
its ___________ and _____________objectives
– Only______out of the 48 Europeans survived the
African diseases
• Laird returned in a weakened state to England in ______
• He never fully recovered his health
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 1. List two momentous events of the
nineteenth century according to Headrick.
• -industrialization
• -colonization of Asia and Africa
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 2. List two ways in which the “new”
imperialism of the nineteenth century was
different according to Headrick.
• -its extent
• -its legacy
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 3. According to Headrick, the goal of
imperialism was to create colonies that were
• -politically submissive
• -economically profitable
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 4. Headrick writes that the three stages of
imperialism were
• -penetration and exploration by first
European travelers
• -conquest of indigenous peoples
• -forging of communication and
transportation networks
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 5. Key technologies in phase one were
• -steamers
• -prophylactic use of quinine
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 6. The key technologies in phase two were
• -rapid-firing rifles
• -machine guns
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 7. The key technologies in phase three were
Steamship lines
Suez canal
submarine telegraph cables
colonial railroads
2.18 LISTING (pp. 55-57)
• 8. Macgregor was motivated by
• -missionary fervor
• -scientific curiosity
• -commercial hope
2.19 MATCHING (pp. 56-57)
a. Diogo Cao
_____ 1. Scottish shipbuilder
2. founder of the African Inland Commercial Company who
b. Francisco Barreto _____
led an expedition up the Niger River without incident until
most of them died of disease
c. William Bolts
d. Mungo Park
_____ 3. explorer who led an expedition up the Zambezi River
where many of his men succumbed to malaria in 1569
_____ 4. Portuguese captain whose men died in great numbers
exploring the Congo River in 1485
e. Capt. James
_____ 5. 1777-1779 expedition leader at Delagoa Bay where 132
out of 152 Europeans died
f. William Laird
_____ 6. leader of 1816-1817 exploring party up the Congo River
in which 19 out of 54 Europeans died
g. Macgregor Laird
_____ 7. leader of a 1805 venture into the upper Niger River which
resulted in the death of all Europeans present
2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57)
• You’re cordially invited to join us on a monumental
journey led by _______________________. On our
passage, the ship _______________________ will be
used as a storeship and two ______________________
will also accompany us up the __________________ .
2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57)
• The larger of the two steamers, the ___________________, is
made of wood and was constructed by ____________ and
___________. She measures 112 x 16 feet and is powered by
a ____________ - horsepower engine. Altogether _________
men will sail on the Quorra, which will be armed with a 24pound swivel gun, eight 4-pound carriage guns, and an 18pound carronade, a small cannon.
2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57)
• The smaller of the two ships built by _______________________, son
of the great shipbuilder _______________________, is called the
_______________________. She is 70 x 13 feet and carries a crew of
______the Quorra, which is made of ______________, the Alburkah
is made almost entirely from ______________, except for the deck.
She has a 15-horsepower Fawcett and Preston engine and carries a 9pounder and six 1-pounder ____________ guns.
2.20 FILL IN THE BLANK (p. 57)
• The previous travels of Richard and John Landers
prove that a steamer like ours sailing up river
with a cargo of trade will open up an immense
part of Africa to the commerce and influence of
Great Britain. Join us on our great adventure!
• A substantial number of Europeans traded along
the coasts of Africa prior to the mid 19th century
– The British government stationed a fleet along the
West African coast after __________
• This attempt to end the slave trade searched slaving ships
suspected of carrying human cargo
– The British placed small ___________throughout
the coast to enforce the abolitionist goal
– Christian missions popped up along the African
• All of these Europeans fell ill from African diseases
– Statistics regarding mortality rates of British
_______________ in West Africa are more plentiful
than the rates among _________________
• British troops were stationed in their posts as
_________________ became important to Western society
– Military criminals and offenders constituted the
• men traded their ____ sentences for military service in Africa
– This swap often constituted a death sentence
• The Royal African Corps covered ground from the __________
to the _____________
on troops in Africa
• The United Service Journal and Naval
and Military Magazine
• an _____ article concerning the health of
these troops in Africa
– From 1819 to 1836, _____ of the 1,843 troops
who served in Sierra Leone died
– _________of soldiers
– ________worst year for British
soldiers in Sierra Leone
• ______ out of the 571 men
• _________died from disease
– The size of the Sierra Leone force decreased by
more than ______each year, despite the constant
arrival of men
• The Gold Coast proved just as deadly as Sierra
– _______ of Europeans who
between 18__ and 18__
died in Africa
– ______ of the 224 men died in 1824
– ______of white soldiers sent to
West Africa died
– Another __________ became invalids
– Only _______of white soldiers returned “fit for future
CAUSES of MORTALITY Misunderstood
• The authors of the 1840 article did not understand
the causes of the high mortality rates
– The writers did not blame ______________________for
contracting diseases
– ___________could not take the blame
• Dry and windy stations produced as much death as stations
next to marshes
– The authors faulted _____ fever and __________ fever
• The article also featured the death rates of white
missionaries to Africa
– _____ such men ventured to West Africa between 1804
and 1835
– _______of these men died of disease, while 14 more
returned in poor health
West Indians vs. Europeans
• West Indians only experienced a mortality rate
____ of the white mortality rate
– This rate still was double the disease mortality rate of
native Africans
– An epidemic from 18___ to 18___ in the Gambia
killed ______ out of 399 whites
• Only ________in 40 to 50 West Indians perished
• Yellow fever likely caused this epidemic
– Many West Indians had developed a resistance to this disease
endemic to the West Indies
• By _____, the British government stopped
sending white troops to West Africa
– Only a half dozen white ___________ arrived in the
region to lead West Indian troops
Philip Curtin: CHARTMAN!
• Faster than a speeding
• More accurate than,
well….Rush Limbaugh!
• Sees dead people and
loves counting them!
Philip Curtin : British personnel
mortality rates
Curtin: additional statistics for
different military groups
• Malaria was the chief killer of Europeans in Africa
• dysentery,
• yellow fever,
• typhoid
– Malaria has likely caused more deaths in human history than any
other disease
– The protozoan Plasmodium __________ causes TERTIAN malaria
• endemic throughout much of the world
• leads to
– a general weakening of the body
– intermittent fevers
• Plasmodium_______________causes a far deadlier type of malaria
– This strain of malaria is endemic only to tropical _____________
• Savannas, swamplands, and rainforests all house the protozoan
– Surviving this type of malaria grants the body only _____________
• Africans often suffered repeated low-level bouts of malaria throughout their
• Without this limited resistance, however, plasmodium falciparum is often fatal
• 19th-century European medical experts
blamed malaria on putrid smells and
humid air
– This diagnosis stemmed from the ancient
association of malaria and swamps
• In ________, mal’aria means “bad air”
• The_________word paludisme means
Laird’s Theory
• strangest theory of all
• in 1837
• to Thomas _____________
regarding Laird’s expedition
of the Niger River
It’s real
‘‘Captain Grant mentioned the
possibility of getting firewood at
_____________, nothing can be
more injurious both to the Vessel
and the Crew…to the Crew, as the
miasmatic exhalations from it will
infallibly produce fever and disease.
I have had melancholy experienced
of the effects of_________taken on
board & used as Firewood for the
Engines on the Coast of Africa.’’
~ Macgregor Laird
• French scientist
– Alphonse Laveran
• discovered
– Plasmodium
– in 1880
• This organism invades the
– bloodstream
VECTOR: Anopheles mosquito
• In 18_____,
– the British _________,
– the Italian
– and the Italian
• discovered the
Anopheles mosquito
was the __________of
Jesuit’s Bark: a remedy for malaria
prior to Plasmodium’s 1880 discovery
• Technological advances often
preceded _________explanations
before the 20th century
• Science was “_________________”
in the age before the 19th century
– Nowadays, technology has become “______________”
• The ________introduced the bark of the cinchona
tree as a cure for _____ malaria in the ___th century
– The religious denomination spread news of the remedy throughout Europe
– An engraving from the 17th century reads, “______ offers a branch of
cinchona to science”
Peru, say what?
made me do
Yo, science!
Wanna’ branch?
If you need to
treat malaria,
it’s a CINCHona!
– The tree only grows in the ______ None of that &%@%*
Mountains in South America
• Limited supplies reached Europe
• Often deteriorated or adulterated
– _______________doubted the
effectiveness of cinchona bark
because of the Jesuit connections
• Oliver Cromwell supposedly refused
the “_____________” cure even
when dying of malaria
– The bark also had no effect on
__________ fever or other
widespread fevers at the time
for me!
New “Killer” Treatments
• Up through the 18th century, doctors
prescribed cinchona bark for malaria
– By the turn of the century, however, medical
authorities used _________ and ___________
• Mercury helped with ______________
• calomel used for its ____________qualities
– Doctors also began using __________and ______
• These ineffective remedies killed many more patients
than they saved
• The high death rates of British military personnel in
West Africa are partially caused by these deadly
1820: Pelletier and Caventou’s big
– French chemists __________________________and
_______________________extracted the ________
quinine from cinchona bark in _________
• Commercial production of quinine began in_________
• By _______, the drug had reached manufacturing levels
that allowed it to be used by the general public
• Physicians in areas with malaria infestations
began conducting quinine experiments in the
late 1820s
– These medical experts often published results of
their investigations
– The first important experiments occurred in
__________ following the ______ French invasion
• __________ and __________outbreaks plagued French
troops in Algeria
• _____________remained the most common problem
Bône experienced the highest
Algerian incidence of disease
• Swamps surrounded the city
• Malaria outbreaks occurred every summer
– in 18____:
• __________of the 2,788 French soldiers in Bône
were hospitalized
– in 18____:
• _________ out of 5,500 troops were hospitalized
– For every 7 of these soldiers that were hospitalized,
Mon DIEU, the
2 :7 !
Both malaria and its treatments
contributed to patient deaths
• _______________heavily
influenced French army physicians
– headed \medical school of
– ___________________
Starve the fever and purge
the patient! NO quinine
until the 7th or 8th attack!
Mon dieu! It’s way
TOO expensive!
• According to Broussais, treat fever with…
a starvation diet
– Quinine should only be administered after
the _____ or ____ ___attack
• The drug was too expensive for military use
• One ounce cost ________francs
2 French army docs just say, “NO!”
• Jean-André Antonini
• François Clement Maillot
chose not to follow the accepted
medical practices at the time
– Antonini noticed that quinine appeared to
help _________________ fevers
• This realization allowed Antonini to
differentiate between malaria and
• The physician
–lessened the __________ of his patients and
–gave them more __________
______ went further than _________
• The physician arrived in ______in 1834 during the height
of the____________ epidemic
• At the first sign of malaria, Maillot prescribed ___to ____
grams of quinine immediately
– _______________ believed that quinine should be given 4 to 8
days after the first signs of malaria
• Maillot put his patients on a nutritious diet
– Only________in 20 of Maillot’s patients died in 1834
– Recall the figure was _______ in 7 for 1833
Recognition for Maillot
• In 18___ Maillot described his treatment methods for
malaria to the _________________________in Paris
– In 18___, he published his findings in the work
– The French military ___________accept Maillot’s
methods for years
• In 18___, Maillot received the recognition he
– France revered Maillot as a ________of French science
– The ____________________________stated,
“It is thanks to Maillot that Algeria has become a
French land; it is he who closed and sealed forever
this ________________________”
• Quinine use became more widespread
in _________________as well
– Purgings and bleedings gradually fell into disuse
– By the 1840s, Gold Coast Europeans kept jars of
quinine _______ around their house
• The first sign of chills or fever resulted in ingesting this
• Quinine use after infection only combated
– To prevent Plasmodium_____________, quinine
needed to saturate the human bloodstream
_________infection occurred
• Quinine was taken as a ________________ during one’s stay
in areas known to be infested with falciparum
Two events led to discovery of
quinine as a prophylactic
• EVENT #1:
–In _________
–the ship ___________was stationed off
the coast of Sierra Leone
• _______ crew members took cinchona
bark regularly, while _____officer
refrained from doing so
• Only ___________died of malaria
• In 18______, the British government
sponsored the largest ever Niger expedition
• Captain H.D. _________ led ________Europeans
up the Niger River aboard
– the 457-ton Albert,
– the 457-ton Wilberforce, and
– the 249-ton Soudan
• Every known precaution was taken to protect these men from disease
– Only young and athletic men of “good breeding” had been selected
– The ships had fans to dispel bad air
– The expedition barreled at top speed up the malaria-infested Niger delta to
reach the dry upper river as soon as possible
• Malaria still appeared on board the ships within three weeks
– The Wilberforce and the Soudan returned to the Atlantic Ocean as floating
– Within two months, ________ Europeans had died
• Another _____ perished before the expedition ended
Dr. T.R.H.Thomson
• Dr. T.R.H. Thomson used the opportunity as the
physician on board one of Trotter’s ships to
experiment with different drugs
– Some crew members received cinchona bark with
wine while others got quinine
– Thomson gave quinine to himself and stayed healthy
– The physician published his findings in the article On
the Value of Quinine in African Remittent Fever
• The work appeared on February 28, 1846 in the British
medical journal The Lancet
Dr. Alexander Bryson’s Report
• Dr. __________________
– in 18________
• published Report on the ___________ and
________________of the African Station
• advocated the use of quinine as a _________________ to
Europeans in Africa
• By 18____,
– the director-general of the Medical Department of
the ______________sent a notice to all West African
British __________ recommending quinine
Quinine prophylaxis still did not receive
immediate adoption by the medical
• _____________________proposed another
African expedition in 18_____
– Laird had the ship __________specifically built
under his contract with the Admiralty
• This ________ propeller-steamer weighed ______ tons
• The ship rigged as a schooner
– She had the capacity to pull 2 or 3 barges up the Niger
• A ____-pounder pivot gun, 3 smaller swivel cannons,
rifles, and muskets defended the Pleiad
• _____Europeans and ___Africans formed the ship’s crew
• Dr. Alexander ___________ gave a set of instructions
to protect the crew’s health
– These directions delineated clothing, diet, activities, and
moral influences
– Bryson recommended the crew take ____ to ____ grams of
quinine per day during the Voyage
• The time period of this quinine use spanned from the time the ship
crossed the sandbar to 14 days after venturing back into the
Atlantic Ocean
– Dr. William _________ made sure the crew followed these
• Baikie served as ______________ of the Pleiad
– After 112 days on the ________&_________Rivers, all
European crew members returned alive
• Thomas _________________ gave Dr. Bryson the credit he
deserved for this technological miracle
______________________: Pleiad’s
Senior Surgeon
‘‘Since my first visit to Africa in 1850, I have
felt firmly convinced----and that conviction
urges me to impress my faith on all who
read this work----that the climate would not
be so fatal as it has hitherto proved to
Europeans, if a different mode of daily
living, a proper method of
________________________ hygiene, and
another line of therapeutic practice in the
treatment of fevers, were adopted. Before,
and beyond all others, is the ____________
influence of quinine as it was used in the
‘‘______________,’’ in the mode here
~ Thomas Hutchinson
_______________’s Mortality Stats
• Death rates from malaria plummeted as quinine as a
prophylactic spread
– Bleedings and purgings fell out of favor as accepted
medical practices
Philip Curtin
‘‘The improvement over the recent past
was understood well enough in official
and missionary circles to reduce sharply
the most serious impediment to any
African activity.’’
• Only _____ of the 2,500
European soldiers involved in
a two-month military
expedition against ________
– _____________mortality rates
for Europeans in West Africa
also rapidly dropped off
– The rate fells from ________-per
1,000 to __________ per 1,000
– This lower rate still represents
____________times the death
rate of European people in the
same age bracket back in Europe
European exploration of Africa
• European exploration of Africa increased in
the mid 19th century with the advent of
successful malaria prevention
– Expeditions remained dangerous but no longer
had ______________levels of danger
– Countless Europeans volunteered to search for
glory and wealth in Africa
• The most celebrated of these celebrities was
• Livingstone first heard of quinine prophylaxis in
________________________in ________
– He took quinine daily while marching across southern
Africa from 18____to 18____
– By 1857, Livingstone became convinced that quinine
prevented malaria
– When preparing for an expedition of the __________
River in 18____, Livingstone made his crew take two
grams of quinine a day in their sherry
• Many of the crew suffered from malaria on the trip
• Only _______of the 25 died
• Livingstone developed a remedy for malaria from
rhubarb, quinine, calomel, and resin of julep
– The explorer modestly called this concoction
___________________ pills (“LIVINGSTONE ROUSERS”)
• Livingstone came to doubt quinine’s efficacy, as it
only lessened the impact of malaria
Growing demand for quinine
• Europeans followed the footsteps of intrepid explorers
into Africa
– Planters, engineers, traders, missionaries,
administrators, tourists, and soldiers, as well as
their wives and children, ventured into Africa
• All of these groups needed daily quinine to treat malaria
– Europeans in ________ and other tropical areas
also demanded quinine
Growing demand for quinine
• Until the 1850s, these areas served as the only sources for the world’s
cinchona bark supply
Ecuador, and
• in 1881
– Bark exports rose from ____million pounds in 1860 to ____ million
– In 1881, Indian and ____________________ cinchona bark took bark
from the Andes off the market
• The _____________and _______________caused this market shift to occur
• Ideas about growing cinchona trees in Asia circulated for a long time
– While demand for cinchona bark was small, the plans never came to
• In the early 18____s, Dutch botanists in ______
advocated for the government of the Netherlands East
Indies to import cinchona seedlings
– From 18___to 18___, Justus Charles ____________
traveled to the Andes under an assumed name
• This superintendent of the _____________________Botanical
Gardens secretly collected seeds
• Most of these seeds died on Hasskarl’s journey back
– From 18___to 18___, Clements ___________ and _______
traveled to Bolivia and _______
• Markham worked as a clerk at the __________ Office
• Weir found employment as a gardener at the British Royal Botanic
Gardens at ____________
• Markham and Weir sought to collect seeds of the Cinchona
in INDIA’s ___________ Hills
• English botanist Richard ________ and Kew
gardener Robert _______ traveled to ______
at the same time as Markham and Weir’s
– Spruce and Cross collected 100,000 Cinchona
____________ seeds and 637 plants
– ______ seedlings reached India
– These plants formed the center of cinchona
plantations at _______________________in the
Nilgiri Hills near Madras
A period of experimentation followed
these secret expeditions
• Horticulturists and other scientists exchanged seeds and
information at botanical gardens in Java, Madras, Ceylon, and
– These gardens provided cheap seedlings and advice to planters
• After 1874, Cinchona calisaya __________________ formed
the basis of Javanese cinchona plantations
– This hybrid species grafted onto the stem of the C. ________________
• __________and____________also increased the quinine yield
– Mossing - cutting strips of bark and placing moss around the trees
– Coppicing -deals with cutting trees to the ground after 6 or 7 years
• Peruvian cinchona bark had a ________sulphate of quinine
– Breeding in Java raised this figure to ________ by 1900
– Scientists later improved this number to _______ or ________
The British and Dutch reached a
compromise after the collapse of the
Andean bark industry
• ___________ plantations produced a cheaper but less potent bark
– From which chemists extracted ____________________
• Totaquine : a mixture of antimalarial ________________
– Almost all of India’s production of cinchona bark went to British
___________&_________________personnel stationed in the tropics
• The excess was sold in the Indian market
• _____________horticulturists produced the more expensive and
potent pure quinine
– This version of quinine captured over ________% of the world quinine
market by the early 20th century
• Scientific cultivation methods and a marketing ___________caused this
• The Kina Bureau of Amsterdam coordinated the purchase of bark as well as
the price and quantity of quinine sold
– _____________control of the quinine market only ended after the
Japanese conquest of Indonesia in World War II
• The development of _____________________malaria suppressants also
contributed to the decline of this monopoly
Scientific cinchona production –
A high point of imperial technology
• European could not have colonized Africa without it
– Colonization in other areas would have been much more
• This new advancement, however, was as much a
_____________ of new imperialism as it was a
– Several botanical gardens shared their scientific
– ___________& ___________colonial government
encouraged the development of scientific cinchona
– ___________&___________________land and labor
contributed to the technology
2.21 CHARTING (pp. 57-61)
2.21 CHARTING (pp. 57-61)
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
1. West Indian soldiers on the West African
coast had a better resistance to disease
than the white soldiers they served with
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
2. The British government never recognized
the significance of soldier death rates in
West Africa due to disease.
• False—They finally recognized the
significance in 1830 and began sending
mostly West Indian soldiers there
because of their greater resistance to
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
3. The principal killer of Europeans in Africa
was yellow fever.
False—The principal killer was malaria.
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
4. Macgregor Laird believed that malaria was
caused by firewood from a certain
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
5. Alphonse Laveran discovered that malaria was
transferred via mosquito bites.
• False—He discovered that malaria was caused
when Plasmodium invades the bloodstream
but didn’t know that mosquitos were the
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
6. A remedy for malaria was discovered long
before the 19th century through trial and
2.22 TRUE OR FALSE (pp. 58-59)
7. The bark of cinchona trees was an effective
and easily disseminated cure prior to the 19th
• False—It was effective but it only grew in the
Andes Mountains so the supply in Europe
was limited and often deteriorated by the
time it reached the European continent.
2.23 COMPARISON (pp. 58-60)
• This or that? For each item below, determine whether it
describes the Plasmodium Vivax strain (PV) or the
Plasmodium Falciparum (PF) strain of malaria.
1. Endemic only in tropical Africa
2. Endemic throughout much of the world
3. The less deadly of the two strains
4. Causes a general weakening of the body and
produces intermittent fevers
2.23 COMPARISON (pp. 58-60)
5. Generally can be treated with quinine pills at the first
sign of chills or fever
6. The body’s resistance to this strain is only temporary
7. The bloodstream must be saturated with quinine
before the onset of first infection in order to cure this
8. The deadlier of the two strain
9. Jesuits introduced the bark of the cinchona tree as a
cure to this strain
2.24 CHARTING (pp. 58-60)
2.24 CHARTING (pp. 58-60)
2.24 CHARTING (pp. 58-60)
Steamers: Comparison to quinine
• Steamers helped Europeans overcome the stumbling block of poor
– Similarly, quinine cleared the obstacle of malaria for Europeans
• Quinine and steamers worked hand in hand to open much of Africa to
• The scramble for Africa is often explained as a complex interplay of
political factors
– The French political psychology following the __________________ War
ostensibly allowed new imperialism to take place
• ________________ also held lofty ambitions for an expanding
• Historians also attribute the scramble for Africa to be a byproduct
of the _____________________
– Headrick feels that technology such as these equally
contributed to the scramble for Africa
• steamers,
• quinine prophylaxis, and
• the quickfiring rifle
• Quinine prophylaxis protected European crews aboard steamers
heading into Africa
Macgregor Laird’s Back:
Economic Motives
• The Niger trade proved both lucrative and necessary
for Britain
• After the fall of the slave trade, _____________served
as southern Nigeria’s chief export
– Europeans used palm oil
• to make soap and
• lubricate industrial machinery
• Niger delta middlemen kept the price of palm oil
unreasonably high
– These merchants brought palm oil to the coast to trade
with Europeans
– Small European traders who shipped palm oil to Europe
also raised the price of palm oil
• Laird believed that the ____________would
break these _____________ grips on the
__________export business
• Laird wrote to ____________in 1851 that
“will convert a most uncertain
and precarious trade into a
regular and steady one,
diminish the risk of life, and
free a large portion of the
capital at present engaged in
The double application of steam
• Europeans required the double application of
– One application was a regular steamboat service
along ____________________________
• This service bypassed the Nigerian middlemen in the
palm oil industry
– The other was the development of a steamship
line between _________and______________
Macgregor Laird
• Laird’s first appeals were rejected
– The 1854 expedition of the Pleiad gave credence to
Laird’s ideas
– The _____________________________convinced the
British government to support Laird’s projects in ____
• In 1857, the Foreign Office sent Dr. _______ to
open relations with the Caliphate of ________on
the middle Niger
– The Admiralty signed a contract with Laird
• Three steamers would be sent up the Niger River annually
for the next _______years
Niger River Steamers
• John Laird’s Birkenhead shipyard built the
– Dayspring,
– Rainbow, and
– Sunbeam for this service ….DRS of British commerce!
• These three ships’ journeys angered the Nigerian
middlemen whom they were bypassing
– Traders attacked the _____________ in 18____, killing
_______ crew members
• Laird subsequently asked the British government to have a
_______________accompany the steamers
• In 18___, the H.M.S. _________entered the Niger River
– This warship destroyed the villages that had been responsible
for the Rainbow attack
• By the 1870s, several British companies traded with armed
steamers on the Niger
– A military expedition annually destroyed towns that resisted
the British invasion
• By the 1880s, the ________________________kept a fleet
of light gunboats on the Niger River throughout the year
– Sir George _________ headed this company that united all
trading interests in the region
• In 1885, the British government declared the Niger delta a
– Sporadic resistance occurred in the region
• No African river town could effectively fight against British gunboats
Beyond the Niger
• The Niger River became the earliest and most active
background for the use of steamers by Europeans
• This river was the easiest African tropical river to
• Other African Rivers:
– The Congo,
– Zambezi, and
– upper Nile
as well as their tributaries all contained waterfalls
that blocked steamers’ progress
• Boats needed to be disassembled, portaged, and then reassembled
to bypass the cataracts
• These portages required large-scale financing, labor, organization,
and technology that Niger explorers never acquired
Livingstone’s Steamers
• In 1858, David Livingstone used the
______________to explore the Zambezi River
up to the ________________ Rapids
– Livingstone utilized 2 others:
• the Pioneer in 1861 and
• the Lady Nyassa
• The Lady Nyassa had to be carried in pieces around
the waterfalls leading to _________________
Various Explorers Used Small Steamers
• ____________________
explored the upper Nile
with the steamer Khedive
• __________________had
the nine-ton steamer En
Avant carried in pieces
from the Atlantic Ocean
to Stanley Pool
• _____________________
soon appeared on the
Congo River with his
Savorgnan de Brazza
• on the _______ River
• with his __________
The number of European steamers on
African rivers soon drastically increased
– Missionary work,
– trade,
– exploration, and
– conquest
Small Belgian Trading Steamer
• French lieutenant ___________ conquered
– Lake __________ and the area of the
– _________and ________Rivers from 18__ to 18__
• Gentil used the first aluminum steamer
_______ in these expeditions
Commandant Marchand
• Marchand embarked on
a cross-Africa adventure
in 18______
– Two steamers and three
rowboats portaged from
the Ubangi to the _____
for this expedition
– After reaching the Nile,
Marchand rode his
steamboats up to his
confrontation with
Without Steamers, Europeans Couldn’t
Have Penetrated Africa
• The lack of ____________ and Africa’s harsh
______________would have slowed down
expeditions that traveled on foot
– African regions that lacked good water transportation
were some of the last global regions to be colonized
• These areas included
the Kalahari,
Central Sudan, and
the Sahara
• The ease of water transport and difficulty of land
transport defined European interactions with
Africa during the 19th century
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
• Attempted to get
cinchona seeds to plant
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
Resin of Julep
• Ingredients in
“Livingstone Pills”
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
• The only sources of
cinchona bark until the
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
• “Lesser protagonists” in
imperialism who could
finally travel inland
once a preventive cure
for malaria was
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
• Places were
horticulturists and
quinologists exchanged
seeds and information
2.25 COMMONALITIES (pp. 61-63)
• Dayspring
• Rainbow
• Sunbeam
• Ships built by Laird’s
Birkenhead shipyard for
service between Britain
and West Africa
2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp. 60-63)
A technique used to increase the yield of alkaloids
where one cuts strips of bark and wraps cinchona
trees in moss
Quinine prophylaxis
David Livingstone
2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp. 60-63)
Captain of the Pleiad and a doctor who made sure his
crew took quinine during their travels up the Niger
and Benue rivers
Palm Oil
A marketing cartel which coordinated the purchase of
bark and the price and quantity of quinine sold until
the early 20th century
2.26 DEFINITIONS (pp. 60-63)
Niger River
First steel steamship which Livingstone used
to explore the Zambezi River in 1858
2.27 QUOTING (pp. 57-62)
Congress of
Written about Laird’s missionary
fervor and desire to Christianize
and civilize Africans
Dedication to Maillot who was finally
honored at the end of his life
for his contributions to science
because of his use of quinine to
cure malaria
2.27 QUOTING (pp. 57-62)
Written in a letter to Thomas
Peacock in 1837, Laird tried to
explain the origin of the malaria
Written by a member of the crew of
the Pleiad about the
suggestions for the prevention of
malaria given to them by Dr.
Alexander Bryson
2.27 QUOTING (pp. 57-62)
Philip Curtain
Magregor Laird
Comments about the way in which
Africa was no longer the “white man’s
grave” once an effective cure for
malaria was found
Written in 1851 to Earl Grey,
Laird believed that the
was the key to successful
commerce in the interior of
2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62)
• 1. ____________________________:
transportation :: quinine : malaria
• 2. Alburkah :
Quorra :
2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62)
• 3. Mungo Park : Niger River :: Francisco
Zambezi Valley
Barneto : ____________________________
• 4. Paludisme : French :: mal’aria :
2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62)
• 5. Weir : ____________________________::
Spruce : botanist
• 6. Bark of cinchona tree : prevention of
Palm oil
malaria :: ____________________________:
lubrication of industrial machinery
2.28 ANALOGIES (pp. 57-62)
• 7. Macgregor Laird : Scotland :: King Leopold II
: ____________________________
• 8. Pelletier : chemist :: Cross :
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• In order to address the growing (DEMAND FOR,
SUPPLY OF) quinine an attempt was made by
the British and the (DUTCH, FRENCH) to grow
(CINCHONA, POPLAR) trees in areas outside of
the Andes Mountains
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• . In 1853-54 Justus Charles Hasskarl traveled
to the (ANDES, HIMALAYAS) under an assumed
name and (SECRETLY, ALLEGEDLY) collected
seeds, most of which (DIED, SPROUTED).
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• Later in 1858-1860, Markham and Weir
traveled, again secretly, to collect (SEEDS,
YOUNG PLANTS) of the Cinchona Calisaya
tree. At the same time, an (ENGLISH,
AMERICAN) botanist Robert (SPRUCE, PINE)
and a gardener Robert Cross collected
specimens in (ECUADOR, PERU).
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• Of the 100,000 seedlings and 637 young
plants only 463 seedlings reached (INDIA,
ALGERIA) forming the nucleur of the cinchona
plantations at Ootacamund in the Nilgiri Hills
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• After extensive experimentation and the
eventual demise of the Andean bark industry,
a compromise was worked out between the
GERMANS). Plantations in (INDIA, CHINA)
produced a cheaper, less (POTENT,
CONTAMINATED) bark from which chemists
extracted totaquine, a mixture of antimalarial
2.29 EITHER/OR (pp. 61-62)
• Most of this product was reserved for
(FRENCH, BRITISH) military and personnel
stationed in the (TROPICS, COASTAL AREAS).
The rest of the product was sold in (FRANCE,
INDIA). The quinine made by the (DUTCH,
FRENCH) was more potent, (PURE,
made up over (FIFTY, NINETY) percent of the
world market in the early twentieth century.
2.30 ORDERING (pp. 59-63)
• ____Laird’s
expedition on the Pleiad
• ____
Two French chemists Pelletier and Caventou
extracted the alkaloid of quining from the bark of
cinchona trees
The Espoir destroyed the villages that had been
• ____
7 responsible
for the previous assault on the Rainbow
• ____
Foreign office agreed to send Dr. Baikie to open
relations with the Caliphate of Sokoto on the Middle
• 5 Niger
____ Livingstone used the Ma Roberts to explore the
• 2 Zambezi River up the Kebrabasa Rapids
____ David Livingstone first heard of quinine
• 6 prophylaxis
____ Delta traders whose business was threatened
attacked the Rainbow
• (1820) Two French chemists Pelletier and Caventou
extracted the alkaloid of quining from the bark of
cinchona trees
• (1843) David Livingstone first heard of quinine
• (1854) Laird’s expedition on the Pleiad
• (1857) Foreign office agreed to send Dr. Baikie to open
relations with the Caliphate of Sokoto on the Middle
• (1858) Livingstone used the Ma Roberts to explore the
Zambezi River up the Kebrabasa Rapids
• (1859) Delta traders whose business was threatened
attacked the Rainbow
• (1861) The Espoir destroyed the villages that had been
responsible for the previous assault on the Rainbow

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