Preventive Herd Health and Vaccination Cow/Calf Production Unit Goals of the Discussion • Discuss vaccine label claims, what they mean and its importance. • Provide discussion of rational for choosing and recommending a particular vaccine and how this relates to the producer and practitioner. • Describe vaccination timing in the beef herd as it relates to control of pathogens that affect reproduction and respiratory disease. • Discuss types of vaccines commonly used with the cow calf production unit. Vaccine Label Claims • Vaccine licensing and labeling claims are regulated by USDA. A specific branch of APHIS called the Center for Veterinary Biologicals (CVB). Specific claims 1) Prevents Infection! Highest level of label indication. Products able to prevent all coloniztion or replication of the challenge organism in vaccinated and challenged animals. 2) Prevents disease. Products shown to be highly effective in preventing clinical disease in vaccinated and challenged animals. Vaccine efficacy must be at least 80%. 3) Aid in disease prevention This claim is made for products shown to prevent disease in vaccinated and challenged animals by a clinically significant amount which is less than 80% to a specific microorganism. 4) Aid in disease control Products that are shown to alleviate disease severity, reduce disease duration or delay onset. Examples: Spirovac Spirovac is for vaccination of healthy cattle 4 weeks of age or older, including those pregnant and/or lactating, for the prevention of infection by Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo, including reproductive and renal tract colonization, and urinary shedding for up to 12 months. Vaccination with Spirovac also aids in the prevention of fetal infection. Spirovac contains a chemically inactivated whole culture of L. borgpetersenii serovar (Type hardjo-bovis). IMRAB 3 • INDICATIONS: IMRAB® 3 is recommended for the vaccination of healthy cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, horses, and ferrets 12 weeks of age and older for prevention of disease due to rabies virus. Bovishield Gold 5 • Bovi-Shield GOLD 5 is for vaccination of healthy cattle as an aid in preventing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis caused by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, bovine viral diarrhea caused by bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus Types 1 and 2, and disease caused by parainfluenza3 (PI3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Vista Once SQ • For the vaccination of healthy non-pregnant cattle, 3 months of age or older, as an aid in the prevention of respiratory disease caused by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus; bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus (Type 2); and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and as an aid in the control of disease caused by bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus (Type 1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3), Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida Pyramid 5 w/ Presponse SQ • For vaccination of healthy dairy or beef cattle as an aid in the prevention of disease caused by bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea (Types I and II), bovine parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Mannheimia haemolytica (formerly Pasteurella haemolytica). Vaccination in the Beef Herd • Vaccination events are related to control and prevention of: – Reproductive disease. – Bovine respiratory disease complex. • Other vaccine use includes: – Reduce incidence of viral and bacterial neonatal diarrhea. – Prevention of Clostridial disease. – Control of pinkeye. – Mycoplasm, warts, hoof rot… Reasons to Vaccinate the breeding cow herd • Control disease in herds traditionally of multiple origin. • Minimize reproductive loss in the face of a biosecurity lapse. • As an aid to control specific pathogens that are endemic with in the herd. • Add value to marketed breeding animals. • Allow for improved ease of interstate marketing and transport. Reproductive Vaccinations • Most common pathogens for vaccination consideration: – Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus – Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis – Leptospirosis – Campylobacter – Trichomonas – Brucella abortus Types of Vaccines • Killed and modified live viral vaccines. – Read and understand label as it relates to vaccination of pregnant cows. – Bias: use modified live vaccines for prevention of IBR and BVD. • Killed Bacterins. • Numerous adjuvents. – May have an affect on specific immune response as it relates to duration. – Each associated to varying degrees with vaccine reactions both local and systemic. Reason to Vaccinate for Respiratory Disease: • Control incidence of disease within a herd. • Minimize economic loss to respiratory disease. • Provide a reputation for the producer to market their cattle. • Add Value. Respiratory Vaccination • Control directed at both Viral and Bacterial pathogens. • Viral agents: – IBR: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis – BVDV: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus – BRSV: Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus – PI₃: Parainfluenza-3 Virus Respiratory Vaccination • Bacterial agents: – Mannheimia haemolytica – Pasteurella multocida – Histophilus somni – Mycoplasm spp. How do we choose a product? • • • • • • • Science? Label Claim? Price? Propaganda? Tradition? Product support? Sales person? Case: • You are presented with a new client that has a commercial cow herd with 200 head. • Of upmost importance to the producer is to develop a herd health program as it relates to vaccination and parasite control of both cows and calves. Design of program: • What pathogens are you concerned about for prevention of reproductive loss and respiratory disease? • What types of products might you recommend? • Based on Dr. Ondrak’s discussion are there times with which we can intervene with vaccinations? • Think of things that affect immune response and how can we address this? • With the help of the facilitator come up with a strategy.