File

Report
Ms. Orville
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Afterlife- an existence after death
Artisan- a person skilled in crafts such as carving or tool
making
Cataract- a large waterfall or rapids
Delta- a triangular or fan-shaped piece of land made by
deposits of mud and sand at the mouth of a river
Dynasty- a line of rulers from the same family or the period
during which they rule
Economy- related to activities such as the production of goods
and services in a particular region
Hieroglyphics- ancient Egyptian written language
Mummy- the body of a person that was preserved after death
Silt- a deposit of rich soil, sand, and mud along a river
Nilometer- staircase, or a simple stone/other surface, to
record the height of the Nile flood
Youtube-
Nilometers
 BK
IZPV XNV LMMNB VWK DMNDH
LXT VWK DLMKXTLJ VN SMRXT ZP VN
VWK ULDV VWLV KLDW INIKXV NU
MRUK RP L IRJLDMK LXT IQPVKJQ.
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-- W. A. BHIIP
Agua
‫מ'ם‬
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http://www.discoveringegypt.com/hier
oglyphic-typewriter.html
B=W
A=G
K=E
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Pharaohs: Egyptian Kings had
absolute power
◦ Whatever they decided became law
◦ Were religious leaders and considers to
be gods
31 Dynasties from 3100-322 BCE
Dynasty- a series of rulers from the
same family or ethnic group
Ancient Egyptian Culture
•The Egyptian social order resembled a pyramid with the pharaoh
at the top
•The peasants (largest class) at the bottom
•A person could rise to a higher class (social mobility)
•Slaves- prisoners of war
•Considered property more than human
•Egyptian women had many rights: could own property, run
businesses, enter into legal contracts
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Egyptians studied
the stars and
practiced medicine
◦ Astronomersscientists who study
the stars and other
objects in the sky
◦ Medicine: used
herbalism- practice of
creating medicines
from plants
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Pharaoh’s Tombs
◦ Pharaohs began the long, difficult process of building
their tombs as soon as they came to power
◦ Pyramid- huge buildings with four sloping triangleshaped sides
◦ Giza- location of important pyramids
◦ Could take 20 years to build by slaves and other
workers
◦ http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=building+the+pyramids+of+ancient+egypt&FORM
=HDRSC3#view=detail&mid=060FBF1F9076037813DD060FBF1F9076037813DD
Khufu
Giza
Step pyramid
Mastaba (eternal house)
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Tomb for Khufu
an almost perfect square
(deviation .05%)
Orientation is exactly
North, South, East West
2,300,000 blocks, 500ft
high
20 years to build
Average block weighs 2.5
tons
◦ Some weighed 9 tons!
Washington Monument,
Washington D.C.
Eiffel tower: Paris, France
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Middle Kingdom
◦ Egypt reunited
◦ Pharaohs used Egypt’s wealth on public works,
instead of wars
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New Kingdom
Pharaohs built large armies, which made the Egyptians
nearly unbeatable
 Ramses I-XII rule Egypt
 It is during this time that Moses
leads Jews out of Egypt
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Pharaoh was believed
by the Egyptians to be
the supreme ruler chosen
by the gods to lead his
people. They believed that
when a man became a
pharaoh, he also became
a god. To keep the
bloodline of the gods
pure, pharaohs often
married their sisters,
mothers, and cousins.
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Ancient Egypt prospered during three
major time periods (kingdoms)
◦ Old Kingdom
 Menes united Upper and Lower
Egypt: well run government
 Traded with Nubia for timber
 At the end of the Old Kingdom
Egypt’s unity crumbled and the
dynasties grew weak
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Menes
◦ Legendary founder of the first Egyptian dynasty
◦ unified Upper and Lower Egypt
◦ Founded capital of Memphis
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King Tut (Tutankhamun)
◦ Became ruler when he was a child and died at around age
18
◦ His tomb was
discovered in 1922
completely intact
◦ Buried with
many possessions
King Tut’s tomb
Ancient Egyptian Rulers
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One of the greatest pharaohs
Expanded empire to include
Syria and Nubia
Treated defeated people well
Tomb was in the valley of the
kings
 Hatshepsut- Pharaoh
Queen
◦ Regent- someone who rules for
a child until the child is old
enough to rule
◦ was regent for Tuhtmose III ->
proclaimed herself as pharaoh
◦ Achieved economic success
[trade]
◦ Built many temples
Hatshepsut: only woman
Pharaoh
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“Queen of Egypt”
Last Macedonian to
rule Egypt
Official end to the New
Kingdom
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Egyptian Gods and
Goddesses
◦ Deeply religious and
polytheistic believed in
many gods and goddesses
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Believed that their gods
controlled life, death, and
all of nature
◦ Amon-Re :chief god of
creation
◦ Osiris: god of afterlife
Osiris
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Egyptians carefully prepared their dead for
afterlife- to ensure immortality
◦ Mummy- preserved body of a dead person
 Believed the soul would leave the mummy but return to it to
receive food
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Mummification- expensive and took 2-3 months
◦ Organs removed
 Put into jars
◦ Decorated coffins
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Not known when it started in Egypt
Perfected by time of New Kingdom
How to make a mummy: 70 steps
1) Removal of the brain through
the nostrils 2) Removal of the
intestines through an incision in
the side 3) Sterilization of the
body and intestines 4) Treating,
cleaning, dehydrating the
intestines 5) Packing the body
with natron (a natural dehydrating
agent) and leaving for 40 days 6)
Removal of the natron agent 7)
Packing the limbs with clay or
sand 8) Packing the body with
linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and
cinnamon 9) Treating the body
with ointments and finally
wrapping with a fine linen gauze,
not less than 1000 square yards .
Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of brain,
stomach, intestines and liver
model boat
Gift bearers
Powerful goddess
 She used powerful
magic spells to help
people in need
 Isis was the wife of
Osiris and the
mother of Horus.
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Isis
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Horus: god of balance
and harmony
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Animal symbol: hawk
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maintained the natural
order: the flow of the
Nile and the fertility of
the soil.
Horus
Amun/Re
Sun god
 Most powerful
god in Egypt
 Animal symbol:
Ram
 Wears crown with
two plumes
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Anubis
god of embalming the
dead (mummification
process)
 Watched over the
dead
 Animal symbol: jackal
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