Presentation1

Report
Hello Everyone! Welcome
to the La Trobe University
Animal House. I am Dr
Turner, your Tour Guide for
today. To begin the Tour
please click on the building
to get started.
Professors Offices
This is our Reception, Click on
the laboratory door to begin the
Tour through the Animal House
or click on the Professors Offices
door to talk to the professors
about Animal Testing. If you
ever want to come back to the
reception press the Exit Button. If
you just want to go back to the
previous slide press the back
button. Lets Begin!
EXIT
Animal Laboratory
Professor N.J Hoogenraad
EXIT
Click on a
door to enter a
professors
room.
Professor A.J Simpson
BACK EXIT
Ethics
Animal Rights
Reliability
This is Professor
Simpson,
He says feel free
to use his books
for information,
just click on the
one you want to
read.
Professor Simpson
Ethics of Animal Testing
There has been an on going
debate about whether animals
should be used to assist in
medical research or not. There
are many different points of
view which can be categorised
into for and against.
For: within the category of for
the opinions vary, some people
believe that animals are just a
resource for research and are
meant to be exploited, but
others believe that animals
should be used because it is
one of the best ways to
develop human knowledge,
but that they should be
treated
well and put through as
little pain as possible.
Research has shown that
some animals in the animal
house can live up to almost
twice the age that they
would in the wild. It can be
argued that although it puts
animals in harms way it is
for the greater good, and
eventually the human race
will have the right
alternatives that will make
animal testing completely
unnecessary.
BACK
Ethics of Animal Testing
Against: people who are
against animal testing can go
to extremes to promote the
injustice of it. It is heavily
argued that animals should
have rights too and do not
deserve to be locked up in
cages, and they use things
such as the media to take the
law into their own hands and
try to free animals by
protesting. Although these
people have the animals best
interests at heart they are not
really thinking about how it
will effect our population in
the future.
What animal protesters
don’t seem to realize is
how necessary it is to
improve the lives of the
human race, and at the
same time we also learn
things about the animals
that are being tested on.
The most reasonable
opinion is that animal
testing should be allowed
as long as the animals are
kept in a good, healthy
condition and put through
as little pain as possible.
BACK
BACK
Pros and Cons List
Pros:
- Animal testing is a very
good way to discover new
medicine and cures to
diseases
- Saves human lives
- Doesn’t always effect the
animals
- Sometimes they live a
longer life in the cages
than in the wild
- They can be treated well
- They help to create a
better world
Cons:
- It costs a lot to care for
the animals
- Not fair on the animals
- It Could effect the
environment
- They are not aloud to
run around outside their
cages
- An animals body is
different to humans
therefore it might not be
reliable
- Not all animals are
treated well
BACK
Ethics of Animal Testing
In 1997 Dr Jay Vacanti and his
team grew an ear on the back of
a mouse
Reliability of Animal Testing
Animal testing is one of the
most reliable sources of
research for human health,
however as technology has
become more advanced,
alternate methods to animal
testing have become a more
reliable source for research.
Although it can not always be
reliable animal testing is still
extremely necessary for the
research of human health.
This is because it can be used
in most areas of research to
do with human health,
whereas alternatives will only
cover a
small amount of research
On human health.
However to be considered
reliable animal tested
products have to be tested
hundreds of times before it
will be ready to try on
humans, and even then there
is not a one hundred per cent
chance that the product will
work.
It is hard to tell whether the
product will be successful
and not harmful to humans,
because an animals body is
different to a human one.
This is one of the main
Reasons that some people
BACK
Reliability of Animal Testing
consider animal testing an
unreliable method of
research. But scientists can
do things such as manipulate
the genes of an animal to
give it a replica of a human
disease such as diabetes,
which can make their
BACK
research accurate
enough to get a good idea of
how their product will effect
the human body.
Animal Rights
Many people and species of
animals live and share a
home on planet Earth, so the
question is raised, why do
humans have rights and
animals don’t. people all
over the world believe that
animals deserve to have
rights. Animal rights groups
say that animals should have
the same rights as humans to
have a free life, without the
worry of having to be tested
on, and are trying to come
up with new ways to put
pressure on the government
to take
action on this issue.
However other people
believe that animals
shouldn’t have rights
because they are not as
intelligent as humans.
Now days animals still
don’t have rights, but the
animal rights
campaigners try to get
their message across by
using the media. They
hope to get enough
followers so that
eventually politicians will
be forced into making
laws about keeping
animals safe.
BACK
Animal Rights
Which will eventually result
in no animal testing, so that
scientists will have to find
new alternatives that work
just as well in order to keep
the human race healthy.
BACK
BACK EXIT
Please Click
on a book
you would
like to read.
Alternatives to
Animal Testing
Using Animal
Testing to Benefit
Human Health
Legal Aspects
of Animal
Testing
Alternatives to Animal Testing
Introduction to Animal Testing
Although animal testing can be
beneficial when it comes to human
health, it is often deemed unacceptable
if the process causes harm to the
animal. So, although many methods of
animal testing are prohibited from
being used nowadays, there are many
other alternatives that are equally
effective. These include:
Human Skin and Tissue Testing
One of the common alternatives to
animal testing is human tissue testing.
Rather than disrupting the natural life
routine of an animal, technicians are
able to test drugs on human tissue
instead.
The effect of the drug is then
recorded, and gives the scientists
accurate data .
Eye Testing Alternative
Instead of testing drugs on live
rabbits eyes, scientists are now able
to use chicken eyes from slaughtered
meat and meat companies as an
alternative.
Pictured Left
Caption: Drug research
on human tissue
Back
Alternatives to Animal Testing
Virtual Laboratory Mouse
This alternative to animal testing is
one that has very recently been
brought into account but still has
some further development to be
completed. Instead of using live
animals to test drugs on,
technicians are now able to use
Computer Generated Laboratory
Mice to imitate and resemble that
of a live rodent. This method
involves using mice that have been
genetically modified to research
and investigate new medicines for
different illnesses and more
importantly (in this case) a cure for
cancer.
Test Tube Liver
The test tube liver alternative is a
recent method of experimentation
that is used as a substitute to testing
medicines on animal livers and guts.
By using Nanotechnology to develop
this method, scientists are promising
these nano materials will bring forth
new results and an improved
performance. With this method,
scientists are hoping to achieve a
new cancer treatment in drugs
however, it has to be used safely and
carefully.
Mice or Device?
Back
Alternatives to Animal Testing
The Debate – Is animal testing wrong
or right?
For decades, there has been large
debate about whether animals should
be used for testing when it comes to
benefiting human health. For many
people, testing drugs on animals is
highly unacceptable and should never
be tolerated no matter what the
situation is. However, when the life
decision is based between an animal
and a human being, although it’s
unpleasant to some, human life
should always be valued first and
more than that of an animal.
For more information on animal
testing methods go to:
Virtual Mouse:
http://sciencebusiness.technewslit.
com/?p=7834
General Alternatives:
http://animaltestinginfo.weebly.co
m/alternatives.html
Test Tube Liver:
http://www.manufacturingchemist.
com/news/article_page/Test_tube_
gut_and_liver_alternative_to_anim
al_testing/54976
Back
Human Health Benefits of Testing
Speed
By using animals for testing,
scientists are able to have their new
procedures and medicines approved
more quickly. Animals such as
rodents are often and most
commonly used for testing because
they have short life spans. This
means that they can go through
multiple generations in just a few
years and it makes being able to tell
which medicines have long term side
effects much easier. By having this
aspect, it allows these methods and
products to become popular and
faster selling in a short amount of
time, and in addition, this outcome
could potentially save many lives.
Back
Reliability
Since this type of medical testing
has been performed on animals for
several years, scientists are pretty
much experts when it comes to
animal testing and have a very
clear idea on how it works. By
knowing that this testing method is
reliable, it ensures that products
tested on animals (and that are
successful) are going to be safe and
beneficial when used on human
beings.
Pictured Left:
Poliomyelitis
Vaccine (Cure
found using
animal testing)
Human Health Benefits of Testing
Reduced Human Experimentation
When a human uses an untested
product, the levels of risk and danger
to their bodies are quite significant
and this can cause future problems.
Animal testing provides a
substantially beneficial level of tests
that don’t put human health at risk
and can therefore eliminate possible
future problems. By ruling these
dangers out, it ensures that fewer
tests on humans can be performed
and although animals don’t provide
an exact result for drugs, they can
help in the first stages of research.
To find out more
information on this topic
go to:
Benefits of Animal
Testing | eHow.com
Back
Legal Aspects of Animal Testing
Unlike many other countries in the
world, using animals to test new
drugs and medicines is legal in
Australia. However the entire policy
on animal testing is still very
restricted and there are several laws
that vary in different parts of
Australia. Any form of animal testing
that occurs anywhere in Australia
must be approved by an educated
and appropriate professional before it
is performed on an animal. Hence,
before anything is approved, it must
meet a list of requirements and
conditions prior to the
commencement. Listed below are
some of the legal aspects of animal
testing for human diseases and
illnesses:
Animal Suffering Treatments
As rodents such as mice and rats
do not feel as much pain as other
animals, they are not required to
be given pain killers at any time
and are also not protected by the
law. Animals such as cats and
rabbits however, are sensitive to
pain and therefore providing them
with pain killers is an essential
requirement.
Keeping Sheep
When housing sheep in Australia for
use in animal testing, they are
required to be kept in modified
pens. These pens are fitted with a
straw bedding to provide a
comfortable environment for the
sheep.
Continued on next page…
Back
Legal Aspects of Animal Testing
It has a sufficient space that allows
the animal to walk around freely and
special walls that prevent the sheep
from doing any damage to anything
outside the pen.
Lethality Tests
Before any new type of testing on
animals can be performed it has to
be approved by the Animal Ethics
Committee. Listed are the legalities
that have to be confirmed:
•The species of animal and how
many of them there are
•The type of procedure being
performed
•The justification for approval
•Any options or adaptations
being developed to replace or
reduce the need to accomplish
the lethality test
Licensed Animal Testing
Obviously, it is not up to anyone to be
able to test drugs and products on
animals. All industries in Victoria,
Australia that wish to perform these
acts require a special license that
allows them to use animals for testing
however, they are under strict
guidelines.
The Three R’s
Today in Australia and all over the
world, a principle called The Three R’s
must be followed when using animals
for scientific purposes in anyway.
Continued on next page…
Back
Back
Legal Aspects of Animal Testing
The Three R’s (Replacement,
Reduction, Refinement) are the three
strategies that are used to achieve
one’s goal while working on an
experimental project that involves the
use of animals.
For more information about the
legislation involving the use of
animals go to:
http://www.animalethics.org.au/ho
me
Pictured left:
Rabbit with
irritation in eyes
after an eye test
[Not in Australia]
Did you know
c that the
black mice at La Trobe
University bite REALLY
hard?
EXIT
Rabbits
Rats
This is the room where we keep
the animals that we research
on. Click on the animal that you
would like to learn about. Click
on the notice bored to see
some fun facts about these four
animals.
EXIT Back
What
conditions
are they
kept in?
Why are
rats used
for testing?
Click on which
topic you
would like to
learn about!
Rats
Back
Why are rats used for testing?
Rats are mammals with nervous systems
similar to our own. Little do we know that
they feel pain, fear, loneliness, and joy just
as we do. To communicate, rodents
produce high pitched sounds that are not
able to be heard by the human ear. Rats
become emotionally attached to each
other and love their families, and easily
bond with guardians. Not only do rats
express empathy but they also are quite
protective, when another rat or human
are in trouble they will put themselves in
harms way to protect another. Rats are
used for testing because in many ways
they are very similar to humans and
experimenters can test anything on them
because they are not protected by the
law like rabbits are.
Back
What conditions are rats kept in?
• Ideally the height of cages should allow rats to stand on their
hind legs and stretch up fully.
• Rat cages should be made from plastic with wire mesh tops.
• Bedding is required to cover the whole floor of the cage at a
depth of 2cm.
• Rats should be provided with a shelter.
• Rats should only have up to 4 adults in a cage or 12 juvenile
rats in a cage.
• Rats should not be housed individually unless with permission
from the animal ethics committee.
• They need a nutritional diet .
• They need a variation in diet .
• Their nocturnal feeding patterns should be taken into
account.
• Rats should be familiarized with the people handling them.
• Regular light cycles are needed.
• They need to be housed in a temperature of between 20-26
degrees Celsius.
• Should be provided with nesting materials.
• All cages should be cleaned on a regular basis .
EXIT Back
Rabbits
Click on which
topic you
would like to
learn about!
What
conditions
are rabbits
kept in?
Why are
rabbits used
for testing?
Back
Why are rabbits used for
testing?
Rabbits are commonly used in testing for cosmetics and
other chemicals, where they are used to perform the
Draize test. This test assesses drug toxicity and involves a
substance being placed on the rabbit's eyes or skin,
which are then observed for redness, irritation or any
other damage. The test itself is a controversial one and is
known to cause blindness and other types of damage in
rabbits who undergo the procedure. It is also criticized
harshly by animal welfare groups on the grounds that it
causes excessive pain and suffering, without providing
any real contribution to science given its frequent use for
cosmetics testing. Another argument is that a rabbit's
eyes are quite different from a human's eyes, which
essentially renders the test inaccurate and unscientific.
Currently, however, anesthetics are sometimes used and
smaller doses of the substances in question are applied. In
addition, modifications of the Draize test that are less
harmful are now used. Also important is that if an in vitro
test shows a substance to be harmful, it is not typically
used in a Draize test because the result is anticipated as
quite painful to the rabbit.
Back
What conditions are rabbits kept in?
• A Big cage with Mesh surrounding the Rabbits.
• Rabbit should not be left alone in a cage without another rabbit or they will
become lonely.
• Music from a radio being played in a rabbits room calms them.
• There should always be bedding in the bottom of the cage.
• Rabbits should be provided with a shelter.
• They need a nutritional diet .
• They need a variation in diet .
• Rats should be familiarized with the people handling them.
• Should be provided with nesting materials.
• All cages should be cleaned on a regular basis .
EXIT Back
Fat tailed
Dunnarts
Click on
which topic
you would like
to learn
about!
What are
Fat tailed
Dunnarts
used for?
What conditions
are Fat tailed
Dunnarts kept
in?
Back
What are Fat tailed Dunnarts used
for?
Fat Tailed Dunnarts are not so much
used for experimenting on, but more for
research for their own benefit. The
scientists explore things such as their
breeding habits, to understand the way
they live.
The reason they are not used for testing
at the moment is because we don’t
know enough about them to make a
reliable product that will work on
humans. However in the future when
we do know enough about them they
will probably be used for testing.
Back
What conditions are Fat tailed
Dunnarts kept in?
• Ideally the height of cages should allow
Fat Tailed Dunnarts to be able to stretch
up fully.
• Fat Tailed Dunnarts cages should be made
from plastic with wire mesh tops.
• Bedding is required to cover the whole
floor of the cage at a depth of 2cm.
• Fat Tailed Dunnarts should be provided
with a shelter.
• Fat Tailed Dunnarts should not be housed
individually unless with permission from the
animal ethics committee.
• They need a nutritional diet .
• They need a variation in diet .
• Fat Tailed Dunnarts should be familiarized
with the people handling them.
• Should be provided with nesting materials.
• All cages should be cleaned on a regular
basis .
EXIT Back
What
conditions
are mice
kept in?
Why are
mice used
for testing?
Click on
which topic
you would
like to learn
about!
Mice
Back
Why are mice used for
testing?
Mice are mammals with nervous systems similar to
our own. Mice and rats are very similar and
sometimes feel the same things. Just as rats do
mice feel pain, fear, loneliness, and joy. To
communicate, rodents produce high pitched
sounds that are not able to be heard by the
human ear. Mice become emotionally attached to
each other and love their families, and easily bond
with guardians. Although mice are reasonably civil
they do have quite a temper and do bite when
handled incorrectly. Mice are used for testing
because in many ways they are very similar to
humans and experimenters can test anything on
them because they are not protected by the law
like rabbits are.
Back
What conditions are mice kept in?
• Ideally the height of cages should allow mice to stand
on their hind legs and stretch up fully.
• Mice cages should be made from plastic with wire
mesh tops.
• Bedding is required to cover the whole floor of the
cage at a depth of 2cm.
• Mice should be provided with a shelter.
• Mice should not be housed individually unless with
permission from the animal ethics committee.
• They need a nutritional diet .
• They need a variation in diet .
• Their nocturnal feeding patterns should be taken into
account.
• Mice should be familiarized with the people handling
them.
• Regular light cycles are needed.
• Should be provided with nesting materials.
• All cages should be cleaned on a regular basis .
ANSWER TO THE QUESTION
Reception
Next
So to Answer our overall question to what extent is it acceptable to use animal testing to
improve human health our group would say that it is okay to use animal testing to improve
human health if the animals are kept in a good environment, and handled with care, because
without it human heath would not improve because there will be no new cures to diseases.
Acknowledgments
Dr Nick Hoogenraad
Dr Christopher Adda
Dr Mick Foley
Dr Matthew Perugini
Dr Adam Hart
Mr Robert Ross
Dr Michelle Spencer
Bibliography:
Websites:
http://www.ahc.umn.edu/rar/ethics.html
http://www.animalethics.org.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/222512/housing-rats-scientificinstitutions.pdf
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/directory/index.php
http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/default.aspx
Interviews:
Interview with Christopher Adda
A tour around the Animal House
Click me to finish
the tour
That’s the end of
this tour I hope you
enjoyed it, come
back to visit soon.
Click on me to
leave.

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