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WIND POWER
Global Technology Trends in Wind Power: R&D & Commercial
Rajsekhar Budhavarapu
Chief Technology Officer ( Renewable Investments)
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Presentation Structure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Challenge
Wind Energy Estimation
Wind farm Design Optimization
Up Scaling
Grid Compatibility
Technology view into future
Quality Assurance
Wind farm Power Control
Improving Performance : O&M
Policy Framework Design
Virtual Power Plants and Micro-grids
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
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The Challenge-Credibility
2009
2000
1997
Trend of
EWEA
forecasts
1991
Source: H. Beurskens, L. Hamilton
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Comparison of Global and India Wind Energy Scenario
Source : GWEC report on India Wind Energy Outlook 2009
Even with an advanced or optimistic realization in 2020, GWEC is
projecting only an 18% share of electricity for wind energy in
India, requiring 134 GW of wind power capacity.
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
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Capacity or Production PENETRATION
1. Mere installed capacity does not provide wind power
production share.
2. The goal should be the ability to supply X% of the electricity
consumption.
3. Produced energy depends on the wind resource/siting,
appropriate technology, grid capacity and a flexible & stable
power system.
4. Wind energy investments depends on stable policies,
attractive tariffs and “business case certainty”.
5. Hence, accurate wind resource estimates, reliable and efficient
technology, sufficient grid capacity and power system
integration are the keys.
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
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Wind Energy Estimation: Indian Example
Mesoscale modelling (KAMM model dx=5km) + On-site measurements
Outputs
Inputs
Mean wind speed at 80 m a.g.l
Surface roughness
Surface elevation
Mean power density at 80 m a.g.l.
Large-scale wind forcing
wind direction and direction
distribution (generalize wind
climate)
Outcomes
Wind maps: Mean (annual and
seasonal) wind speed and power
density at 50m and 80m.
Verification: Can compare generalized
wind climates derived from
observational wind atlas method
and numerical wind atlas method.
Application data: Generalized wind
climate in WAsP .lib file format for
all of India; 50 from observational
wind atlas and 200,000+ from
numerical wind atlas, allows
application at very high
resolutions (~10m)
Energy Generation estimation
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Wind farm optimization (1 of 4)
3 to 5 D
Does this lay out provide
maximum output and
minimum variability of
power output????
No !!!!
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Wind farm optimization (2 of 4)
u0
u
u0
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u0
u0
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Wind farm optimization (3 of 4)
Normal operation, optimal Cp
Increasing output
by power control
First row(s) more ‘transparant’ for flow’
Source: ECN
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Wind farm optimization (4 of 4)
Verification needs cross institutional cooperation with industry and customers
ECN
ECN/TNO
Photo: Gustave Corten
Foto:
Jos
Photo:
JosBeurskens
Beurskens
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Up scaling (1 of 4)
2012
offshore
150 m ø
?
?
200 m
UpWind
?
Jos Beurskens
Jos Beurskens
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Up scaling (2 of 4)
Challenges
Weight ~ (D³)
Cross sections ~ (D²)
Stress (= weight/cross section) ~ D
New materials with higher strength/mass
levels
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Up scaling (3 of 4)
Full pitch control for very large
wind turbines is not adequate
anymore because of non uniform
angles of attack along blade.
Wind field
Photo: Jos Beurskens
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Up scaling ( 4 of 4)
20-40% reduction in blade- in-tower
fatigue load
”Smart” material
variable trailing
edge flap
Rasmussen. DTU-Risø
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Grid compatibility (1 of 2)
• Ability to control wind farm as a power plant
• Control strategies for grid support
• Fault ride through capabilities
Grid codes required
FhG, Kassel (D)
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Grid compatibility (2 of 2)
Constant rotational speed
Variable rotational speed
(present technology)
Wound rotor induction
generator
Transmiss
ion
Controllable electrical
parameters to support
grid
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Technology view into the near future
• Dedicated wind turbines for various climate zones
(standards & certification)
• Further up scaling (20 MW?)
• Distributed aerodynamic rotor control with smart features
(incorporating LIDAR)
• Integrated turbine control (output, stability, safety, failure
resistant, grid compatibility and grid support)
• Wind farm control (variability of output, maximising output,
load control, grid support)
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
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Quality Assurance
1. For international acceptance wind
turbines should be designed and
certified to the IEC 61400 or GL
standards series.
2. Recognized certifying bodies exist
internationally for providing wind
turbine certifications
3. Wind farm financing, insurance
etc depend on the manufacturers
ability to obtain appropriate
certification.
4. Project certification may also be
necessary to manage risks and
secure financing, especially for
offshore wind farms.
Design Basis
Evaluation
Design Evaluation
Foundation Design
Evaluation
Manufacturing
Evaluation
Foundation
Manufacturing
Evaluation
Type Testing
Type Characteristics
Measurements
Final Evaluation
Optional Module
Type Certificate
Type certification acc. to IEC 6140022 or GL 2010 guidelines
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Wind Farm Power Control
Wind farms must be able to provide :
• Voltage and reactive control,
• Frequency control
• Fault ride-through capability in order
to maintain the electric system
stability
Typical wind farm power control methods
Jauch, C. et. al. “International Comparison of Requirements for Connection of Wind Turbines to Power
Systems”, Wind Energy 2005; 8:295–306
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
Improving Performance: O&M
Source: 3rd WE20 by 2020 conference
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Reqd Policy Framework: Competitive vs Feed-in-Tariff
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Lastly: Virtual Power Plants & Micro Grids
•
•
•
•
•
In areas that are cut-off from the urban regions, a smaller “Micro Grid” is of advantage
to provide regional electricity.
A Micro grid is a small electricity providing network with load sources, energy sources
and storage.
On a broader scale, a Virtual power plant (VPP) is a distributed system that can supply
energy to a much larger grid.
Each micro-grid or VPP would incorporate real-time information systems to ensure that
energy production matches demand at all times.
Since the grid is designed with respect to known sources of electricity and demand, the
grid can be stable and its control more deterministic.
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services
END
For further Information contact
Rajsekhar Budhavarapu
CTO- Renewable Investments
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
1st Floor, Corporate Office Tower, Ambience Mall Complex, Ambience Island, NH-8
Gurgaon 122001, India
Email: [email protected]
T el: +91 12 4471 6100
IL&FS Energy Development Company Limited (IEDCL)
IEDCL Wind Development & Advisory Services

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