western art 1700-1870 part i: rococco, naturalism and neo

Report
WESTERN ART 1700-1815
PART I: ROCOCO, NATURALISM
AND NEO-CLASSICISM
EUGENIA LANGAN
MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL
HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA
THEME:
THE TIMES THEY ARE A'CHANGING – THEN
EVERYTHING OLD IS NEW AGAIN
THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES WERE TIMES
OF ENORMOUS POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND
ECONOMIC CHANGES –
AND YET MUCH OF THE ART WAS BASED ON
OLDER CONVENTIONS
PEOPLE CLING TO TRADITION IN TIMES OF
CHANGE – AND SEEK TO LEGITIMIZE NEW
REGIMES BY REFERENCE TO GREAT PAST
ONES!
GENERAL GOALS:
 UNDERSTAND THE ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF THE
LUXURIOUS AND DECORATIVE STYLE KNOWN AS
ROCOCO.
 DISCUSS THE CHANGE IN EUROPEAN AND
AMERICAN TASTES IN ART IN THE MID-18TH CENTURY
 EXPLAIN THE CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
NEOCLASSICAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE
AND AMERICA.
 COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SUBJECT MATTER
AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ROCOCO AND
NEOCLASSICAL ART.
 EXAMINE HOW THE NEED FOR PATRONS
INFLUENCES ARTISTS
TIMELINE:
 MAJOR NEW PHILOSOPHIES, SOCIOECONOMIC
CHANGES:
 ENLIGHTENMENT/ AGE OF REASON, © 1637
(DESCARTES' DISCOURSE ON METHOD) – 1789 (FRENCH
REVOLUTION)
 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION, ? , © 1637 (DESCARTES
AGAIN, AND NEWTON'S PRINCIPIA, 1687) - PRESENT
 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, FIRST © 1775 (WATT
STEAM ENGINE – 1855, SECOND © 1855 (BESSEMER
STEEL PROCESS) – WWI
BEGINNING OF THE MODERN AGE – END OF THE
MEDIEVAL SACRED CIRCLE (WHICH WAS STILL THE
PARADIGM IN THE SO-CALLED "RENAISSANCE"!
MODERN
CHURCH
SECULAR HUMANISM/
HEREDITARY
SCIENTISM
ARISTOCRACY
EVERYONE
ELSE
EGALITATIANISM AND DEMOCRACY
BIBLE TEXT
MAIN EVENTS:
 1688: ENGLISH GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
("CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY")
 IN FRANCE, L'ANCIEN RÉGIME'S LAST GASP
 1710 – 1774: REIGN OF LOUIS XV
 FEWER COURTIERS AT VERSAILLE, MORE IN PARIS
 NEAR-INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF SALONS AT PARIS
PRIVATE HÔTELS – PRINCIPAL FORUM FOR
INTELLECTUALS, ARTISTS, ETC.
 PRIVATE PATRONAGE MORE IMPORTANT THAN
ROYAL
 WOMEN HOSTED THE SALONS - FEMMES SAVANTES
 1748: EXCAVATIONS OF POMPEI AND
HERCULANEUM BEGIN
 WILL SET OFF NEOCLASSICAL FAD
1751: FIRST VOLUME OF DIDEROT'S ENCYCLOPEDIA
PUBLISHED

NOT THE FIRST – BUT
THE MOST AMBITIOUS!
ALL "SCIENCE, ARTS,
AND CRAFTS"
 1755, 1762: PUBLICATION DATES OF JEAN-JACQUES
ROUSSEAU'S DISCOURSE ON INEQUALITY AMONG MEN
AND EMILE, OR ON EDUCATION –
NATURALISM
 1763: TREATY OF PARIS CONCLUDED SEVEN
YEARS WAR – FRANCE LOST NORTH AMERICAN
COLONIES (AND FUR $)
 1774 – 1792: REIGN OF LOUIS XVI (DEBT, DEBT,
DEBT),
 1776: U.S. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE:
"ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL" WITH NATURALLAW RIGHT TO "LIBERTY"
 1777: AMERICAN VICTORY IN BATTLE OF
SARATOGA 
 1778: FRANCO-AMERICAN ALLIANCE = FRANCE
SENT $$, TROOPS AND NAVY TO AID U.S. (MORE
DEBT FOR LOUIS XVI)
 1781: U.S. VICTORY AT YORKTOWN 
 1783: TREATY OF PARIS – AMERICAN
INDEPENDENCE OFFICIAL -- VICTORY FOR
"EQUALITY" AND "LIBERTY"
 1789 – 1799: FRENCH REVOLUTION – "LIBERTÉ,
EGALITÉ, FRATERNITÉ"!
 JULY 14, 1789: STORMING OF THE BASTILLE
 1792: FRENCH DECLARATION OF WAR ON
AUSTRIA ( NAPOLEON = MAJOR MILITARY HERO)
 JANUARY 21, 1793: EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI
 OCTOBER 16, 1793:
EXECUTION OF MARIE
ANTOINETTE
SKETCH BY JACQUESLOUIS DAVID DONE THAT
DAY
 1793 – 94: "REIGN OF TERROR"
 JULY 13, 1793: ASSASSINATION OF JEAN-PAUL
MARAT BY CHARLOTTE CORDAY
 JULY 27, 1794: THERMIDOREAN REACTION 
EXECUTION OF ROBESPIERRE & CONSTITUTIONAL
REPUBLIC" UNDER THE DIRECTORY
 NOVEMBER 9, 1799/ 18 BRUMAIRE: NAPOLEON'S
COUP OF 18 BRUMAIRE  DIRECTORY NAMED
NAPOLEON CONSUL
 1800: NAPOLEON = FIRST CONSUL + HE CROSSED
ALPS INTO ITALY 
 NAPOLEON VICTORY IN BATTLE OF MARENGO
(DROVE AUSTRIA OUT OF ITALY
 1803 – 1815: NAPOLEONIC WARS (WORLD WARS)
 DECEMBER 2, 1804: NAPOLEON CROWNED
EMPEROR BY POPE PIUS VI
 JUNE 1812: NAPOLEON'S INVASION OF RUSSIA 
SIXTH COALITION (AUSTRIA, PRUSSIA, UK, RUSSIA
AND SOME LESSER NATIONS) CONQUER PARIS
MARCH 1814 
 APRIL 11, 1814: ABDICATION OF NAPOLEON 
EXILE TO ELBA
 SEPTEMBER 1814 – JUNE 1815: CONGRESS OF
VIENNA – BALANCE OF POWER (LOL!)
 FEBRUARY 26, 1815: NAPOLEON'S ESCAPE FROM
ELBA & RETURN TO PARIS 
 JUNE 18, 1815: BATTLE OF WATERLOO = FINAL
DEFEAT OF NAPOLEON  EXILE TO SAINT HELENA
THAT'S ENOUGH TO GET US THROUGH
NEOCLASSICISM!
ROCOCO
 ROCAILLE = PEBBLE, COQUILLE = SHELL
 DICTIONARY OF THE ACADEMY: ROCOCO IS "THE
KIND OF ORNAMENT, STYLE AND DESIGN
ASSOCIATED WITH LOUIS XV'S REIGN AND THE
BEGINNING OF THAT OF LOUIS XVI."
SI JOLIE! SI RICHE!
SI DÉSESPÉRÉ?
THE LAST GASP OF L'ANCIEN RÉGIME
SPECIFIC GOALS:
 EXAMINE THE ARTISTIC EXPRESSIONS OF
SALON CULTURAL STYLE KNOWN AS ROCOCO.
 UNDERSTAND THE PROLIFERATION OF THE
STYLE IN DECORATIONS, ACCESSORIES,
PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURE, INTERIORS, AND
ARCHITECTURE.
 NOTE THE SUBORDINATION OF ART TO
DECORATION IN MOST ROCOCO WORKS
ROCOCO INTERIORS
AND ACCESSORIES
GERMAIN BOFFRAND,
SALON DE LA PRINCESSE,
WITH PAINTING BY
CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE
AND SCULPTURE BY J. B.
LEMOINE, HÔTEL DE
SOUBISE, PARIS, FRANCE,
1737–1740.
INTERIOR DECORATION
UNRELATED TO FUNCTION
EXCEPT TO SHOW WEALTH
AND "TASTE" – SOCIAL
POWER AND AUTHORITY
PAINTING AND
SCULPTURE PURELY
DECORATIVE
IT’S EASY TO RECOGNIZE ROCOCO INTERIORS: EXTREMELY,
ORNATE, GILDED STUCCO DECORATION CRAWLING OVER
THE WALLS AND CEILINGS, IRREGULAR SHAPES – BUT NO
ENERGY – IT'S "FROZEN"
NICOLAS PINEAU, VARENGEVILLE ROOM FROM THE
HÔTEL DE VARENGEVILLE, 217 BOULEVARD ST.GERMAINE, PARIS © 1735. 18' 3 ¾" X 40' 6 ½" X 23' 2 ½".
MET.
JEAN-CLAUDE DU
PLESSIS, SEVRES
POTPOURRI
CONTAINER © 1756.
SOFT PASTE
PORCELAIN WITH
POLYCHROME
GLAZE AND GOLD,
APPROX. 14 ¼" X 11
¼" EXCLUSIVE OF
BASE. MET
PATRON: MADAME
POMPADOUR
(MISTRESS OF LOUIS
XV)
CLAUDE MICHEL,
AKA CLODION,
SATYR CROWNING A
BACCHANTE, 1770.
TERRACOTTA, 1’
5/8” HIGH. LOUVRE.
FIGURINE
MANNERIST
INLUENCE – BUT
TYPIFIES ROCOCO
INTEREST IN
PLAYFUL
EROTICISM
CLODION, NYMPH AND SATYR CAROUSING, © 1780. TERRA-COTTA,
23 ¼" HIGH. MET
FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, HALL OF MIRRORS, THE
AMALIENBURG, NYMPHENBURG PALACE PARK,
MUNICH, GERMANY, EARLY 18TH CENTURY.
CEILING DETAIL, HALL OF MIRRORS, THE
AMALIENBURG
BALTHASAR NEUMANN,
INTERIOR OF THE
PILGRIMAGE CHURCH OF
VIERZEHNHEILIGEN,
NEAR STAFFELSTEIN,
GERMANY, 1743-1772.
NEUMANN, PLAN OF THE PILGRIMAGE CHURCH OF
VIERZEHNHEILIGEN. CLEAR INFLUENCE OF
BORROMINI, BUT NO MOTION/ EMOTION
COMPARE BORROMINI'S PLAN FOR SAN IVO AND
NEUMANN'S PLAN FOR VIERZEHNHEILIGEN
CHURCH
ROCOCO PAINTING
ANTOINE WATTEAU,
L’INDIFFÉRENT, CA.
1716. OIL ON CANVAS,
10” X 7”. LOUVRE.
NOTE GREATER INTEREST IN
COLOR AND LIGHT THAN IN
LINE/ FORM
SOFT BRUSHWORK
SUGGESTS RATHER THAN
DELINEATES FORMS
SPLIT IN ACADEMY,
"POUSSINISTS" V.
"RUBENSISTS".
BUT WATTEAU IS NOT LIKE
RUBENS – WATTEAU AND THE
ROCOCO PAINTERS ARE
INCHING TOWARD
MODERNISM!
WATTEAU, THE RETURN FROM CYTHERA, 1717. OIL ON
CANVAS, 4' 3" X 6' 4 ½". LOUVRE, PARIS. HIS ACADEMY
PIECE!
FÊTE GALANTE. "AMOROUS" LANDSCAPE
DETAIL, THE
RETURN FROM
CYTHERA
FRANÇOIS
BOUCHER, Cupid
a Captive, 1754. Oil on
FRANÇOIS
BOUCHER,
canvas,
5’ 6” x 2’
The Wallace 1754.
Collection,
CUPID
A 10”.
CAPTIVE,
OIL
London
ON CANVAS, 5' 6" X 2' 10".
THE WALLACE
COLLECTION, LONDON
PATRON?
MADAME DE POMPADOUR
BAROQUE DEVICES,
ROCOCO EROTIC THEME
JEAN-HONORÉ
FRAGONARD, THE
SWING, 1766. OIL ON
CANVAS, APPROX. 2' 8
5/8" X 2' 2". WALLACE
COLLECTION,
LONDON.
DETAIL, THE SWING
ENLIGHTENMENT/
INDUSTRIALISM: SCIENCE
AND NATURALISM
SPECIFIC GOALS:
 UNDERSTAND THE EXPRESSION OF SCIENTIFIC
IDEAS IN ART AND THE RESULTING ARTISTIC INTEREST
IN RECORDING OBSERVATIONS OF THE NATURAL
WORLD.
 UNDERSTAND THE INFLUENCE OF THE
PHILSOSOPHY OF ROUSSEAU ON THE ARTISTIC
INTEREST IN NATURALISM
 UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENT STYLES OF THE
"NATURAL" IN FRANCE, ENGLAND, THE UNITED
STATES, AND IN ITALY.
 EXAMINE CHOICES OF 'ORDINARY' LIFE, THE
NATURAL WORLD, AND SENTIMENTALITY AS SUBJECTS
IN ART.
A GLIMPSE
OF SCIENCE
AND
INDUSTRY IN
ENGLAND
JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A PHILOSOPHER GIVING A LECTURE
AT THE ORRERY, © 1763–1765. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 10" X 6' 8".
DERBY MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERY.
WRIGHT'S PATRONS: INDUSTRIALISTS
BRAHAM DARBY III AND THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, CAST IRON
BRIDGE AT COALBROOKDALE, ENGLAND, 1776–1779.
FIRST IRON BRIDGE – AND A HARBINGER OF VISIBLE
STRUCTURAL STEEL "SKELETONS" IN 19TH C. ARCHITECTURE
FRENCH NATURALISM
JEAN-BAPTISTESIMÉON CHARDIN,
SAYING GRACE, 1740.
OIL ON CANVAS, 1' 7"
X 1' 3". LOUVRE.
CLEARLY
INFLUENCED BY
VERMEER AND
OTHER DUTCH
GENRE PAINTERS
BUT NOTE
CHARDIN'S SOFT
BRUSHWORK -COMPARE TO
ROCOCO
CHARDIN, BACK
FROM THE
MARKET, 1739. OIL
ON CANVAS, 18 ½"
X 14 ¾". LOUVRE.
Q: WHY WOULD
ARISTOCRATIC
PATRONS BE
INTERESTED IN
GENRE PAINTINGS
OF THE LIVES OF
THE PETIT
BOURGEOISIE?
DETAILS, BACK FROM THE
MARKET
JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, VILLAGE BRIDE, 1761. OIL ON
CANVAS, 3' X 3' 10 ½". LOUVRE.
SENTIMENTAL NARRATIVE – REFLECTS BOURGEOIS
PATRONAGE BUT ACCEPTED BY ACADEMY
ÉLISABETH LOUISE
VIGÉE-LEBRUN, SELFPORTRAIT, 1790. OIL ON
CANVAS, 8' 4" X 6' 9".
UFFIZI, FLORENCE.
WOMAN ARTIST
HUMAN BODY: NOTE
CONFIDENT SELFIMAGE
LEBRUN WAS ADMITTED
TO THE ACADEMY (BUT
BOOTED OUT AFTER
REVOLUTION
ÉLISABETH LOUISE
VIGÉE-LEBRUN,
STATE PORTRAIT OF
MARIE ANTOINETTE
AND HER CHILDREN,
1787. OIL ON
CANVAS, 9' ½" X 7'
5/8".
EXTRAORDINARY
COMBINATION OF
STATE PORTRAIT,
GENRE PAINTING,
AND SENTIMENTAL
NARRATIVE
ENGLISH NATURALISM
WILLIAM HOGARTH, MARRIAGE À LA MODE, THE MARRIAGE
SETTLEMENT, © 1745. OIL ON CANVAS, 2' 4" X 3'. NATIONAL
GALLERY, LONDON - 1ST IN SERIES OF 8 (FOR COPPERPLATE
PRINTING. SATIRICAL NARRATIVE
HOGARTH, BREAKFAST SCENE FROM MARRIAGE À
LA MODE (#2), © 1745
HOGARTH, THE BAGNIO FROM MARRIAGE À LA MODE,
(# 5), © 1745.
THOMAS
GAINSBOROUGH,
MRS. RICHARD
BRINSLEY SHERIDAN,
1787. OIL ON CANVAS,
7' 2 5/8" X 5' 5/8".
NATIONAL GALLERY
OF ART,
WASHINGTON, D.C.
NATURAL, ROCOCO
COMPARE WATTEAU
AND FRAGONARD
GAINSBOROUGH,
MRS. SIDDONS, 1785.
OIL ON CANVAS, 4'
1 ½ X 3' 3".
NATIONAL
GALLERY, LONDON
NATURAL
PORTRAIT OF
ACTRESS (NOT IN A
ROLE).
SIR JOSHUA
REYNOLDS, LORD
HEATHFIELD, 1787.
OIL ON CANVAS, 4'
8" X 3' 9". NATIONAL
GALLERY, LONDON
ENGLISH "GRAND
MANNER"
PORTRAIT
"HEROIC" FIGURE
IN FOREGROUND,
LOW HORIZON
WITH SMOKY
BATTLEFIELD IN
BACKGROUND
REYNOLDS,
GENERAL JOHN
BURGOYNE, ©
1766. OIL ON
CANVAS, 4' 2" X 3'
3 7/8". FRICK
MUSEUM, NYC.
REYNOLDS, MRS. SIDDONS
AS "THE TRAGIC MUSE,"
1784. OIL ON CANVAS, 7'9"
X 4' 9 ½".
HUNTINGDON LIBRARY
AND GALLERY, SAN
MARINO, CA.
GRAND MANNER
PORTRAIT OF THE
ACTRESS
NATURALISM IN COLONIAL
AMERICA
BENJAMIN WEST, DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE, 1771. OIL ON
CANVAS, APPROX. 4' 11" X 7' NATIONAL GALLERY OF
CANADA, OTTAWA.
HISTORICAL NARRATIVE - WEST – TRAINED IN ITALY, LIVED
IN ENGLAND , CO-FOUNDED ENGLISH ACADEMY
TRUE SUBJECT? WILLIAM
JOHNSON – WHO WASN'T AT
PLAINS OF ABRAHAM BUT WAS
A HERO AT BATTLES OF LAKE
GEORGE AND NIAGARA IN
MOHAWK VALLEY – A
REMINDER OF AMERICAN
LOYALTY TO BRITAIN?
JOHN SINGLETON
COPLEY, PORTRAIT
OF PAUL REVERE, ©
1768–1770. OIL ON
CANVAS, 2' 11 1/8" X
2' 4". MUSEUM OF
FINE ARTS, BOSTON.
COPLEY WAS STILL
SELF-TAUGHT WHEN
HE PAINTED THIS.
AMERICAN
"DOWNRIGHTNESS"?
COPLEY, MRS. JOSEPH
SCOTT, © 1765. OIL ON
CANVAS, 5' 9 ¼ X 3' 3 ½".
NEWARK MUSEUM,
NEWARK, N.J.
PATRONAGE: JOSEPH
SCOTT WAS A RICH
MERCANT AND BRITISH
LOYALIST
STILL NATURAL ALBEIT
POSED IN BORROWED
FINERY
ITALIAN NATURALISM
ANTONIO CANALETTO, RIVA DEGLI SCHIAVONI, VENICE,
© 1735-1740. OIL ON CANVAS, 1' 6 ½" X 2' 7/8". TOLEDO
MUSEUM OF ART, TOLEDO
– VEDUTA PAINTING. PATRONS = TOURISTS
CANALETTO, THE THAMES AND THE CITY OF LONDON
FROM RICHMOND HOUSE, 1747. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX.
3' 5 ¼" X 3' 10 ¼". PRIVATE COLLECTION.
 RECALL THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DISCOVERY
OF POMPEII AND HERCULANEUM IN INSPIRING
NEOCLASSICAL ART
 UNDERSTAND THE USEFULNESS OF NEOCLASSICAL
ART AND ARCHITECTURE TO NEW GOVERNMENTS
 EXAMINE CLASSICAL REVIVAL IN ARCHITECTURE
AND HOW IT WAS USED IN THE UNITED STATES
(FEDERAL STYLE).
 OBSERVE THE INFLUENCE OF PALLADIO ON
NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE.
 ANALYZE NEOCLASSICAL SCULPTURE FOR ITS
CLASSICAL REFERENCES AND STYLISTIC QUALITIES
 AND NOTE THE INFLUENCE OF JOHAN JOACHIM
WINCKELMAN, THE FIRST MODERN ART
HISTORIAN AND COMMITTED HELLENSIST
"GOOD TASTE . . . HAD ITS
ORIGINS UNDER THE SKIES
OF GREECE. . . . THE ONLY
WAY FOR US TO BECOME
GREAT . . . IS TO IMITATE
THE ANCIENTS."
REFLECTIONS ON THE
IMITATION OF GREEK
WORKS IN PAINTING AND
SCULPTURE," 1755.
NEOCLASSICAL WESTERN
EUROPEAN ART BEFORE
NAPOLEON
PAINTING
ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, CORNELIA PRESENTING HER
CHILDREN AS HER TREASURES, OR MOTHER OF THE
GRACCHI, © 1785. OIL ON CANVAS, 3' 4" X 4' 2". VIRGINIA
MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, RICHMOND.
EXEMPLUM VIRTUTIS -- NARRATIVE
ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, VENUS PERSUADES HELEN TO GO
WITH PARIS, 1790. OIL ON CANVAS, 102 X 125.5 CM.
HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA
DAVID, OATH OF THE HORATII, 1784. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX.
10' 10" X 13' 11". LOUVRE. EXEMPLUS VIRTUTI. NARRATIVE
HUMAN BODY – STRONG RIGID MEN V. WEAK CURVY WOMEN
THE DEATH OF
MARAT, 1793. OIL ON
CANVAS,. 5' 5" X 4' 2
1/2". MUSÉES
ROYAUX DES BEAUXARTS DE BELGIQUE,
BRUSSELS.
NEOCLASSICAL?
PROPAGANDA!
NARRATIVE
ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIOR
DESIGN
JACQUES-GERMAIN SOUFFLOT, PANTHÉON (SAINTEGENEVIÈVE), PARIS, FRANCE, 1755-1792
BEGUN BY LOUIS XV AS
CHURCH, HE RAN OUT OF
$ FOR IT, FINISHED
DURING REVOLUTION 
SECULAR MAUSOLEUM
FOR GREAT FRENCH MEN
RICHARD BOYLE AND WILLIAM KENT, CHISWICK HOUSE,
NEAR LONDON, ENGLAND, BEGUN 1725.
NEO-PALLADIAN.
29-21 ROBERT
ADAM, ETRUSCAN
ROOM, OSTERLEY
PARK HOUSE,
MIDDLESEX,
ENGLAND, BEGUN
1761. VICTORIA
AND ALBERT
MUSEUM, LONDON
"POMPEIAN
STYLE" –
BUT MORE
ROCOCO THAN
CLASSICAL!
NEOCLASSICISM IN THE
EARLY UNITED STATES
FEDERAL ARCHITECTURE
THOMAS JEFFERSON, MONTICELLO, 1770-1806.
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA.
NEO-PALLADIAN - BUT WITH AMERICAN TWIST –
MORE BRICK THAN MARBLE
THOMAS JEFFERSON, ROTUNDA AND LAWN, UNIVERSITY
OF VIRGINIA, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, 1819-1826.
SCULPTURE
JEAN-ANTOINE HOUDON,
GEORGE WASHINGTON, 17881792. MARBLE, 6' 2" HIGH.
STATE CAPITOL, RICHMOND.
PATRON?
VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE
13 FASCES (13 STATES) + PLOW
=?
WASHINGTON AS
CINCINNATUS (BUT N.B.
WASHINGTON WAS IN HIS
FIRST TERM WHEN STATUE
WAS COMPLETED)
HORATIO
GREENOUGH, GEORGE
WASHINGTON, 1840.
MARBLE, 11' 4" HIGH.
SMITHSONIAN
AMERICAN ART
MUSEUM,
WASHINGTON, D.C.
WASHINGTON AS ZEUS
AND AUGUSTUS
COMBINED
PATRON: U.S.
CONGRESS– WHICH
REJECTED IT
NAPOLEONIC
NEOCLASSICISM
SPECIFIC GOALS:
 UNDERSTAND REASONS WHY NEOCLASSICISM
REMAINED THE PREFERRED STYLE DURING THE
NAPOLEONIC PERIOD
 IDENTIFY AND REMEMBER NEOCLASSICAL
ARTISTS OF THE NAPOLEONIC PERIOD AND HOW
THEY SERVED THE EMPIRE
EUROPE IN 1811, AT THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEON'S POWER
DAVID, CORONATION OF NAPOLEON, 1805–1808. OIL ON
CANVAS, 20' 4 ½' X 32' 1 ¾". LOUVRE
DETAIL,
CORONATION
OF NAPOLEON
NOTE WHAT A
POLITICAL
CHAMELEON
DAVID WAS
(LIKE
NAPOLEON)
PROPAGANDA,
POWER AND
AUTHORITY
DAVID, NAPOLEON
CROSSING THE
ALPS (SECOND
VERSION), © 1802.
OIL ON CANVAS,
APPROX. 8' 10¾"
X 7' 9½".
CHATEAU DE
MALMAISON,
RUEILMALMAISON
PROPAGANDA:
NAPOLEON HAD 5
VERSIONS MADE
SARCOPHAGUS OF ALEXANDER THE
GREAT, ISTANBUL
DAVID, NAPOLEON IN HIS
STUDY AT TUILERIES,
1812. OIL ON CANVAS,
APPROX. 6' 8 ½" X 4' 1¼".
NATIONAL GALLERY, D.C.
PROPAGANDA, POWER
AND AUTHORITY
ANTOINE-JEAN GROS, NAPOLEON AT THE PESTHOUSE AT
JAFFA, 1804. OIL ON CANVAS, 17' 5" X 23' 7". LOUVRE
PROPAGANDA - THE BIG LIE
JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, APOTHEOSIS OF
HOMER, 1827. OIL ON CANVAS, 12'8" X 16'10 3/4". LOUVRE
INGRES, GRANDE ODALISQUE, 1814. OIL ON CANVAS,
APPROX. 2'11 7/8" X 5'4". LOUVRE
NEOCLASSICAL OR ROMANTIC?
ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE
PIERRE VIGNON, LA MADELEINE, PARIS, FRANCE, 1807–1842
ORIGINALLY TEMPLE DE LA GLOIRE DE LA GRANDE
ARMÉE .
ANTONIO CANOVA, PAULINE BORGHESE AS VENUS, 1808.
MARBLE, 6'7" LONG. GALLERIA BORGHESE, ROME.

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