Rococo Period ~ 18th Century France ~ - Liam Shlakman - Overview • • • • • • • Commonly considered “Late Baroque” Is a form of “Total Art” which means that it encases all forms of expression such as: painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, fashion and theatre Developed in the early 18th century as a reaction against the grandeur, symmetry, and strict regulations of the Baroque The style is ornate and playful with light colors and asymmetry The word “Rococo” is a combination of the French “rocaille” (stone) and “coquilles” (shell) due to the reliance on these as reoccurring motifs Rococo is generally used to describe the ornamentation favored in the French reign of Louis XV (1710-1774) through to the beginning of the reign of Louis XVI (1774-1792) The three main and major painters of the Rococo period include JeanAntoine Watteau (1684-1721), Francois Boucher (1703-1770) and JeanHonoré Fragonard (1732-1806) Furniture and Decorative Objects • • • • • • • • Furniture was light-hearted, physically and visually The idea of furniture had turned into a symbol of status & took on a role of comfort and versatility Lots of furniture pieces became transportable such as the fauteuil chair, the voyeuse chair, and the berger en gondola Furniture was often freestanding, to exemplify the light and airy aura of the Rococo aesthetic Mahogany was used greatly to construct furniture during this period Also, the use of mirrors hung above mantels became ever more popular in the light of the development of unblemished glass Furniture style remained more reserved, sice the ornaments were mostly of wood, yet represented less robust and naturalistic themes Furniture pieces would seamlessly flow into c-scrolls, and knots of asymmetrical “contraste” Interior Design • Abstract ornament was expressed using flaming, leafy or shell-like textures in asymmetrical sweeps and flourishes and broken curves • Palette is softer and paler than the rich primary colors and dark tonalities favored in Baroque tastes • Most notable Rococo interior design would be the Palace of Versailles in France • While the exterior of buildings tended to be more somber, Rococo took full throttle on the interior because they were constantly renovating pre-existing buildings rather than completely rebuilding from the floor <-Rococo interior in Gachina Integrated Rococo carving, stucco and fresco at Zwiefalten -> Marie Antoinette’s Bedroom, Palace of Versailles <- Architecture • A lighter, more elaborate version of Baroque architecture • Emphasized asymmetrical forms • Heavily decorated with jocular themes, numerous curves and decorations, as well as the usage of pale colors • The most famous include the Catherine Palace, in Russia, the Queluz National Palace in Portugal, The Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl, the Chinese House (Potsdam), the Charlottenburg Palace in Germany, as well as elements of the Chateau de Versailles in France Château de Versailles in France -> The Quelez National Palace in Portugal The Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo v Painting • Although Rococo was primarily in the decorative sector of arts, the style was incredibly present in painting as well • Painters used delicate colors, curving forms, Rococo motifs, cherubs and feelings of love and story telling • Portraiture was also popular among artists at this time. Works would also support themes of departing from the Baroques church/state orientation. Landscapes were pastoral and often depicted leisurely aristocratic activity • Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) is considered the first great Rococo Painter • He had great influence on later painters including Francois Boucher (1703-1770) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1731-1806), two masters of the late period. L’enseigne de Gersaint, JeanAntoinne Watteau, 1720 <- Venus Consoling Love, Francois Boucher, 1751 <- JeanHonoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 -> Sculpture • Étienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) is considered one of the best representations of French Rococo. He used delicate porcelain sculpture apposed to marble statues • Themes of love and gaiety were reflected in sculpture, as were elements of nature, curving lines and asymmetry • Sculptor Edmé Bouchardon represented Cupid in stucco, just as it replaced marble • Other French Rococo sculptors include Jean-Louis Lemoyne, JeanBaptiste Lemoyne, Robert Le Lorrain, Louis-Simon Boizot, Michel Clodion, and Pigalle Cupid Carving His Bow from the Club of Hercules, by Edme Bouchardon, 1747 Pygmalion and Galatea, by Étienne Maurice Falconet, 1763 Child with Birdcage, by JeanBaptiste Pigalle, 1750 The End thank you…. • Name 3 significant artists from the Rococo period? • What are 2 characteristics that are typical of the period? • Describe 3 ideas, concepts, customs etc. that are typical of the time period (What’s happening at the time?) • What are the colors often used in Rococo art? • What are typical characteristics of Rococo furniture Bonus: • Who were the reigning kings during the period? • What is the most popular palace of the period?