PowerPoint - Wisconsin PBIS Network

Report
Brief Functional Behavioral Assessment
and
Behavior Intervention Planning
Dave Kunelius
WI RTI Center Technical Assistance Coordinator - PBIS
Milaney Leverson
WI RTI Center Technical Assistance Coordinator - PBIS
The Wisconsin RtI Center/Wisconsin PBIS Network (CFDA #84.027) acknowledges the
support of the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction in the development of
this PowerPoint and for the continued support of this federally-funded grant
program. There are no copyright restrictions on this document; however, please
credit the Wisconsin DPI and support of federal funds when copying all or part of this
material
Wisconsin RtI Center
Our mission is to support schools through the phases
and sustainability of their RtI system implementation.
The core reason that the Wisconsin RtI Center exists is
to develop, coordinate and provide high-quality
professional development and technical assistance…
as well as to gather, analyze and disseminate RtI
implementation data to enhance the support of
schools’ implementation.
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Academic Systems
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
Behavioral Systems
1-5%
1-5%
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•High intensity
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•Individual students
•Assessment-based
•Intense, durable procedures
5-15%
5-15%
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
•Some individualizing
•Some students (at-risk)
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
•Small group interventions
•Some individualizing
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
80-90%
•All students
•Preventive, proactive
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008.
Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?”
OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Accessed at http://pbis.org/school-wide.htm
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
•All settings, all students
•Preventive, proactive
3
Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:
A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model
Tier 1/Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Tier 2/
Secondary
ODRs,
Attendance,
Tardies, Grades,
DIBELS, etc..
Social/Academic
Instructional Groups (SAIG)
Daily Progress
Report (DPR)
(Behavior and
Academic Goals)
Competing Behavior
Pathway, Functional
Assessment Interview,
Scatter Plots, etc..
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised October 2009
Adapted from T. Scott, 2004
Check-in/
Check-out (CICO)
Tier 3/
Tertiary
SIMEO Tools:
HSC-T, RD-T, EI-T
Group Intervention with
Individualized Feature
(e.g., Check and Connect -CnC
and Mentoring)
Brief Functional Behavior Assessment/
Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP)
4
Complex or Multiple-domain
FBA/BIP
Wraparound
Wisconsin Conversation Chart Tier 1 and Tier 2
Tier I System
Tier II System Conversation – Review intervention fidelity
FBA/BIP
SAIG
Data
Rule/RFA
(3 Bs)
Universal Screening
Data
Meeting
screening data
rule starts CICO
or other
appropriate tier
2 intervention.
Follow district
policy for
consent.
Problem Solving Team
Data
CICO
Mentor
CICO
Data
with
Ind.
Features
iCICO +
social
skills if
FBA
reveals
that
there is a
skill
deficit.
iCICO +
mentor if
FBA
reveals it
is a
perform
issue.
Mentoring
focuses on
increased
attention
and
reinforce
of desired
behavior
NOTE: Basic CICO can be modified through structural system changes and not be considered an individualized CICO. This may include
use of visual prompts on DPR, location where CICO happens, etc.
Data-Based Decision Making
Numbers to Keep in Mind
• 7-15%: Percent of total population expected to need
and be supported by Tier 2 interventions
• 1-5%: Percent of total population expected to need
and be supported by Tier 3 interventions
• 70%: Percent of youth (receiving intervention “X”)
that should be responding to intervention
• Data-based Decision-Rules for ‘determining
response’ must be defined
– Data sources defining response are efficient
• Ex. Daily Progress Report (DPR) cards: Student
maintains an 80% average on DPR for 4 weeks
Teaming at Tier II
Secondary Systems Planning Team
• Who will be your FBA/BIP Intervention Coordinator?
(Bring overall student intervention & implementation
data to team, oversee intervention implementation
with staff/students/families).
• From data-demonstrated need, Create and Support
Interventions
• Support students & staff with Interventions
• Use process data from CICO, SAIG, Brief FBA/BIP
interventions to:
– determine overall intervention effectiveness for each,
– improve integrity, fidelity, procedures etc.. for each,
– create interventions that are missing from continuum
• Wisconsin Multi Level System Tracking Tool
– www.wisconsinpbisnetwork.org
Secondary Problem Solving Team
• With info from Systems Team (i.e .FBA
Facilitators & staff) Develop plans for one
group or student at a time
• Most schools already have this type of
meeting
• Standing team plus teachers and family of the
student
Problem Solving Team Roles
• FBA/BIP Facilitator
• Gather information from data and
interviews, generate Brief FBA,
and illustrate FBA to the rest of
the team through the Competing
Behavior Pathway
– Problem behavior along with
triggers and hypothesized
function and maintaining
consequence
• Share data sources and process
used
– Interviews
• Lead the team in creating a BIP
– Ensure all stakeholders give
input and agree with aspects
of the plan that require their
action and that they
understand and can carry out
those actions
Practical FBA Logic Model
Individualized
Supports
5% of
Students
Secondary
Group
Supports
10-15% of
Students
School-wide Positive Behavioral
Supports
80% of Students
Behavior Specialist
responsible for 25
FBAs in school of 500
Personnel with “flexible” roles conduct
proactive Practical FBA to expand the
scope of FBA, prevent intensive problem
behaviors, & decrease reliance on
specialist.
Building FBA Capacity
Teachers School
District
Behavior
Staff
Specialist Specialist Analysts
Informal
FBA
X
Level I:
BRIEF FBA
X
X
Level II:
Complex FBA
X
X
X
Level III:
Functional
Analysis
X
X
X
Horner & Anderson (2007)
X
Problem Solving Team Roles
Other Team Members
• Ask questions for clarification on FBA
– Come to consensus on hypothesized function, or
– briefly brainstorm alternative function
• Work with FBA/BIP Facilitator to create the BIP
– contribute as an ‘implementer’ for parts of BIP
where needed
• ex. Staff may add student to group counseling,
see youth for afterschool tutoring, or add youth
to CICO
Identifying Who Needs FBA/BIP
• Students are referred to an individual Problem Solving Team
by the Secondary Systems Team
– When lower-level (simple secondary) interventions do not
result in adequate progress as determined by data rules
• Data identifies student as in need (# of ODRs,
suspensions, absences, etc..)
– Exception to the system: Adult perceives youth as being in
urgent need (lower-level support not seen as adequate)
Changing our thinking
By the time youth access FBA/BIP intervention, they
are already at high risk of placement change.
• More youth need FBA/BIP, sooner.
• FBA/BIPs are often found in the “file” and viewed as a
document. Is an active and evolving document!
Brief FBA vs
Comprehensive FBA
Brief FBA
Comprehensive FBA
For:
Students with mild to
moderate problem behaviors
(behaviors that are NOT
dangerous or occurring in
many settings)
Students with moderate to
severe behavioral problems;
may be dangerous and/or
occurring in many settings
What:
Relatively simple and efficient
process to guide behavior
support planning
Time-intensive process that
also involves archival records
review, family-centered
planning, and collaboration
with agencies outside of school
Conducted by whom:
School-based personnel (e.g.,
teachers, counselors,
administrators)
Professionals trained to conduct
functional assessments with
students with severe problem
behaviors (e.g., school
psychologists, behavior specialists)
Why Do People Behave?
Modeling? Accident? Instinct? Condition??
Why Do People Continue Behaving?
IT WORKS!
T. Scott; University of Louisville, 2012
BRIEF FBA/BIP
COMPLEX FBA
Single behavioral
cycle/cluster
Single
environment/routine
Testing behavior but not
ongoing aggression
Multiple behavioral
cycles/clusters
Multiple
environments/routines
Ongoing aggressive
behavior
Basic tier 2 interventions
not having predicted
success
Adults actively in
opposition to one another
The BRIEF FBA/BIP Process
Prior to the Problem Solving Team Meeting
1. Secondary Systems Team identifies youth needing
Tier 2 FBA/BIP level of support and refers to
individual Problem-Solving Team meeting.
2. FBA/BIP facilitator (i.e. social worker, counselor,
psychologist other trained staff) takes lead in
organizing data and using tools to conduct the Brief
FBA.
3. Brief FBA/BIP facilitator generates Brief
FBA/competing behavior pathway (based on data)
to share with Problem-Solving Team.
At the Problem Solving Team Meeting
4. Problem-Solving Team develops and
implements BIP (with stakeholders).
5. FBA/BIP fidelity tool is used to make sure all
parts of BIP have been implemented as designed
6. Follow-up meeting scheduled (in 4-6 weeks)
for all stakeholders to review progress of BIP.
AND
This is a BIGGIE!!!
7. Data monitored weekly
by FBA/BIP Facilitator.
Outcomes of a
BRIEF FBA/Functional Behavioral Assessment
• Operationally defined problem behavior(s): Who, what, where & when
• Identified routines in which the problem behavior is most and least likely
to occur
• Defined antecedent events (triggers; setting events) that predict when the
problem behavior is most likely
• Defined consequence (ONE ) that contributes most to maintaining the
problem behavior in that routine
• Summary Statement of findings
Starting the BRIEF Functional
Behavioral Assessment Process
.
Tools/Data Used for Brief FBA/BIP
Tools
•
Functional Assessment Interview (FACTS)
•
Student-Directed Functional Assessment
•
Family-Directed Functional Assessment
Data
•
CICO data graphs
•
SWIS individualized student report
•
Grades
Simplified FBA
1. Identify a behavior of concern
–
Define in a way that is observable
2. Identify predictors in the environment
–
Things that happen before and after
3. Identify a function
–
Why does that happen?
4. Teach a replacement behavior
–
What is appropriate way to get same function?
5. Change the environment to prevent
–
–
What could make the problem not happen?
What consequences are functional?
Defining Problem Behavior:
Observable and Measurable
Be so clear in your definition that anyone could use it to act out
the problem and it would look/sound just like it does in reality.
Non-Examples
Examples
•
•
•
•
•
• Out of seat 55% of the time during
independent work time
• Hits with hands and kicks peers
• Steals valuable items from peers
• Reports seeing monsters
• Arrives to class late 75% of the time
Hyperactive
Aggressive
Delinquent
Psychotic
Irresponsible
This step narrows down the behavior first noted into the priority setting. It is
not redundant rather it is a revision and clarifying step.
Identifying Predictors
Let’s bet! – when do you think the student will make noises?
Also, what do you think will likely happen when he does?
OR
If I wanted to set the kid off, what would I need to do?
Setting Events
“Setting event, plus discriminative
stimulus, set the occasion for a response
that is maintained by a reinforcer.”
Or you could say…
“Setting events make triggers more likely
to cause problem behavior.”
Setting Events
Environmental
(things that impact student
behavior but may not be
under control of school)
• Neighborhood
• Quality of Life
• Interactions/Reactions
• Home Environment
• Level of Curriculum
• Instructional Arrangements
Behavioral Learning Styles
• Preferred Activities
• Length of Task
• Modality
• Multiple Intelligence
• Choice Making
• Skill Level
Personal Factors
• Medications
• Sleep
• Chronic Illness
• Nutrition
• Arousal
• Sensory Sensitivity
Consequence
• We are talking WHAT OTHERS DO
AFTER/BEHAVIORAL consequence sometimes
but not always “DISCIPLINE.”
• The ONE THING that happens IMMEDIATELY
AFTER a behavior that makes the behavior
more likely to happen again.
Functions of Behavior
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Functions of Behavior
• Legitimate Functions
– Get something (attention, tangible, event, etc.)
– Avoid something (attention, event, person, etc.)
– Self-stimulation (hair twirling, rocking, etc.)
• Non-Legitimate functions
– Power (not specific - all behavior is for power)
– Control (not specific - all behavior is for control)
– Didn’t take meds (antecedent - not a function)
– Parents (not a function)
Function of Behavior
• Things that are
obtained
–
–
–
–
–
Adult attention
Peer attention
Preferred activity
Money/things
other
• Things avoided or escaped from
–
–
–
–
–
–
Hard task
Reprimand
Peer negatives
Physical movement
Adult attention
other
Summary Statement
5. Desired
Behavior
Generally expected
behavior
3. Setting Events
(Slow Trigger)
Infrequent
events that
affect value
of maint.
conseq.
2. Antecedent
(Fast Trigger)
Preceding
events that
trigger or
occasion
1. Problem
Behavior
Behavior of
concern
6. Acceptable
Behavior
Set of related
behaviors that
are more
desirable
4. Maintaining
Consequences and
Function
Following
events that
maintain
behaviors of
concern
Positive Example
Concise information
presented to problemsolving team for discussion
and intervention planning
Setting Events
Triggering
Antecedents
Desired
Alternative
What all the
other kids
are doing
Problem
Behavior
Typical
Consequence
What keeps
the other kids
behaving
Maintaining
Consequences
BEHAVIORAL
Function
Replacement
Behaviors
Why is function important?
Because consequences compete
Sequence of
less “icky”
behaviors
Functional Behavior Pathways
Routines
Curriculum
Time Academic
work
setting
Expectations
Engagement
No direct
teacher
attention
Physical
Arrangement
Functional
Consequence
Disruptive
noises
Raise hand
and wait
quietly
Teacher
provides
attention
Examples
Prompts
Functional
Consequence
Behavior Intervention Planning
(BIP)
Steps to Design a BIP
1. Identify the replacement behavior
a. Create a plan to teach this behavior to the student /
stakeholders
2. Identify changes in the environment that could
prevent the problem behavior from occurring
3. Identify two types of consequence
manipulations:
a. Strategies that reduce/don't maintain target
behavior
b. Strategies that maintain and increase replacement
and desired behaviors
4. Consider creating a crisis plan depending on the
severity of the behavior
Based on Research and Practical
Experience…..
Many BIPs are not aligned with the FBA because they:
•
•
•
•
Focus only on rewarding youth for appropriate behavior
Do not teach replacement behaviors
Don’t change settings that trigger behaviors
Omit supports that make appropriate behavior more
likely
• And continue practices which reinforce the function of
the problem behavior(s)
Competing Behavior Pathways Model
Conscious choice to
ignore,
regulation
Desired
skill,
appropriate
Behavior
comment
Sleep
Setting
medicine
Event(s)
impairment
Peer
Antecedent
Comment
Behavior
Threats,
Interferes
w/
loud voice
Learning
Allowed
Goes
totoleave
to
to
Taught
use
Replacement
get
aindependent
drink ofskill
water
regulation
reading
in(Taught)
theinhallway
area and
when
hallway
writes
in journal
Behavior
for drink
Completes
Ideal
all work in
Outcome
class
Work
Current
output is
Outcome
reduced
A Context for
Positive Behavior Support
• A redesign of environments, not the redesign of
individuals
• Plan describes what we will do differently
• Plan is based on identification of the behavioral
function of problem behaviors and the lifestyle goals
of an individual
Using FBA to Design Effective Support:
The Simple BIP
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
How can we prevent problem situations?
What should we teach as a replacement behavior?
How do we increase reward of appropriate behavior?
How do we minimize reward of problem behavior?
Are negative consequences for problem behavior needed?
Are safety routines needed?
What data should we collect?
– Are we doing the plan?
– Is the plan working?
Throughout Process:
Remember Strengths-Based Planning
• What does the student like to:
–
–
–
–
–
Talk about?
Read about?
Draw about?
Write about?
Play with?
• What is the student interested in? What do they enjoy?
• Identify the student’s successes:
– Where are they successful?
– When are they successful?
– With whom are they successful?
Replacement Behaviors Must Be:
•
•
•
•
•
Do-able
Efficient
Serve the same function
Socially appropriate
Remember to consider “I can live with for
now” behavior.
These skills have to be directly taught
Replacement Behavior Needs:
Teach student how to communicate need for:
• Help
• A break
• Interaction
• Attention
• Time alone
• Reduced demands
• Alternative assignment
• More time to finish
• Movement
Replacement Behavior Skills
• Must be specific:
– Observable, Acknowledgeable, Teachable (O-A-T)
• Can be taught individually, in small groups, with whole class or
whole school
• Can use SAIG lessons to teach skills identified in BIP
• Academic behavior skills (organization, raising hand)
– Problem solving skills (deep breathing, get help)
– Pro-social skills (ask to play a game, say ‘hi’)
FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway
Student Strengths
Follow routines
Coupons, praise
5
6
Desired Behavior
Conflict at
home: mornings
when not
organized for
school, not sure
who will take
Sam to school
4
Setting Event
Morning
activity when
teacher requests
that he sit on
chair or carpet
for structured
activity
Does not join
activity – walks
around the
classroom
poking and
pushing kids
2
1
Trigger/Antecedent
Problem Behavior(s)
Walk to a designated
area of classroom
7
Replacement Behavior
Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000
Current Consequence
Gets a time out
to calm down
and misses
activity
Escape
8
3
Maintaining
Consequence
Function
Setting Event
Manipulations
•Walk with
“responsible”
4th grade cousin
to school.
•CICO modified
(new adult and
more specific
goals)
Antecedent
Manipulations
•Re-teach
expected behavior
for all classroom
settings
•Additional rating
periods for
expectations
•Individualized
positive greeting
by teacher in the
morning
Behavior
Manipulations
Consequence
Manipulations
•Teach how to
quietly walk to a
designated area
of the room
•Points/
coupons when
quietly goes to
his “area”
•Teach how to sit
and complete
tasks for 5
minutes up to 10
minutes
•Points/
coupons when
participates in
activities
•Does not earn
points if puts
hands on
students
FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway
Student Strengths
Coupons, praise
Follow routines
5
6
Desired Behavior
Conflict at
home: problem
behavior at
home before
school
Structured
academic tasks
Does not
complete work,
throws things,
laughs,
disturbing
others
2
4
Setting Event
1
Trigger/Antecedent
Problem Behavior(s)
Ask teacher for help
7
Replacement Behavior
Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000
Current Consequence
Teacher walks
over, talks to
him and helps
him get on task
Adult attention
8
3
Maintaining
Consequence
Function
Setting Event
Manipulations
Cousin involved in
CICO process
(more
encouragement,
helping to get
DPR home for
guardian to see)
Antecedent
Manipulations
•More reteaching for
whole class,
how to quietly
work
•Higher rates of
praise during
activities
•Use timer so
all kids could
see how much
time they had
for activity
Behavior
Manipulations
• Teach how to
ask for help
•Teach how to
work in close
proximity to
peers -- sharing
supplies and
asking for help
from peers
Consequence
Manipulations
•Points earn
extra playtime
of choice at end
of class
•Planned
ignoring of
problem
behavior
(teacher will
reward nearby
youth)
•Reward at
home when
earns DPR
points
Resources
• Available online with this presentation:
– FACTS forms
• EfficientFBA_FACTS.pdf
– Competing Behavior Pathway documents
• Pathway and BIP Fillable rev.docx
• COMPETING BEHAVIOR PATHWAY.docx
Questions or Comments

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