Functions of Behavior - Milwaukee Public Schools

Report
Developing & Implementing
Effective FBA’s and BIP’s
Lori Chambers
Jessie Vance
January 2014
Agenda
• Overview of FBA/BIP process
• Competing Pathways: FBA/BIP Tools for Data-based Decisionmaking
• Lunch
• Behavior Intervention Plans
• Monitoring effectiveness and data entry
• Questions/Concerns/Comments
• We will gain understanding of the FBA/BIP process including
data collection to identify the function of a student’s
behavior.
• We know we are successful when we can explain the
FBA/BIP process and develop behavior intervention plans
that teach replacement behavior based off of the FBA
findings.
Functional Behavior Assessment
http://www5.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/dept/rti/files/2013/09/PBIS-Flow-Chart-Tier1-to-3-REVISED.pdf
SCHOOL-WIDE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
~5%
~15%
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
~80% of Students
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students
with High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Tiered System of Support
• Tier 3: Multiple Adults/
One Student
• Tier 2: One Adult/
Multiple Students
• Tier 1: All Students
Research and Practical Experience…..
• By the time youth access FBA/BIP intervention, they are
already at high-risk.
• More youth need FBA/BIP, sooner.
• FBA/BIPs are often found in the “file” and viewed as a
document.
• Many BIPs focus only on rewarding for appropriate behavior,
omitting supports to ensure appropriate behavior
Legal considerations for students with
disabilities…
It takes a team!
FBA Outcomes
•
Operationally defined problem behavior(s)
•
Identify routines in which the problem behavior is most and
least likely to occur
•
Define the antecedent events (triggers; setting events) that
predict when the problem behavior is most likely
•
Define the ONE consequence that contributes most to
maintaining the problem behavior in that routine.
•
Summary Statement of findings.
FBA/BIP Competing Behavior Pathway
Student Strengths
5
6
Desired Behavior
2
4
Setting Event
1
Trigger/Antecedent
Problem Behavior(s)
7
Replacement Behavior
Adapted from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Hagan-Burke, S., 2000
Current Consequence
8
3
Maintaining
Consequence
Function
Identify the behavior…
Does it pass the stranger test?
Defining Problem Behavior
Observable and Measurable
Non-Examples
Examples
• Hyperactive
• Aggressive
• Out of seat and walking around the room
touching other student’s things
• Hits with hands and kicks peers
• Bully
• Takes valuable items from peers
• Psychotic
• Reports seeing monsters
• Irresponsible
• Arrives to class late 75% of the time
Dimensions
Behavior
Dimensions of
of Behavior
Frequency
Topography
Duration
Latency
Magnitude
Locus
Indirect Assessment
Record Review
Interviews
Permanent Products
Direct Assessment
Awareness Test
What will you choose?
Target/Problem
Behavior
Number/Count
of Behavior
Specific
Beginning
and End
Event
Recording
Time/Duration
of Behavior
Specific
Beginning
and End or
Continuous
Interval
Recording
Time Between
Direction
to Student
and Initiation
of Response
Latency
Recording
Length of
Time
Behavior
Lasts
Duration
Recording
Adapted from: Alberto and Troutman
Setting Events vs. Antecedents
• Setting Events (slow trigger) – indirectly “setsup” the problem behavior
• Antecedents (fast trigger) - occurs
immediately before the problem behavior
Setting Event Examples
•
•
•
•
•
Lack of sleep or food
Having a fight on the way to school
Bad grade on a test / reprimands
Forgetting to take medication
Substitute teacher / changes in routine
Non-examples:
• Diagnosis of autism or ADHD
• “Bad” home life
Note: Setting Events can be difficult to identify, are sometimes unknown.
WHY does the behavior continue to occur?
What happens before the problem behavior?
What happens after the problem behavior?
1
3
Antecedents:
Behavior
Maintaining
Consequence:
When _____happens….
the student does (what)__
..because (why) ______
2
M. K. Strickland-Cohen (2011) ECS,
University of Oregon
Maintaining Consequence
• If a behavior is continuing to occur it is being
reinforced…
• A maintaining consequence is an item,
activity or event that follows a behavior and
results in an INCREASE in that behavior.
Functions of Behavior
Problem
Behavior
Escape/
Avoid
Something
Obtain/Get
Something
Stimulation/
Sensory
Tangible/
Activity
Social
Adult
Peer
Common functions in the school setting….
Obtain/ Access
Avoid/ Escape
 Peer attention
 Difficult Task
 Adult attention
 Boring Task
 Desired activity
 Easy Task
 Desired object/ items
 Physical demands
 Non-preferred activity
 Peer or Adult attention
You can not reduce a problem behavior
without first identifying the replacement and
desired behaviors the person should perform
instead of the problem or target behavior.
(O’Neill, pg. 71)
Replacement Behavior Essentials
• Serve the same function as the problem
behavior
• Easier to do than the problem behavior
• Socially acceptable
“Your desired behavior must become just as much a
habit as your undesired behavior was before."
-Mike Hawkins
Desired
Behavior
Current
Consequence
"If a student doesn't know how
to read…
…we teach
If a student doesn't know how
to swim…
… we teach
If a student doesn't know how
to multiply…
…we teach
If a student doesn't know how
to behave…
…we punish?"
John Herner
Identifying Behavior Support Strategies
Setting Event
Strategies
Antecedent
Strategies
Teaching Strategies
Consequences
Strategies
Team identifies a
range of
strategies/
interventions to
address:
- Prevention
- Teaching
- Consequences
We consider the FUNCTION of the problem
behavior when selecting these strategies.
M.K. Strickland-Cohen (2011) ECS,
University of Oregon
Preventative Strategies
Setting
Events
Triggering
Antecedents
Teaching
Behaviors
Maintaining
Consequences
Neutralize
Irrelevant
Inefficient
Ineffective
Function-Based strategies…
DIRECTLY address the function of the problem
behavior by:
• Providing a way to access the maintaining
consequence by engaging in appropriate behavior
or…
• Preventing access to the maintaining consequence
following problem behavior
Selecting Antecedent Strategies:
Modifying Triggers
When identifying preventive antecedent strategies:
Eliminate or alter the antecedent so student will no longer need
to use problem behavior
The BEST antecedent MODIFICATIONS
directly address the identified ANTECEDENT and the
FUNCTION of the problem behavior
M.K. Strickland-Cohen (2011) ECS,
University of Oregon
Teaching Strategies
What resources can I use?
SAIG Lessons
Second Step
Ropes and Challenges
Social Stories
Restorative Justice
SEL Curriculum
Consequences vs. Punishment
con·se·quence (k n s -kw ns , -kw ns).
n. 1. Something that logically or
naturally follows from an action or
condition.
www.thefreedictionary.com
Types of Consequences
↑Replacement Behavior
POSITIVE
• Social
• Activity or Privilege
• Tangible/materials
↓Problem Behavior
NEGATIVE
• Correction/Precision
request
• Restitution
• Positive Practice
• Privilege Loss
Keep in mind…
• It’s a process
• Behavior will get worse before it gets
better
• Reward attempts and approximations
• Reward desired behaviors
• Delivery of positive consequences brings
about replacement behavior
• Delivery of negative consequences helps
student avoid disliked situation
Resources
MPS FBA/BIP Resources
• http://www5.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/dept/rti/fbabip/
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
• http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sped_sbfba
Exceed Help Videos/ Documents
• http://www5.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/dept/rti/exceedhelp-page/
Contacts
PBIS Tier 3 Behavior Support
Jane Audette [email protected]
Jeri Talbot [email protected]
Program Support Teachers-Behavior
Lori Chambers [email protected]
Jessie Vance [email protected]

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