A look at the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians Ojibwe Bands in Wisconsin • • • • • • Red Cliff Lac Courte Oreilles Bad River Lac du Flambeau Mole Lake St. Croix All 6 of these Wisconsin tribes are part of the Lake Superior Bands of Ojibwe Indians. Wisconsin Indian reservations as they sit today How do the Ojibwe come to be on the reservations? • Series of treaties cedes land to government – Definition: to relinquish (hand over) lands in your possession 1837 “Pine Tree Treaty” • Results: ~1/2 of WI ceded • Why: Govt. wants pine in north woods • Terms: – Govt. pays Indians - $19,000 – Indians retain “traditional” rights to lands • Problems – Division of $ – Understanding meaning of languages 1842 “Copper Treaty” • Cession of lands for mining around Lake Superior • Indians need money… agree • Treaty hints at removal View from Lake Superior shoreline Indians React • Ojibwe send delegation to D.C. – Leader: Chief Buffalo – Interpreter Benjamin Armstrong • Issues to discuss – Removal order – Wrongs done to Indians – “traditional rights” agreed upon in ceded areas “Symbolic Petition of the Chippewa Chiefs, 1849” Delegation to Washington carried this pictograph with them indicating their wants. The animals represent the various Lake Superior clans traveling along Lake Superior. Their unity of purpose is depicted by the lines linking together Their hears and eyes to a chain of wild rice lakes in ceded territory south of Lake Superior. Indian pictograph that was sent to Washington to show the president how the Indians felt about him and what they were willing to do. Result of trip: 1854 Treaty at La Pointe • Terms of Treaty – Refuse to cede more land until reservations in WI established • Takes 20 yrs for land to be chosen & given – Allotment of individual Indian lands • Individual Indians earn titles to land • Indians forced to sell lands… don’t understand TAXES Life on the Reservations 1922 Lac du Flambeau Indian Industrial Survey What is the 1922 Industrial Survey? Government wanted to know how Indians on the reservations were doing Sent workers out to visit Indians to find out Document is housed in the Regional National Archives in Chicago Assignment With a partner read your section of the 1922 survey and in your journals complete the following three parts: 1.What did you learn about the Lac du Flambeau Indians living on the reservation during this time? - be specific with your observations & be sure to look at various aspects of their lives… what can you learn about them Assignment continued 2. What questions do you have when looking at this document? What would you like to learn more about? 3. Make a comparison of life for the Indians on the reservations and life for white people not part of the reservations that we have learned about. Create a Venn diagram to complete your comparison of the different cultures 1922 Industrial Survey Discussion What did you learn about life on the reservations during the 1920s? What questions did you have while reading this survey? What did you find particularly interesting about the survey? Do you think that the surveyors held any bias while completing the survey of the Indians? If so explain. The Depression and Indian New Deal What are the conditions in Indian reservations at this time? Government commissions a study to find out: The Problem of Indian Administration, 1928 (the Meriam Report) Actions after study: Revised Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Reorganization Act Assignment Read the segment of the Meriam Report that is handed out and answer the six worksheet questions Meriam Report: “The Work of the Government in Behalf of the Indians” “The work of the government directed toward the education and advancement of the Indian himself… is largely ineffective.” Some Findings on Government Management (Meriam Report) Poorly trained educators for school & life Lack of $ = poor health care system Education in boarding schools most common Poor diets, crowded living quarters Under-trained teachers Inflexibility of curriculum – expect same from all students (even those who don’t speak English) Little Economic development on reservations Little agricultural training Few jobs on/off reservation Indian Boarding School – Tomah, WI Date: 1912 Date: 1910 http://farm8.staticfl ickr.com/7248/759 5464924_6e0176 2ded_o.jpg Life on the Reservations Lac du Flambeau family – notice what’s in the background. Discussion… speculation!! How do you think the Great Depression affects Indians on the reservations? Why do you think life on the reservations was so poor at this time? “Indian New Deal” 1924 – Indians received full citizenship John Collier – commissioner of Indian affairs (appointed by FDR) Indian Reorganization Act 1934 Moves away from assimilation toward Indian autonomy Helps restore some reservation lands to tribal ownership John Collier – Commissioner of Indian Affairs http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Elmer_Thoma s,_Claude_M._Hirst,_and_John_Collier.jpg “Indian New Deal” continued… Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA) Mandates changes in 3 areas Economic – Indian lands would belong to entire tribe… prevents lands from being sold off Cultural - # of boarding schools cut & children allowed to attend reservation school Political – tribes given permission to elect tribal councils to rule their reservations Mixed Reactions to IRA: 174 tribes accept / 78 tribes reject Like Regained lost reservation lands Moved forward in education / cultural preservation More control over affairs Dislike Indians disliked changes of govt. structure Underestimates diversity of tribes white men still telling Indians what’s best for them End of Indian Reorganization Act… WWII WWII – Iconic Images Turn to page 788 in your text. Class reading & discussion of questions A Closer Look at Ira Hayes Pima Indian (Arizona) Chief told him to be a “honorable warrior” Joined Marines – parachutist “Chief Falling Cloud” – respected marine Became part of Iwo Jima battle & helped raise flag The Picture Changed His Life… Traveled country as hero Struggled w/ “hero” status After publicity tour returned to his reservation Wants anonymity… people write hundreds of letters / stop by to see him Uses alcohol to ease pain Dies of exposure at age of 33 How involved were Indians in WWII? No group that participated in World War II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war. 44,000 Indians saw service / 350,000 Indians in U.S. (Roughly 12% of the Indian Pop.) This represented 1/3 of all able-bodied Indian men from 18 to 50 years of age Indians in WWII Pearl Harbor awakens “warrior spirit” among Indians Navajo code talkers in the Pacific - USMC Many volunteer Indian Nations declare war on Axis powers Indians distinguish themselves as warriors Navajo “code talkers” allow U.S. to send messages that would never be broken by Japanese Indians in WWII Not all served in the military… many were in the factories ~40,000 Indians work in factories Purchase war bonds Donated money to Red Cross Women learn new roles – on & off reservations WWII Impact on Indians Causes Indians to move to cities Exposes Indians to white man’s world… + Learn about education, health care, economic possibilities, many opportunities - Don’t want to lose tribal identity & custom… work to further promote their interests ** Begin to work within both worlds Navajo Code Activity Complete the Navajo Code Activity Sheet GOOD LUCK!! Ojibwe Treaty Rights… Today The Wisconsin Spearfishing Controversy What was the issue? During the 1980s many Ojibwe Indians decided to use their off-reservation hunting rights as given to them by mid-19th Century treaties Some non-Indians felt that this would lead to the closing of certain bodies of water to sport fishers who wanted to fish walleye and eventually hurt tourism in Northern Wisconsin Spear fishing takes place at night w/ use of a light Boat landings become prime spot for protests… they become increasingly violent This is an example of the spear used by today’s Indians Traditional spearfishing took place at night with the use of a spear and fire Spear This! http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_NSAQjsCzwcE/TORi68M3CWI/AAAAA AAABSs/g7dHveKUIZE/s1600/SaveAWalleye.gif http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/artifacts/archives/concre te_walleye_2.jpg http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/museum/artifacts/archives/00214 6.asp The State Acts Gov. Thompson – wants an injunction to stop Ojibwe from spearfishing to prevent more violence Judge rules that Ojibwe broke no laws and therefore should not be punished… more severe punishments were applied to militant protesters Judge does require Ojibwe to limit & monitor fish harvested The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) was created to regulate and restock the lakes – both on and off the reservation. This is an example of an Ojibwe spearfishing permit. How are things today? Peace has returned to the Northwoods, but what are today’s issues? Read the assigned article for tomorrow: From Enemies to Allies: Native Americans and whites transformed violent treaty conflicts into a powerful environmental movement in Wisconsin.