Wisconsin Ojibwe PowerPoint

A look at the Ojibwe (Chippewa)
Ojibwe Bands in Wisconsin
Red Cliff
Lac Courte Oreilles
Bad River
Lac du Flambeau
Mole Lake
St. Croix
All 6 of these Wisconsin tribes are part of the
Lake Superior Bands of Ojibwe Indians.
Wisconsin Indian reservations as they sit
How do the Ojibwe come to be
on the reservations?
• Series of treaties cedes land to
– Definition: to relinquish (hand over) lands in
your possession
1837 “Pine Tree Treaty”
• Results: ~1/2 of WI ceded
• Why: Govt. wants pine in north
• Terms:
– Govt. pays Indians - $19,000
– Indians retain “traditional” rights to
• Problems
– Division of $
– Understanding meaning of
1842 “Copper Treaty”
• Cession of lands for
mining around Lake
• Indians need
money… agree
• Treaty hints at
View from Lake Superior
Indians React
• Ojibwe send
delegation to D.C.
– Leader: Chief Buffalo
– Interpreter Benjamin
• Issues to discuss
– Removal order
– Wrongs done to
– “traditional rights”
agreed upon in ceded
“Symbolic Petition of the Chippewa Chiefs, 1849”
Delegation to Washington carried this pictograph with them indicating their
wants. The animals represent the various Lake Superior clans traveling along
Lake Superior. Their unity of purpose is depicted by the lines linking together
Their hears and eyes to a chain of wild rice lakes in ceded territory south of
Lake Superior.
Indian pictograph that was sent to Washington to show the president how the Indians
felt about him and what they were willing to do.
Result of trip: 1854 Treaty at
La Pointe
• Terms of Treaty
– Refuse to cede more land until reservations in
WI established
• Takes 20 yrs for land to be chosen & given
– Allotment of individual Indian lands
• Individual Indians earn titles to land
• Indians forced to sell lands… don’t understand
Life on the Reservations
1922 Lac du Flambeau Indian
Industrial Survey
What is the 1922 Industrial Survey?
 Government wanted to know how Indians on
the reservations were doing
 Sent workers out to visit Indians to find out
 Document is housed in the Regional
National Archives in Chicago
With a partner read your section of the 1922 survey
and in your journals complete the following three
1.What did you learn about the Lac du Flambeau
Indians living on the reservation during this time?
- be specific with your observations & be
sure to look at various aspects of their
lives… what can you learn about them
Assignment continued
2. What questions do you have when looking at
this document? What would you like to learn
more about?
3. Make a comparison of life for the Indians on the
reservations and life for white people not part of
the reservations that we have learned about.
Create a Venn diagram to complete
your comparison of the different
1922 Industrial Survey Discussion
 What did you learn about life on the
reservations during the 1920s?
 What questions did you have while reading
this survey?
 What did you find particularly interesting
about the survey?
 Do you think that the surveyors held any
bias while completing the survey of the
Indians? If so explain.
The Depression and
Indian New Deal
What are the conditions in Indian
reservations at this time?
Government commissions a study to
find out:
The Problem of Indian Administration, 1928
(the Meriam Report)
Actions after study:
Revised Bureau of Indian Affairs and the
Indian Reorganization Act
Read the segment of the Meriam
Report that is handed out and answer
the six worksheet questions
Meriam Report:
“The Work of the Government in
Behalf of the Indians”
“The work of the government directed
toward the education and
advancement of the Indian himself…
is largely ineffective.”
Some Findings on Government
Management (Meriam Report)
Poorly trained educators for school & life
Lack of $ = poor health care system
Education in boarding schools most
Poor diets, crowded living quarters
Under-trained teachers
Inflexibility of curriculum – expect same from all
students (even those who don’t speak English)
Little Economic development on
Little agricultural training
Few jobs on/off reservation
Indian Boarding School – Tomah, WI
Date: 1912
Date: 1910
Life on the Reservations
Lac du Flambeau family – notice what’s in the background.
Discussion… speculation!!
How do you think the Great
Depression affects Indians on the
Why do you think life on the
reservations was so poor at this time?
“Indian New Deal”
1924 – Indians received full
John Collier – commissioner of
Indian affairs (appointed by FDR)
Indian Reorganization Act 1934
Moves away from assimilation toward Indian
Helps restore some reservation lands to
tribal ownership
John Collier – Commissioner of
Indian Affairs
“Indian New Deal” continued…
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Mandates changes in 3 areas
Economic – Indian lands would belong to
entire tribe… prevents lands from being sold
Cultural - # of boarding schools cut &
children allowed to attend reservation school
Political – tribes given permission to elect
tribal councils to rule their reservations
Mixed Reactions to IRA:
174 tribes accept / 78 tribes reject
Regained lost reservation lands
Moved forward in education / cultural
More control over affairs
Indians disliked changes of govt. structure
Underestimates diversity of tribes
white men still telling Indians what’s best for
End of Indian Reorganization
WWII – Iconic Images
Turn to page
788 in your text.
Class reading &
discussion of
A Closer Look at Ira Hayes
Pima Indian (Arizona)
Chief told him to be a
“honorable warrior”
Joined Marines – parachutist
“Chief Falling Cloud” –
respected marine
Became part of Iwo Jima
battle & helped raise flag
The Picture Changed His Life…
Traveled country as hero
Struggled w/ “hero” status
After publicity tour returned
to his reservation
Wants anonymity… people
write hundreds of letters / stop
by to see him
Uses alcohol to ease pain
Dies of exposure at age of 33
How involved were Indians in
No group that participated in World War II made
a greater per capita contribution, and no group
was changed more by the war.
44,000 Indians saw service / 350,000 Indians in U.S.
(Roughly 12% of the Indian Pop.)
This represented 1/3 of all able-bodied Indian men
from 18 to 50 years of age
Indians in WWII
Pearl Harbor awakens
“warrior spirit” among
Navajo code talkers in the
Pacific - USMC
Many volunteer
Indian Nations declare war
on Axis powers
Indians distinguish
themselves as warriors
Navajo “code talkers” allow
U.S. to send messages that
would never be broken by
Indians in WWII
Not all served in the military… many were
in the factories
~40,000 Indians work in factories
Purchase war bonds
Donated money to Red Cross
Women learn new roles – on & off
WWII Impact on Indians
Causes Indians to move to cities
Exposes Indians to white man’s world…
+ Learn about education, health care, economic
possibilities, many opportunities
- Don’t want to lose tribal identity & custom…
work to further promote their interests
** Begin to work within both worlds
Navajo Code Activity
Complete the Navajo Code Activity Sheet
Ojibwe Treaty
The Wisconsin Spearfishing
What was the issue?
 During the 1980s many Ojibwe Indians
decided to use their off-reservation hunting
rights as given to them by mid-19th
Century treaties
 Some non-Indians felt that this would lead
to the closing of certain bodies of water to
sport fishers who wanted to fish walleye
and eventually hurt tourism in Northern
 Spear fishing takes
place at night w/
use of a light
 Boat landings
become prime spot
for protests… they
increasingly violent
This is an example of the
spear used by today’s
Traditional spearfishing
took place at night with the
use of a spear and fire
Spear This!
The State Acts
 Gov. Thompson – wants an injunction to stop
Ojibwe from spearfishing to prevent more
 Judge rules that Ojibwe broke no laws and
therefore should not be punished… more
severe punishments were applied to militant
 Judge does require Ojibwe to limit & monitor
fish harvested
The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) was
created to regulate and restock the lakes – both on and off the reservation.
This is an example of an Ojibwe spearfishing permit.
How are things
Peace has returned to the Northwoods, but what
are today’s issues?
Read the assigned article for tomorrow: From
Enemies to Allies: Native Americans and
whites transformed violent treaty conflicts
into a powerful environmental movement in

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