NLP Tools

Report
NLP Tools
By : Asef pourmasoumi
Hossein Kamyar
Supervisor : Dr. Kahani
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Sentence splitter & Tokenizer
Stemming
Discourse analysis
Coreference Resolution
Named entity recognition (NER)
Natural language generation
Natural language understanding
Part of speech tagging (POS)
Optical character recognition (OCR)
Semantic role labeling (SRL)
Parsing & Chunker
Relationship extraction
Question answering
Text Summarization
Summarization Evaluation
NLP Tasks
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Machine Translation
Sentiment analysis
Speech recognition
Speech segmentation
Topic segmentation
Word sense disambiguation
Text simplification
Text-to-speech
Query expansion
RTE
Text to image
Clustering & Classification & IR
And …
NLP Tasks
Sentence breaking ,sentence boundary disambiguation
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GATE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
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Sentence Segmentation tool
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download link : http://cogcomp.cs.illinois.edu/page/tools_view/2
UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD
• including the part-of-speech (POS) tagger, the named entity recognizer (NER),
the parser, and the coreference resolution system.
• download link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml
MontyTagger
• link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/
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Ling Pipe
OpenNLP
• link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html
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Natural Language Toolkit
• open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux.
• link : http://www.nltk.org/download
Sentence splitter & Tokenizer
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Oleander Porter's algorithm - stemming library in C++ released under BSD
Lovins stemming algorithm - with source code in a couple of languages
Porter stemming algorithm - including source code in several languages
Lancaster stemming algorithm - Lancaster University, UK
UEA-Lite Stemmer - University of East Anglia, UK
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Themis - open source IR framework, includes Porter stemmer implementation (PostgreSQL,
Java API)
Snowball - free stemming algorithms for many languages, includes source code, including
stemmers for five romance languages
PTStemmer - A Java/Python/.Net stemming toolkit for the Portuguese language
jsSnowball - open source JavaScript implementation of Snowball stemming algorithms for
many languages
hindi_stemmer - open source stemmer for Hindi
czech_stemmer - open source stemmer for Czech
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Stemming
CR determines which words("mentions") refer to the same objects ("entities").
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Illinois has online & downloadable CR
UNIVERSITY OF STANFORD
• integrated in the Stanford suite of NLP tools, StanfordCoreNLP.
• download link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/corenlp.shtml
Ling Pipe
OpenNLP
• link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html
Natural Language Toolkit
• download link : http://www.nltk.org/download
BART (Beautiful Anaphora Resolution Toolkit.)
• download link : http://www.bart-coref.org/
Guitar (A General Tool for Anaphora Resolution)
• download link : http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/Research/nle/GuiTAR/
Coreference Resolution
• Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as
people or places, and what the type of each such name is (e.g. person, location,
organization).
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Illinois
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Stanford Natural Language Processing Group
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link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/CRF-NER.shtml
downloadable (written in java) English & German.
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Ling Pipe
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OpenNLP
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link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html
• Natural Language Toolkit
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link : http://www.nltk.org/download
Named entity recognition
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Given a sentence, determine the part of speech for each word. Many words, especially
common ones, can serve as multiple parts of speech. For example, "book" can be a noun
("the book on the table") or verb ("to book a flight").
Illinois
Stanford Natural Language Processing Group
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Ling Pipe
OpenNLP
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link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html
MontyTagger
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link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml
downloadable (written in java). English, Arabic, Chinese.
link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/
Natural Language Toolkit
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open source Python modules, Windows, Mac OSX and Linux.
link : http://www.nltk.org/download
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GATE
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And many others in http://nlp.stanford.edu/links/statnlp.htm
Part of speech tagging
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Illinois has online & downloadable SRL
MontyTagger
• Link : http://web.media.mit.edu/~hugo/montylingua/
ASSERT (Automatic Statistical SEmantic Role Tagger)
• Link : http://cemantix.org/assert.html
• Downloadable, OS : RedHat Linux
• It is designed and implemented by Sameer S. Pradhan, with some initial contribution from
Daniel Gildea at the University of Rochester.
• ASSERT is trained to tag: i) PropBank arguments, ii) Thematic roles, and iii) Opinions, in plain
text.
• SwiRL: The Semantic Role Labeler
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English constructed on top of full syntactic analysis of text using Eugene Charniak's parser.
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SwiRL trains one classifier for each argument label using a rich set of syntactic and semantic features.
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Link : http://www.surdeanu.name/mihai/swirl/
CoNLL-2005 Shared Task: Semantic Role Labeling: Systems & Results
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Link : http://www.lsi.upc.edu/~srlconll/st05/st05.html
Semantic role labeling
Determine the parse tree (grammatical analysis) of a given sentence
• Illinois
• Stanford
• link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tagger.shtml
• downloadable (written in java), English , Arabic, Chinese.
• OpenNLP
• link : http://incubator.apache.org/opennlp/index.html
• Natural Language Toolkit
• link : http://www.nltk.org/download
Parser & Chunker
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Website
List of question-and-answer websites
Founded
Alexa Ranking
Registration?
Allexperts
1998
1957
No
AOL Answers
2006
6634
Yes
Answerbag
2003
1128
Answers
2005
127
Askpedia
Ask Me Help Desk
123765
2003
6686
Askville
Blurtit
No
Yes
Yes
2006
ChaCha
1716
1198
Experts Exchange
1996
1424
Yes
Wolfram Alpha
2009
3883
No
Wikipedia Reference Desk
2001
7
No
Question answering
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Produce a readable summary of a chunk of text. Often used to provide summaries of text of a
known type, such as articles in the financial section of a newspaper.
• http://topicmarks.com/dashboard
• http://www.tools4noobs.com/summarize/
• http://www.uoguelph.ca/~wdarling/summ/
Other
• http://swesum.nada.kth.se/index-eng.html
• http://www.summarization.com/mead/
• http://textcompactor.com/
Multi-document online text summarizer
• http://newsfeedresearcher.com/
• http://iresearch-reporter.com/
• http://shablast.com/
Automatic Summarization
• ROUGE (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation)
• Link : http://berouge.com/default.aspx
• Downloadable, written in Perl.
• MEADeval: (An Evaluation Framework for Extractive Summarization)
• Link: http://tangra.si.umich.edu/clair/meadeval/
• Downloadable, written in Perl
Summarization Evaluation
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EGYPT system System from 1999 JHU workshop. Mainly of historical interest.
GIZA++ and mkcls Franz Och. C++. GPL.
Thot Phrase-based model building kit
Phramer An Open-Source Java Statistical Phrase-Based MT Decoder
Moses A new open-source phrase-based MT decoder with functionality beyond Pharaoh.
SRILM : For creating n-grams.
Syntax Augmented Machine Translation via Chart Parsing Andreas Zollmann and Ashish
Rewrite a decoder for IBM Model
BLEU scoring tool for machine translation evaluation
Free, but getting them requires hassle
• Pharaoh decoder Philip Koehn, ISI.
• MTTK Machine Translation Tool Kit. Deng and Byrne.
• Stanford : Entailment-based MT evaluation
• Link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/mteval.shtml
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Downloadable (written in java)
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It is based on the Stanford RTE system, which performs inference between two short texts,
determining if one is entailed by the other. We use this inference mechanism to predict the
adequacy of MT system output at the segment level compared to a reference translation.
Machine Translation
Venugopal
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Given a chunk of text, separate it into segments each of which is devoted to a topic, and identify
the topic of the segment.
• Stanford
• Link : http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/tmt/tmt-0.3/
• Downloadable (written in java)
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English , Arabic, Chinese version 14.7MB,
• Features
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Import and manipulate text from cells in Excel and other spreadsheets.
Train topic models (LDA and Labeled LDA) to create summaries of the text.
Select parameters (such as the number of topics) via a data-driven process.
Generate rich Excel-compatible outputs for tracking word usage across topics,
time, and other groupings of data.
Topic segmentation
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Many words have more than one meaning; we have to select the meaning which makes the most
sense in context. For this problem, we are typically given a list of words and associated word
senses, e.g. from a dictionary or from an online resource such as WordNet.
• WordNet::SenseRelate
• Link : http://senserelate.sourceforge.net/
• Two different word sense disambiguation algorithms,
• WordNet-SenseRelate-AllWords :Assigns a sense to each word in a text.
• WordNet-SenseRelate-TargetWord : Assigns a sense to a given target word.
• WordNet-SenseRelate-WordToSet : Assigns the meaning to a word that is most related to a
given set of words.
• They carry out word sense disambiguation by measuring the semantic similarity between a word
and its neighbors. In particular, a word is assigned the sense that is most related to its neighbors.
• GWSD is a system for unsupervised all-words graph-based word sense disambiguation
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Link : http://lit.csci.unt.edu/~rada/downloads/GWSD/GWSD.1.0.tar.gz
Word sense disambiguation
Name
AlchemyAPI
Antelope framework
Apertium
Cogito
Language
C, C++, C#, Java,
Python, Perl, Ruby
C#, VB.net
C++, Java
Creators
site
Orchestr8
[1]
Proxem
Expert System S.p.A.
[2]
[3]
[4]
(various)
Carabao Language Kit
Any COM+ compliant
language.
Digital Sonata Pty Ltd
[5]
DELPH-IN
LISP, C++
Deep Linguistic Processing with HPSG Initiative
[6]
Distinguo
Ellogon
C++
Ultralingua Inc.
C / C++
Georgios Petasis
[7]
[8]
FreeLing
C++
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
[9]
GATE open source community
[10]
Startup huti.ru
[11]
General Architecture for
Java
Text Engineering
Java
Graph Expression
Learning Based Java
Java
Cognitive Computation Group at the University of Illinois
[12]
LingPipe
Java
Alias-i
[13]
LinguaStream
Java
University of Caen, France
[14]
List of Toolkits
Name
Mallet
MII nlp toolkit
Modular Audio Recognition
Framework
MontyLingua
Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK)
NooJ (based on INTEX)
OpenNLP
Language
Creators
site
Java
University of Massachusetts Amherst
[15]
Java
UCLA Medical Imaging Informatics (MII) Group
[16]
Java
The MARF Research and Development Group, Concordia
[17]
University
Python, Java
MIT
Python
[18]
[19]
.NET
University of Franche-Comté, France
[20]
Java
C, C++, Java,
.NET
Scala
Online community
[21]
Basis Technology
[22]
David Hall and Daniel Ramage
[23]
Java
The Stanford Natural Language Processing Group
[24]
Java
University of Cologne
[25]
Java
Thinktelligence Corporation
[26]
Java / C++
Apache
[27]
WebLab-project
Java
OW2
[28]
UniteX
The Dragon Toolkit
Java & C++
Laboratoire d'Automatique Documentaire et Linguistique [29]
Java
Drexel University
[30]
Factorie
Java
University of Massachusetts Amherst
[31]
Silpa Indic Language Processing
Toolkit
Python
Silpa opensource community developers
[32]
Rosette
ScalaNLP
Stanford NLP
Text Engineering Software
Laboratoryz(Tesla)
Thinktelligence Delegator
UIMA
List of Toolkits
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LDC (Linguistic Data Consortium) link and its catalogue by year. Email: [email protected]
Provides the largest range of corpora on CD-ROM. Cost ranges from cheap (e.g., ACL-DCI
disk) to pricey. CDs can be purchased individually; institutions can become members and
receive discounts on CDs.
European Language Resources Association link and its catalogue. Distribution agency is
ELDA. Rapidly growing collection of materials in European languages.
ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern English) link Sells various corpora
(including Brown and London-Lund).
Reuters @ NIST link Reuters corpora are now distributed by NIST.
TRACTOR link TELRI Research Archive of Computational Tools and Resource. Corpora,
many multilingual, in European community languages.
CLR (Consortium for Lexical Research) link. Focuses more on language processing tools
and lexicons, but does have some corpora.
OTA (Oxford Text Archive) link Provides mainly literary texts. Has a bright new web site.
Most materials are available on the web or by anonymous ftp to ota.ox.ac.uk.
Leipzig Corpora Collection link Sentence collections in MySQL database for 17 mainly
European languages.
Corpora
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BNC (British National Corpus) link A 100 million word corpus of British English And now,
an XML edition.
European Corpus Initiative Multilingual Corpus I (ECI/MCI)link A 98 million word
corpus, covering most of the major European languages, as well as Turkish, Japanese, Russian,
Chinese, and Malay. Cheap.
Survey of English Usage link At the Department of English Language and Literature at
University College London. Includes the British part of ICE, the International Corpus of
English project. Now available tagged, and parsed for function. 83,419 sentences. Includes
ICECUP, dedicated retrieval software. Also, Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English
(800,000 words, tagged and parsed, half from ICE-GB and half from London-Lund).
International Corpus of English (ICE)link Million word collections of English from various
world Englishes: ICE-NZ, ICE-HK, ICE-East Africa, etc.
Corpora held by Lancaster University link This link provides its own annotations.
The European Language Activity Network link Promises a uniform query language for
accessing corpora in all EU languages -- but isn't quite there yet.
Talkbank link. Rich video and transcripts.
Corpora
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Academic departments with computational linguistics programs
Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems at the University of Edinburgh
Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania
Computational Linguistics & Phonetics at Saarland University
Computational Linguistics and Language Technology at Ohio State University
Stanford Natural Language Processing Group
Computational Linguistics at the University of Washington
Human Language Technology Research Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas
Department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
(Cognitive Computation Group)
Center for Language and Speech Processing at Johns Hopkins University
Non-university computational linguistics groups
German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
NLP Research Group
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Summer Internships and Opportunities
Google Internships
Summer of Code 2008
custom essay
Data Science Summer Institute
NLP Research Sponsors
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Blogs
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Hal Daume III's NLP blog
LingPipe blog (Bob Carpenter)
Fernando Pereira's Structured Learning blog
Language Log
John Langford's Machine Learning blog
Jamie Pennebaker's Wordwatcher's blog
Video lectures
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ACL Video Archive
Videos of Machine Learning lectures
Machine Learning and Cognitive Science 2007 – includes talks by Chris Manning, Sharon Goldwater,
John Goldsmith, and others.
MIT workshop: Where Does Syntax Come From? Have We All Been Wrong? – speakers include Chris
Manning, Noam Chomsky, Partha Niyogi, Howard Lasnik and Joshua Tenenbaum.
NIPS 2007 tutorials – including Geoffrey Hinton, Ben Taskar, and Robert Shapire.
Graduate Summer School: Probabilistic Models of Cognition: The Mathematics of Mind (July 9 - 26,
2007) – slides and webcast links of all the talks. A lot of good introductory stuffs on graphical models,
Bayesian learning, etc.
Microsoft Research – Videos on Researchchannel.
Google Roundtable
Blogs, Video Lectures
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General (World Wide): ACL / ANLP / COLING / LREC / HLT
General (USA): NAACL / CICLING
General (Europe): EACL / RANLP / AMLaP
General (Asia): ijc-NLP (formerly, NLPRS) / PACLIC / PACLING / JNLP / IALP
Formal Grammar: FG / LFG / HPSG / TAG+
Machine Learning: ICML / ECML / NIPS
Statistical NLP: EMNLP / CoNLL / WVLC
Information Retrieval: SIGIR / ECIR
Computational Semantics: IWCS / ICoS
Others: IWPT / WAS / MOL / SENSEVAL / FSMNLP
Conferences
• NLP/CL
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Computational Linguistics link
Natural Language Engineering link
Journal on Research on Language and Computation link
Language Resources and Evaluation link (Formerly Computers and the Humanities)
Research on Language and Computation link (More)
Logic, Language and Information link
Computer Speech and Language link
Linguistic Issues in Language Technology link (LiLT)
Journal of Interesting Negative Results in Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning
CfP: Interesting Negative Results in Summarization link
Terminology link
Traitement Automatique des Langues link
CfP: Special Issue on Scaling NLP link
Texto! link
Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory link
ICAME Journal link
Journals
• IR/IS
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Information Retrieval link
D-Lib Magazine link
Information Processing & Management link
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology link
Information Science link
Information Development link
Information Design Journal + Document Design link
• Speech Processing
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International Journal of Speech Technology link
Speech Communication link
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America link
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing link
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech & Language Processing link
CfP: Special Issue on New Approaches to Statistical Speech and Text Processing link
Journals
• Linguistics
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[email protected] link
Lingua link
Natural Language & Linguistic Theory link
Natural Language Semantics link
Cambridge Occassional Papers in Linguistics link
System link
Speculative Grammarian link
• Discourse/Pragmatics
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Discourse Processes link
Text & Talk link
Multicultural Discourses link
Journal of Pragmatics link
Journals
• Language and Identity
• Language in Society link
• Journal of Language, Identity, and Education link
• Language & Intercultural Communication link
• BioInformatics
• Bioinformatics link
• Biomedical Informatics link
• Applied Bioinformatics link
• Online Journal of Bioinformatics link
• In Silico Biology link
• Artificial Intelligence in Medicine link
Journals
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http://lac.essex.ac.uk/vm
http://comp.ling.utexas.edu/wiki/doku.php/nlp_links
http://www-a2k.is.tokushima-u.ac.jp/member/kita/NLP/nlp.html
http://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/~csporled/page.php?id=tools
http://www.elsnet.org/toolslist.html
http://zope.bioinfo.cnio.es/bionlp_tools/all_bionlp_tools
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_language_processing_toolkits
Supplementary Links
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