Overview of Advance Behavior Analysis

Reinforcement: Part 2
Week 6: Increasing and Decreasing
Differential Reinforcement
• Reinforcing one response class while
withholding reinforcement from another
– Popularity & Restrictiveness
– Extinction is a component of D.R.
– Two concurrent operants on separate schedules of
• DRI: Reinforce a behavior that cannot occur at
the same time as the target behavior to be
– E.g. Inappropriate verbalizations
• DRA: Reinforce a behavior that is different in
topography but serves the same function
– Could be compatible!
– E.g. Talking out
Your turn
• Write down one example of how:
– Differential Negative Reinforcement may be used
• Incompatible behavior
• Alternative Behavior
Guidelines for using DRI/DRA
• Select behavior already in learner’s repetoire
• Occurring often enough to contact
• Equal or lesser effort compared to target
• Likely to be reinforced naturally
• Consistency in reinforcer/extinction delivery
– 100% integrity not required, but better.
DRO (other or “zero”)
• Providing reinforcement for no responding
• Interval DRO:
– Fixed: Your turn
– Variable: Your Turn
• Momentary DRO:
– Fixed: Your Turn
– Variable: Your Turn
Guidelines for Using DRO
• Recognize limitations of DRO
• Set intervals that assure frequent reinforcement
• Watch out for accidental reinforcement of other
negative behavior
• Gradually increase DRO Interval
– Constant duration, proportionally, learners
• Generalize application to Other: Times, settings,
practitioners, etc.
• Reinforcement for lower rates of behavior
– Full session DRL: Really a VI Schedule (based on all full
• Use if zero levels are appropriate
– Interval DRL: Divide session into equal intervals and
provide R+
• Use if full session will not provide sufficient R+ Rate
– Spaced-Responding DRL: Set time limit between
intervals (i.e. increasing IRT).
• Use if you want to maintain the behavior but at a lower rate
Guidelines for using DRL
Recognize limitations
Choose most appropriate procedures
Use Baseline data to guide Initial IRT Limits
Gradually Thin the DRL schedule
Provide feedback to the learner
Behavior Analytic ProblemSolving Model
Beginning to pull it all together
• Contextual Variables:
– Behavior occurs in some contexts but not others
• Antecedent Stimuli: Environmental Triggers
• Individual Mediators: Internal Triggers
• Individual Behavior Deficits:
– Try to reframe all behavior this way (your turn)
• Behavior:
– Not enough R+ or too much response effort
• Consequences:
– Consider function (careful of response topography and response

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