Unit 1: The Periodic Table

Report
Unit 1: The Periodic Table
UNIT 1: The Periodic Table
Part 1: Trends in the periodic table
The Periodic Table
LO 1. Describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying
elements and its use to predict properties of elements.
LO 2 Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character
across a Period
LO 3Describe the relationship between Group number, number of
valency electrons and metallic/non-metallic character.
Complete the STARTER activity within
your hand out.
Start Timer
5 Minutes
5
4
3
2
1
0
Why is the Periodic Table
important to me?
• The periodic table
is the most useful
tool to a chemist.
• You get to use it on
every test.
• It organizes lots of
information about
all the known
elements.
Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …
• …was a mess!!!
• No organization of
elements.
• Imagine going to a
grocery store with no
organization!!
• Difficult to find
information.
• Chemistry didn’t make
sense.
Dmitri Mendeleev: Father of the Table
HOW HIS WORKED…
• Put elements in rows by
increasing atomic
weight.
• Put elements in columns
by the way they
reacted.
SOME PROBLEMS…
• He left blank spaces for
what he said were
undiscovered elements.
(Turned out he was
right!)
• He broke the pattern of
increasing atomic weight
to keep similar reacting
elements together.
The Current Periodic Table
• Mendeleev wasn’t too far off.
• Now the elements are put in rows by
ATOMIC NUMBER!!
increasing
• The horizontal rows are called periods and
are labeled from 1 to 7.
• The vertical columns are called groups are
labeled from 1 to 18.
Groups…Here’s Where the
Periodic Table Gets Useful!!
• Elements in
the same
group have
similar
chemical and
physical
properties!!
•
(Mendeleev did that on
purpose.)
Why??
• They have the
same number of
valence electrons.
• They will form the
same kinds of ions.
Families on the Periodic Table
• Columns are also
grouped into families.
• Families may be one
column, or several
columns put together.
• Families have names
rather than numbers.
(Just like your family
has a common last
name.)
Hydrogen
• Hydrogen belongs to a
family of its own.
• Hydrogen is a diatomic,
reactive gas.
• Hydrogen was involved in
the explosion of the
Hindenberg.
• Hydrogen is promising as
an alternative fuel source
for automobiles
Alkali Metals
• 1st column on the
periodic table (Group
1) not including
hydrogen.
• Very reactive metals,
always combined with
something else in
nature (like in salt).
• Soft enough to cut
with a butter knife
Alkaline Earth Metals
• Second column on the
periodic table. (Group
2)
• Reactive metals that are
always combined with
nonmetals in nature.
• Several of these
elements are important
mineral nutrients (such
as Mg and Ca
Transition Metals
• Less reactive harder
metals
• Includes metals used
in jewelry and
construction.
• Metals used “as
metal.”
Group 3
• Elements in group 3
• Aluminum metal was
once rare and
expensive, not a
“disposable metal.”
Group 4
• Elements in group 4
• Contains elements
important to life and
computers.
• Carbon is the basis for
an entire branch of
chemistry.
• Silicon and
Germanium are
important
semiconductors.
Group 5
• Elements in group 5
• Nitrogen makes up over
¾ of the atmosphere.
• Nitrogen and
phosphorus are both
important in living
things.
• Most of the world’s
nitrogen is not available
to living things.
• The red stuff on the tip
of matches is
phosphorus.
Group 6
• Elements in group 6
• Oxygen is necessary
for respiration.
• Many things that
stink, contain sulfur
(rotten eggs, garlic,
skunks,etc.)
Halogens
• Elements in group 7
• Very reactive, volatile,
diatomic, nonmetals
• Always found
combined with other
element in nature .
• Used as disinfectants
and to strengthen
teeth.
The Noble Gases
UNIT 1: The Periodic Table
Part 2: Group 1
Lesson Objectives
• Describe the properties and reactivity
of lithium, sodium and potassium in
Group 1
• Use the trends within the group to
predict the properties of other
elements.
Group I
Where are the alkali metals?
The elements in group 1, on the left of the periodic table, are
called the alkali metals.
lithium
Li
sodium
Na
potassium
K
rubidium
Rb
caesium
Cs
francium
Fr
These metals are all very reactive and are rarely found in
nature in their elemental form.
Why are they called the ‘alkali metals’?
The alkali metals are so
reactive that, as elements,
they have to be stored in
oil. This stops them reacting
with oxygen in the air.
Alkali metals are soft enough to be cut with a knife, and the
most common alkali metals, lithium, sodium and potassium, all
float on water.
The elements in group 1 also react with water and form alkaline
compounds. This is why they are called alkali metals.
What are the properties of the alkali metals?
The characteristic properties of the alkali metals are:
 They are soft and can be cut by a knife.
Softness increases going down the group.
 They have a low density.
Lithium, sodium and potassium float on water.
 They have low melting and boiling points.
These properties mean that the alkali metals are different to typical
metals. However, alkali metals do also share some properties with
typical metals:
 They are good conductors of heat
and electricity.
 They are shiny. This is only seen
when alkali metals are freshly cut.
What are the trends in density?
What is the trend in density?
The alkali metals generally become more dense going down the
group, but the trend is not perfect because potassium is less dense
than sodium.
Element
Density (g/dm3)
lithium
0.53
sodium
0.97
potassium
0.86
rubidium
1.53
caesium
1.87
Water has a density of 1g/dm3.
Which elements in group 1 will float on water?
What are the trends in melting point?
What are the trends in boiling point?
What is the trend in melting and boiling points?
The melting points and boiling points of alkali metals decrease
going down the group.
Element
Melting point (°C)
Boiling point (°C)
lithium
181
1342
sodium
98
883
potassium
64
760
rubidium
caesium
39
28
686
671
The melting and boiling points decrease going down group 1 because
the atoms get larger. Melting points are lower than for typical,
transition, metals, because alkali metals only have 1 electron in their
outer shell. Not much heat energy is needed for this electron to be
lost.
Trends in Chemical Reactivity
Reactions all involve the loss of the
outermost electron which changes the
metal atom into a metal 1+ ion.
Losing this electron seems to get easier
as we go down the group.
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Reactivity Increases
Reactivity increases down the group.
1. The outer electron (-) gets further
from the nucleus (+) as you go down
the group. This reduces the force of
attraction.
2. The inner shells ‘shield’ the
outermost electron from the
attraction from the nucleus.
Both factors make it easier to lose
the outer electron as you go down
the group.
Reactivity Increases
Reactivity and Electron Structures
Reaction with Water
The Group 1 elements all react
vigorously with water.
Hydrogen gas is produced which
sometimes catches fire.
An alkali is left behind in the
solution which is why these
elements are often called ‘The
Alkali Metals’.
Reaction of Lithium
Li
H
H
Li
O
H
H
O
O H
+
Li
+
Li
H
H
-
O H
Reaction of Lithium with Water
Lithium fizzes quickly in water forming lithium hydroxide and
hydrogen.
Lithium + water g Lithium hydroxide + hydrogen
2Li(s) + 2H2O(l)
2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)
The solution that remains is strongly
alkaline.
Reaction of Sodium with Water
Sodium fizzes very quickly in water. The gas given off can be
ignited by a lighted splint.
Sodium + water g Sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)
sodium on water
2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
enlarged
Potassium with Water
• Lithium fizzes. Sodium reacts more vigorously.
• What will potassium do?
What will the word equation and chemical
equations be for the reaction of potassium
with water?
Potassium + water
Potassium + water
2K(s) + 2H2O(l)
Potassium hydroxide + hydrogen
2KOH(aq) + H2(g)
The Group 1 Metals and oxygen
The Group 1 elements burn in air to form metal oxides. Don’t
try to put them out with water!
Lithium + oxygen
4Li (s) + O2(g)

Lithium Oxide
2 Li2O (s)
What will the word equation and chemical equations be for the reaction of
sodium with air?
Sodium + oxygen 
sodium oxide
4 Na(s) + O2 (g)
2Na2O (s)
The Group 1 Metals and chlorine
The Group 1 elements burn in chlorine to form metal
chlorides.
Lithium + chlorine

2Li (s) + Cl2(g)
2 LiCl (s)
Lithium chloride
What will the word equation and chemical equations be for the reaction of
sodium with chlorine?
Sodium + chlorine 
2 Na(s) + Cl2 (g)
Sodium chloride
2NaCl (s)
Uses of the Group 1 Metals
The metals themselves are too reactive to have
many uses although sodium vapour gives street
lights their yellow glow.
Lithium metal is used to improve the strength of
aircraft alloys and is also used in some electrical
batteries.
Common sodium compounds include “salt”, (sodium
chloride), “bicarbonate” (sodium hydrogen
carbonate), washing soda (sodium carbonate) and
caustic soda (sodium hydroxide.)
Potassium compounds are used in “NPK fertilisers”,
in weedkillers, explosives and many other chemicals.
sodium light
potassium
UNIT 1: The Periodic Table
Part 3: Reactivity Series
Reactivity Series
• There are lots of different metals on Earth and they
all behave differently.
• You may have tested properties of many metals. For
example, strength and hardness. These are physical
properties.
• The chemical properties are also important. How
fast they react with water or acid is a chemical
property.
Reactivity Series
• Let us look at the 4 metals – copper, iron,
magnesium and zinc.
Reactivity Series
• When each of these metals are added to
hydrochloric acid (HCl) they react. Some react
faster than others.
• Let us now take a look at the reactions.
Reactivity Series
• Can you put the metals into the order of
reactivity (with the most reactive first and the
least reactive last)?
• 1 – Magnesium (Mg)
Most reactive
• 2 – Zinc (Zn)
• 3 – Iron (Fe)
• 4 – Copper (Cu)
Least reactive
Metal Displacement Reactions
• The metals displacement reaction can be quite
confusing, so pay attention very carefully!!!
• In this reaction we are going to react the four metals
we have just looked at (Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn) with different
solutions.
• The solutions are:
•
•
•
•
Copper sulphate
Magnesium sulphate
Iron sulphate
Zinc sulphate
Salt solutions
Metal Displacement Reactions
• A small piece of each metal is placed on a spotting
tile as shown in the diagram above.
• A few drops of each solution is added to each metals
and observed carefully to see whether it reacts or
not.
Metal Displacement Reactions
• If the metal reacts with the salt solution then we put
a tick in the table and if it doesn’t, we put a cross.
magnesium
zinc
iron
copper
x
x
x
x
magnesium
sulphate

x
x
x
zinc
sulphate


x
x
iron
Sulphate



x
copper
Sulphate
Metal Displacement Reactions
• Let us take a look at the metals in each
reaction.
Metal Displacement Reactions
• Look at the table carefully. Can you see a
pattern?
magnesium
zinc
iron
copper
x
x
x
x
magnesium
sulphate

x
x
x
zinc
sulphate


x
x
iron
Sulphate



x
copper
Sulphate
Metal Displacement Reactions
• The first obvious pattern you will notice is that none of
the metals react with the metal solution containing the
same metal.
• For example:
• magnesium doesn’t react with magnesium sulphate
• copper doesn’t react with copper sulphate
• But there is another pattern. A little more difficult to see
at first sight. Can you see it?
Metal Displacement Reactions
Magnesium + copper sulphate  Reaction
(metal)
(metal in sulphate solution)
Copper + magnesium sulphate  No reaction
(metal) (metal in sulphate solution)
•
•
The first reaction takes place because the metal (red) is more
reactive than the metal in the sulphate solution (green). So the
more reactive metal can displace (‘kick out’) the less reactive
metal.
The second reaction doesn’t take place because the metal (red) is
less reactive than the metal in the sulphate solution (green). So
the less reactive metal cannot displace (‘kick out’) the more
reactive metal.
Metal Displacement Reactions
• Let’s look at an analogy to help us understand.
Mick Magnesium
Carl Copper
+
magnesium
(Mg)
+
copper
sulphate
(Cu)
(SO4)
Suzy Sulphate
Metal Displacement Reaction
•
Magnesium + Copper sulphate  magnesium sulphate + copper
(Mick)
(Carl) (Suzy)
(Mick)
(Suzy)
(Carl)
• Mick Magnesium is a big, strong character.
• Carl Copper is a small weak character who is going out with
Suzy Sulphate.
• Because Mick Magnesium is bigger and stronger he can ‘beat
up’ (displace) Carl Copper and take Suzy Sulphate away.
• So you end up with Mick Magnesium going out with Suzy
Sulphate and Carl Copper on his own.
Metal Displacement Reaction
•
Copper + magnesium sulphate  copper + magnesium sulphate
(Carl)
(Mick)
(Suzy)
(Carl)
(Mick)
(Suzy)
Cu
+
MgSO

Cu
+
MgSO
4
4
• Carl Copper who is a small
and weak character cannot ‘beat
up’ (displace) Mick Magnesium who is a big and strong
character, to take away Suzy Sulphate.
• So, no reaction takes place. It remains the same.
Metal Displacement Reaction
• Let us now relate this to the chemical
reaction:
• A reaction will only take place if the metal is more
reactive than the metal in the sulphate solution.
• N.B.
• DO NOT SAY THAT THE METAL IS STRONGER. IT IS NOT.
IT IS MORE REACTIVE!
UNIT 1: The Periodic Table
Part 5: Metal Extraction (Blast
Furnace
Starter- Without your notes write out the
reactivity series of metals
EXTRACTION
OF METALS
EXTRACTION OF METALS
•Describe the ease in obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to the
reactivity series.
•Describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron from haematite.
•Describe the conversion of iron into steel.
•Describe the idea of changing the properties of iron by the controlled use of additives
to form steel alloys.
•Name the uses of mild steel and stainless steel.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
THEORY
The method used to extract metals depends on the . . .
What do you think chemists consider when deciding which method is
best?
• purity required
• energy requirements
• cost of the reducing agent
• position of the metal in the reactivity series
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
REACTIVITY SERIES
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
C
Zn
Fe
H
Cu
Ag
• lists metals in descending reactivity
• hydrogen and carbon are often added
• the more reactive a metal the less likely it will be found in
its pure, or native, state
• consequently, it will be harder to convert it back to the metal.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
METHODS - GENERAL
Low in series
Cu, Ag
occur native or
extracted by roasting an ore
Middle of series
Zn, Fe
metals below carbon are extracted by reduction
of the oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide
High in series
Na, Al
reactive metals are extracted using electrolysis
- an expensive method due to energy costs
Variations can occur due to special properties of the metal.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
OCCURRENCE
• ores of some metals are very common (iron, aluminium)
• others occur only in limited quantities in selected areas
• high grade ores are cheaper to process because,
ores need to be purified before being reduced to the metal
IRON
EXTRACTION OF IRON
GENERAL PROCESS
• occurs in the BLAST FURNACE
• high temperature process
• continuous
• iron ores are REDUCED by carbon / carbon monoxide
• is possible because iron is below carbon in the reactivity series
EXTRACTION OF IRON
RAW MATERIALS
HAEMATITE - Fe2O3
a source of iron
COKE
fuel / reducing agent
CHEAP AND PLENTIFUL
LIMESTONE
conversion of silica into slag
(calcium silicate) – USED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
AIR
source of oxygen for combustion
THE BLAST FURNACE
G
IN THE BLAST FURNACE IRON
ORE IS REDUCED TO IRON.
A
THE REACTION IS
POSSIBLE BECAUSE
CARBON IS ABOVE IRON
IN THE REACTIVITY
SERIES
C
D
Click on the letters to see
what is taking place
B
B
E
F
THE BLAST FURNACE
COKE, LIMESTONE AND IRON
ORE ARE ADDED AT THE TOP
A
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
HOT AIR IS BLOWN IN NEAR
THE BOTTOM
CARBON + OXYGEN
C + O
CARBON + HEAT
DIOXIDE
CO
2
OXYGEN
IN THE2AIR
REACTS WITH CARBON IN
THE COKE. THE REACTION
IS HIGHLY EXOTHERMIC
AND GIVES OUT HEAT.
B
B
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
THE CARBON DIOXIDE
PRODUCED REACTS WITH
MORE CARBON TO PRODUCE
CARBON MONOXIDE
C
CARBON + CARBON
DIOXIDE
C + CO2
CARBON
MONOXIDE
2CO
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
THE CARBON MONOXIDE
REDUCES THE IRON OXIDE
CARBON + IRON
MONOXIDE OXIDE
3CO + Fe2O3
CARBON + IRON
DIOXIDE
3CO2 + 2Fe
REDUCTION INVOLVES
REMOVING OXYGEN
D
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
SILICA IN THE IRON ORE IS
REMOVED BY REACTING
WITH LIME PRODUCED FROM
THE THERMAL
DECOMPOSITION OF
LIMESTONE
CALCIUM
(SLAG)
CaCO
CaO SILICATE
+ CO2
3
IS PRODUCED
CaO + SiO2
CaSiO
3
MOLTEN SLAG IS RUN
OFF
AND COOLED
E
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
MOLTEN IRON RUNS TO THE
BOTTOM OF THE FURNACE.
IT IS TAKEN OUT (CAST) AT
REGULAR INTERVALS
CAST IRON
- cheap and easily moulded
- used for drainpipes, engine blocks
F
Now move the
cursor away
from the tower
THE BLAST FURNACE
HOT WASTE GASES ARE
RECYCLED TO AVOID
POLLUTION AND SAVE
ENERGY
CARBON MONOXIDE - POISONOUS
SULPHUR DIOXIDE - ACIDIC RAIN
CARBON DIOXIDE - GREENHOUSE GAS
RECAP
G
SLAG PRODUCTION
• silica (sand) is found with the iron ore
• it is removed by reacting it with limestone
• calcium silicate (SLAG) is produced
• molten slag is run off and cooled
• it is used for building blocks and road foundations
SLAG PRODUCTION
• silica (sand) is found with the iron ore
• it is removed by reacting it with limestone
• calcium silicate (SLAG) is produced
• molten slag is run off and cooled
• it is used for building blocks and road foundations
EQUATIONS
limestone decomposes on heating
calcium oxide combines with silica
overall
CaCO3 —> CaO + CO2
CaO + SiO2 —> CaSiO3
CaCO3 + SiO2 —> CaSiO3 + CO2
WASTE GASES AND POLLUTION
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
• sulphur is found in the coke; sulphides occur in the iron ore
• burning sulphur and sulphides
produces sulphur dioxide
S
• sulphur dioxide gives
rise to acid rain
SO2 + H2O
+
O2 ——>
SO2
——> H2SO3
sulphurous acid
CARBON DIOXIDE
• burning fossil fuels increases the amount of this greenhouse gas
LIMITATIONS OF CARBON REDUCTION
Theoretically, several other important metals can be extracted this way
but are not because they combine with the carbon to form a carbide
e.g. Molybdenum, Titanium, Vanadium, Tungsten
STEEL MAKING
Iron produced in the blast furnace is very brittle due to the high
amount of carbon it contains.
In the Basic Oxygen Process, the excess carbon is burnt off in a
converter and the correct amount of carbon added to make steel.
Other metals (e.g. chromium) can be added to make specialist steels.
Removal of impurities
CaO + SiO2 ——>
SILICA
add calcium oxide
CaSiO3
CARBON
add oxygen
C + O2 ——>
PHOSPHORUS
add oxygen
2P + 5O2 ——>
P4O10
SULPHUR
add magnesium
Mg + S ——>
MgS
CO2
TYPES OF STEEL
MILD
easily pressed into shape
LOW CARBON
soft, easily shaped
HIGH CARBON strong but brittle
STAINLESS
chains and pylons
chisels, razor blades, saws
hard, resistant to corrosion
tools, sinks, cutlery
(contains chromium and nickel)
UNIT 1: The Periodic Table
Part 6: Metal Extraction (Zinc)
Lesson Objectives
•Describe in outline, the
extraction of zinc from zinc
blende.
•Name the uses of zinc for
galvanising and for making brass.
Consider zincs position in the periodic
table…..
Which method of extraction would you
expect to be used?
Where do we get zinc from?
The main source of zinc is zinc sulphide
or zinc blende.
This is found in Australia, Canada, USA,
Thailand
Zinc Extraction
(1) The zinc sulphide ore is roasted in air to give impure zinc
oxide.
Zinc Sulfide + Oxygen ==>Zinc Oxide + Sulphur Dioxide
Can you write a balanced symbol equation for the above reaction?
2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) ==> 2ZnO(s) + 2SO2(g)
Zinc Extraction
The impure zinc oxide can be treated in two ways to extract the zinc:
(a) It is roasted in a smelting furnace with carbon (coke, reducing agent) and limestone
(to remove the acidic impurities). The chemistry is similar to iron from a blast
furnace.
C(s) + O2(g) ==> CO2(g) (very exothermic oxidation, raises temperature considerably)
C(s) + CO2(g) ==> 2CO(g) (C oxidised, CO2 reduced)
ZnO(s) + CO(g) ==> Zn(l) + CO2(g) (zinc oxide reduced by CO, Zn undergoes O loss)
or direct reduction by carbon: ZnO(s) + C(s) ==> Zn(l) + CO(g) (ZnO reduced, C oxidised)
The carbon monoxide acts as the reducing agent i.e. it removes the oxygen from the
oxide.
Zinc Extraction
The impure zinc is then fractionally distilled from the mixture
of slag and other metals like lead and cadmium out of the top
of the furnace in an atmosphere rich in carbon monoxide
which stops any zinc from being oxidised back to zinc oxide.
The zinc can be further purified by a 2nd fractional
distillation or more likely by dissolving it in dilute sulphuric
acid and purified electrolysis. (This is coverd later)
Extraction of Zinc
A- Mixture of Zinc and coke
Added to furnace
B-Molten Zinc removed
C- Zinc condenses
D- Hot air blown in
Fractional Distillation
• Fractional distillation is
most commonly used to
separate two liquids if the
• boiling points are quite
close. Pure samples of each
liquid can usually be
• obtained, unless the boiling
points are too close.
Part 7:THE TRANSITION
METALS
Lesson Objective
• Name the uses of copper related to its
properties; electrical wiring and in cooking
utensils.
• Describe the properties of transition
elements
The Transition elements
• Transition means “an in between state”
and the transition elements come in
between Group 2 and Group 3.
Gp 2
Gp 3
H
He
Transition Elements
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Na Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br
Kr
K
Ca Sc
Rb Sr
Y
Ti
V
Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os
Ir
Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt
Pt Au Hg
?
?
?
In Sn Sb Te
I
Xe
Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
General Characteristics
Transition
Elements
Often act as
catalysts
They have
high melting
points
Less reactive
than Group 1 or
Group 2 metals
They mostly form
coloured
compounds
They have
high density
Transition metals
are often referred to
as ‘typical’ metals
Properties – Density
• Similarities are more noticeable than differences
although there are still some broad patterns.
• They are all dense (heavy) which is what we
expect of metals.
Sc
Ti
V
Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Density (g/cm-3)
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Properties – Melting Point
E.g. Melting points show no regular pattern – other than nearly all
being high which is typical of metals.
(Note zinc doesn’t fit very well on either density or melting point.)
Sc
Ti
V
Cr Mn Fe Co
Ni
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Melting Point ( C)
Cu Zn
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Properties – Reactivity
• Again it is similarities that stand out
rather than differences: they tend to
react relatively slowly (e.g.) with air,
water and acid.
• The general trend is to reduced activity
across the PeriodicTable but again the
trend is far from perfect with zinc in
particular being more reactive than you
might expect.
Sc
Ti
V
Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
General reduced reactivity
Rusting:
a slow
but
costly
process!
Properties – Catalysis
• A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a
chemical reaction without being used up.
• Catalysts are hugely valuable in industry
where they can save time and energy.
• Many transition elements ( and their
compounds) are catalysts.
Ni
Ti
V
Fe
Used in oil
hydrogenation
Used in plastic
manufacture
Uses
• The three most commonly known transition
elements are iron or steel, copper and zinc.
iron or
steel
General
engineering
metal
copper
Electrical and
plumbing work
zinc
Galvanising steel
to protect it
Activity
• Pair the metal up with its uses
copper
iron or
steel
zinc
Activity
• Pair the metal catalyst with the substance.
Fe
Ni
Ti
V
Activity
• Pair the statement about the transition
elements with the words
The **** elements fit
between group 2 and 3.
catalysts
They tend to be very****
reactive
Most are not especially ***
coloured
They are all typical****
similar
They often form compounds
that are ****
transition
They often speed up
reactions by acting as ****
metals
Which is a true statement about most
transition elements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
They are non-metals.
They are light (low density).
They are strong.
They are non-conductors.
Which of these does copper NOT tend to be
used for?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Plumbing work.
Electrical work
Ornaments and jewellery
Tools
Transition elements can speed up other
reactions without getting used up in the
process. What do we call substances that do
this?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Capitalists
Catalysts
Catholics
Catapults
Transition elements often form coloured
compounds. What colour compound does
copper usually form?
A.Blue
B.Yellow
C.Red
D.Violet
How would you describe the reactivity of
transition elements within the Periodic
Table?
A.Always more reactive across periods (left
to right).
B.Generally less reactive across periods
(left to right).
C.No change in reactivity.
D.Changes but no trends in reactivity.

similar documents