Element cards for Periodic Challenge

Report
H Hydrogen: average atomic mass: 1.008amu
1 proton, 1 electron
• Colorless gas at room
temperature
• Density 0.0899g/L
• Melting point: -259.14C
• Boiling Point: -252.87C
• Electronegativity: 2.20
• Atomic radius: 53pm
• Highly Flammable
He Helium: average atomic mass: 4.003amu
2 protons, 2 electrons
• Colorless gas at room
temperature
• Density 0.1785g/L
• Melting point: N/A
• Boiling Point: -268.93C
• Electronegativity: 0
• Atomic radius: 31pm
• Very Unreactive
Li Lithium: average atomic mass:6.941amu
3 protons, 3 electrons
• Light, soft, white/silver shiny
metal
• Density: 0.535g/mL
• Melting point: 180.54C
• Boiling Point: 1342C
• Electronegativity: 0.98
• Atomic radius: 167pm
• Reacts with water to make
hydrogen gas
Be Beryllium: average atomic mass:9.012amu
4 protons, 4 electrons
• Density 1.848g/mL
• Melting point: 1287C
• Boiling Point: 2470C
• Electronegativity: 1.57
• Atomic radius: 112pm
• Expensive and toxic
• Shiny silvery metal
B Boron: average atomic mass:10.81amu
5 protons, 5 electrons
• Density 2.460g/mL
• Melting point: 2075C
• Boiling Point: 4000C
• Electronegativity: 2.04
• Atomic radius: 87pm
• Hard, brittle sparkly metal
C Carbon: average atomic mass: 12.011amu
6 protons, 6 electrons
• Density 2.260g/mL
• Melting point: 3550C
• Boiling Point: 4027C
• Electronegativity: 2.55
• Atomic radius: 67pm
• Graphite = dark grey matte solid
• Diamond = sparkly colorless
gemstone
N Nitrogen: average atomic mass: 14.007amu
7 protons, 7 electrons
• Density 1.251g/L
• Melting point: -210.1C
• Boiling Point: -195.79C
• Electronegativity: 3.04
• Atomic radius: 56pm
• Elements always found with 2 atoms
bonded together
• Colorless gas at room temperature
• Makes up 78% of earth’s atmosphere
O Oxygen: average atomic mass: 15.999amu
8 protons, 8 electrons
• Density 1.429g/L
• Melting point: -218.3C
• Boiling Point: -182.9C
• Electronegativity: 3.44
• Atomic radius: 48pm
• Colorless gas at room
temperature
• Always found with 2 atoms
bonded together
• 21% of earth’s atmosphere
F
Fluorine: average atomic mass: 18.998
9 protons, 9 electrons
• Density 1.696g/L
• Melting point: -219.6C
• Boiling Point: -188.12C
• Electronegativity 3.98
• Atomic radius 42pm
• Pale yellow gas at room temperature
• Always found with 2 atoms bonded
together
• Reacts violently with almost
anything
Ne Neon: average atomic mass: 20.180amu
10 protons, 10 electrons
• Density 0.900g/L
• Melting point: -248.59
• Boiling Point: -246.08
• Electronegativity 0
• Atomic radius 38pm
• Colorless gas at room
temperature
• Very unreactive
Na Sodium: average atomic mass: 22.990amu
11 protons, 11 electrons
• Density 0.968g/mL
• Melting point: 97.72C
• Boiling Point: 883C
• Electronegativity: 0.93
• Atomic radius: 190pm
• Soft, malleable silver/white
metal
• Reacts with water to make
hydrogen gas
• Reacts with air to form Na2O
Mg Magnesium: average atomic mass: 24.305amu
12 protons, 12 electrons
• Density 1.738g/mL
• Melting point: 650C
• Boiling Point: 1090C
• Electronegativity 1.31
• Atomic radius 145pm
• Lightweight metal
• Lights on fire easily
• Silvery metal
Al Aluminum: average atomic mass: 26.982amu
13 protons, 13 electrons
• Density 2.7g/mL
• Melting point: 660C
• Boiling Point: 2519C
• Electronegativity 1.61
• Atomic radius 118pm
• Silvery, meltable metal
• Poor heat conductor
Si Silicon: average atomic mass: 28.085amu
14 protons, 14 electrons
• Density 2.330g/mL
• Melting point: 1414C
• Boiling Point: 2900C
• Electronegativity 1.90
• Atomic radius 111pm
• Good for semiconductors
• Metallic yet crystalline
P Phosphorus: average atomic mass: 30.974amu
15 protons, 15 electrons
• Density 1.823g/mL
• Melting point: 44.2C
• Boiling Point: 280.5C
• Electronegativity 2.19
• Atomic radius 98pm
• Occurs as white, red, and black
powders
• Highly reactive! Can explode or
combust
S
Sulfur: average atomic mass: 32.065amu
16 protons, 16 electrons
• Density 1.960g/mL
• Melting point: 115.21C
• Boiling Point: 444.72C
• Electronegativity 2.58
• Atomic radius 88pm
• Elemental form found in nature
• Yellow crystals, very pungent
Cl Chlorine: average atomic mass: 35.453amu
17 protons, 17 electrons
•
•
•
•
•
•
Density 35.453amu
Melting point: -101.5C
Boiling Point:-34.04C
Electronegativity 3.16
Atomic radius 79pm
Poisonous yellow-green gas at room
temperature
• Highly reactive, bonds with Na to make
NaCl
• Elements always found with 2 atoms
bonded together
Ar Argon: average atomic mass: 39.948amu
18 protons, 18 electrons
• Density 1.784g/L
• Melting point: -189.3C
• Boiling Point: -185.8C
• Electronegativity 0
• Atomic radius 71pm
• Colorless gas at room
temperature
• Extremely unreactive
P Potassium: average atomic mass: 39.098amu
19 protons, 19 electrons
• Density 0.856g/mL
• Melting point: 63.38C
• Boiling Point: 759C
• Electronegativity 0.82
• Atomic radius 243pm
• Silvery metal
• Explodes when placed in water
• Oxidizes rapidly in air
Ca Calcium: average atomic mass: 40.078amu
20 protons, 20 electrons
• Density 1.550g/mL
• Melting point: 842C
• Boiling Point: 1484C
• Electronegativity 1.0
• Atomic radius 194pm
• Firm silvery metal
• Reacts with water to make
hydrogen gas
• Rarely seen in nature
Sc Scandium: average atomic mass: 44.956amu
21 protons, 21 electrons
• Density 2.985g/mL
• Melting point: 1541C
• Boiling Point: 2830C
• Electronegativity 1.36
• Atomic radius 184pm
• Metallic crystals
Ti Titanium: average atomic mass: 47.867amu
22 protons, 22 electrons
• Density 4.507g/mL
• Melting point: 1668C
• Boiling Point: 3287C
• Electronegativity 1.54
• Atomic radius 176pm
• Light-weight and very strong
metal
V Vanadium: average atomic mass: 50.942amu
23 protons, 23 electrons
• Density 6.110g/mL
• Melting point: 1910 C
• Boiling Point: 3407C
• Electronegativity 1.63
• Atomic radius 171pm
• Has several oxidation states
• Silver metal
Cr Chromium: average atomic mass: 51.996amu
24 protons, 24 electrons
• Density 7.140g/mL
• Melting point: 1907C
• Boiling Point: 2671C
• Electronegativity 1.66
• Atomic radius 166pm
• Used to plate other things
• Very shiny, smooth metal
Mn Manganese- average atomic mass:54.938amu
25 protons, 25 electrons
• Density 7.470g/mL
• Melting point: 1246C
• Boiling Point: 2061C
• Electronegativity 1.55
• Atomic radius 161pm
• Silvery metal
Fe Iron: average atomic mass: 55.845amu
26 protons, 26 electrons
• Density 7.874g/mL
• Melting point: 1538C
• Boiling Point: 2861C
• Electronegativity 1.83
• Atomic radius 156pm
• Soft, silvery metal
• most common element on earth
by mass
Co Cobalt: average atomic mass: 58.933amu
27 protons, 27 electrons
• Density 8.9g/mL
• Melting point: 1495C
• Boiling Point: 2927C
• Electronegativity 1.88
• Atomic radius 152pm
• Silvery metal
Ni Nickel: average atomic mass: 58.693amu
28 protons, 28 electrons
• Density 8.908g/mL
• Melting point: 1455C
• Boiling Point: 2913C
• Electronegativity 1.91
• Atomic radius 149pm
• Commonly electroplated metal
• Hard
• Silvery white color
Cu Copper: average atomic mass: 63.546amu
29 protons, 29 electrons
• Density 8.920g/mL
• Melting point: 1084.62C
• Boiling Point: 2927C
• Electronegativity 1.90
• Atomic radius 145pm
• Copper-colored metal
• Highly conductive for heat,
electricity
• Stolen from construction sites
Zn Zinc: average atomic mass: 65.39amu
30 protons, 30 electrons
• Density 7.140g/mL
• Melting point: 419.53C
• Boiling Point: 907C
• Electronegativity 1.65
• Atomic radius 142pm
• More reactive than iron
Ga Gallium: average atomic mass: 69.723amu
31 protons, 31 electrons
• Density 5.904g/mL
• Melting point: 29.76C
• Boiling Point: 2204C
• Electronegativity 1.81
• Atomic radius 136pm
• Metal with low melting point
Ge Germanium: average atomic mass: 72.64amu
32 protons, 32 electrons
• Density 5.323g/mL
• Melting point: 938.3C
• Boiling Point: 2820C
• Electronegativity 2.01
• Atomic radius 125pm
• Used in semiconductors and diodes
• Metallic with internal crystal
structure
As Arsenic: average atomic mass: 74.922amu
33 protons, 33 electrons
• Density 5.727g/mL
• Melting point: 817C
• Boiling Point:614C
• Electronegativity 2.18
• Atomic radius 114pm
• crystalline
Se Selenium: average atomic mass: 78.96amu
34 protons, 34 electrons
• Density 4.819g/mL
• Melting point: 221C
• Boiling Point: 685C
• Electronegativity 2.55
• Atomic radius 103pm
• Found in pure form in nature
• Used in light sensing applications
Br Bromine: average atomic mass: 79.904amu
35 protons, 35 electrons
• Density 3.120g/mL
• Melting point: -7.3C
• Boiling Point: 59C
• Electronegativity 2.96
• Atomic radius 94pm
• Brown liquid at room temp
• Always found with 2 atoms
bonded together
• Very toxic and reactive
Kr Krypton: average atomic mass: 83.8amu
36 protons, 36 electrons
• Density 3.75g/L
• Melting point: -157C
• Boiling Point: -153C
• Electronegativity 3.0
• Atomic radius 88pm
• Non-reactive
• Colorless gas
Rb Rubidium: average atomic mass: 85.468amu
37 protons, 37 electrons
• Density 1.532g/mL
• Melting point: 39.31C
• Boiling Point: 688C
• Electronegativity 0.82
• Atomic radius 265pm
• Highly reactive in air
• Explosive in water
• Silvery metal
Sr Strontium: average atomic mass: 87.62amu
38 protons, 38 electrons
• Density 2.630 g/mL
• Melting point: 777C
• Boiling Point: 1382C
• Electronegativity 0.95
• Atomic radius 219pm
• Soft, silvery-white metal
Y Yttrium: average atomic mass: 88.906amu
39 protons, 39 electrons
• Density 4.472g/mL
• Melting point: 1526C
• Boiling Point: 3345C
• Electronegativity 1.22
• Atomic radius 212pm
• Rarely found pure
Zr Zirconium: average atomic mass: 91.224amu
40 protons, 40 electrons
• Density 6.511g/mL
• Melting point: 1855C
• Boiling Point: 4409C
• Electronegativity 1.33
• Atomic radius 206pm
• Silvery metal
• Used in jewelry and nuclear
industry
Nb Niobium: average atomic mass: 92.906amu
41 protons, 41 electrons
• Density 8.570g/mL
• Melting point: 2477C
• Boiling Point: 4744C
• Electronegativity 1.6
• Atomic radius 198pm
• Used in jewelry
Mo Molybdenum: average atomic mass: 95.94amu
42 protons, 42 electrons
• Density 10.280g/mL
• Melting point: 2623C
• Boiling Point: 4639C
• Electronegativity 2.16
• Atomic radius 190pm
• Used in high temperature
applications –maintains strength
Tc Technetium: average atomic mass: 98amu
43 protons, 43 electrons
• Density 11.5g/mL
• Melting point: 2157C
• Boiling Point: 4265C
• Electronegativity 1.9
• Atomic radius 183pm
• Radioactive
• Used in skeleton imaging
Ru Ruthenium: average atomic mass: 101.07amu
44 protons, 44 electrons
• Density 12.370g/mL
• Melting point: 2334C
• Boiling Point: 4150C
• Electronegativity 2.2
• Atomic radius 178pm
• Used in jewelry
Rh Rhodium: average atomic mass: 102.91amu
45 protons, 45 electrons
• Density 12.450g/mL
• Melting point: 1964C
• Boiling Point: 3695C
• Electronegativity 2.28
• Atomic radius 173pm
• Super shiny metal used to plate
jewelry
• Expensive metal
Pd Palladium: average atomic mass: 106.42amu
46 protons, 46 electrons
• Density 12.033g/mL
• Melting point: 1554.9C
• Boiling Point: 2963C
• Electronegativity 2.20
• Atomic radius 169pm
• Unreactive in air
• Silver-colored metal
• Used in jewelry
Ag Silver: average atomic mass: 107.87amu
47 protons, 47 electrons
• Density 10.490g/mL
• Melting point: 961.78C
• Boiling Point: 2162C
• Electronegativity 1.93
• Atomic radius 165pm
• Used in coins, jewelry
Cd Cadmium: average atomic mass: 112.411amu
48 protons, 48 electrons
• Density 8.650g/mL
• Melting point: 321.07C
• Boiling Point: 767C
• Electronegativity 1.69
• Atomic radius 161pm
• metal
In Indium: average atomic mass: 114.818amu
49 protons, 49 electrons
• Density 7.310g/mL
• Melting point: 156.6C
• Boiling Point: 2072C
• Electronegativity 1.78
• Atomic radius 156pm
• Used commercially in alloys
Sn Tin: average atomic mass: 118.710amu
50 protons, 50 electrons
• Density 7.310g/mL
• Melting point: 231.93C
• Boiling Point: 2602C
• Electronegativity 1.96
• Atomic radius 145pm
• metal
Sb Antimony: average atomic mass: 121.76amu
51 protons, 51 electrons
• Density 6.697g/mL
• Melting point: 630.63C
• Boiling Point: 1587C
• Electronegativity 2.05
• Atomic radius 133pm
• Sparkling broken crystals
• Commonly in alloys to make
bullets and batteries
Te Tellurium: average atomic mass: 127.6amu
52 protons, 52 electrons
• Density 6.240g/mL
• Melting point: 449.51C
• Boiling Point: 988C
• Electronegativity 2.1
• Atomic radius 123pm
I
Iodine: average atomic mass: 126.90amu
53 protons, 53 electrons
• Density 4.940g/mL
• Melting point: 113.7C
• Boiling Point: 184.3C
• Electronegativity 2.66
• Atomic radius 115pm
• Solid at room temperature
• Bluish-black
• Usually found with 2 bonded
together
Xe Xenon: average atomic mass: 131.29amu
54 protons, 54 electrons
• Density 5.9g/L
• Melting point: -111.8C
• Boiling Point: -108C
• Electronegativity 2.6
• Atomic radius 108pm
• Colorless, dense gas

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