Problem Solving Within the MTSS Framework FINAL

Report
PROBLEM SOLVING WITHIN THE
MTSS FRAMEWORK
Melissa Long
Janet Stephenson
Goals of Presentation
1. Understand the Problem Solving process within a
multi-tiered system of support
2. Be able to use the Problem Solving process at all
three tiers
3. Use the Problem Solving process when analyzing
data
WHAT IS MTSS?
ONE SYSTEM SUPPORTING IT ALL
WHAT HAPPENED TO RTI?
Big Picture
+
_______________________________________________________________________
=
FIRST –
A QUICK REVIEW OF
WHAT WE KNOW
ABOUT MTSS/RTI.
MTSS: 3 Priorities
1. Prevention: Identify students at-risk for
literacy failure BEFORE they actually fail.
– Screening, intervention and progress monitoring
is key.
– Identify ALL at-risk students by November.
– This strategy prevents the GAP.
– Managing GAPs is more expensive and less
likely to be successful.
6
MTSS: 3 Priorities
2. Early Intervention
– Purpose here is the manage the GAP.
– Students who are more that 2 years behind have a
10% chance, or less, or catching up.
– Benchmark, progress monitoring data, district-wide
assessments are used to identify students that
have a gap of 2 years or less.
– Students bumping up against the 2 year level
receive the most intensive services.
– This more costly and requires more specialized
instruction/personnel
7
MTSS: 3 Priorities
3. Intensive Intervention
– Reserved for those students who have a GAP of
more than 2 years and the rate of growth to close
the GAP is unrealistic. Too much growth—too little
time remaining.
– Problem-solving is used to develop instructional
priorities.
– This is truly a case of “you cannot do something
different the same way.”
– This is the most costly, staff intensive and least
likely to result in goal attainment
8
3 Cornerstones of MTSS
Tiered System of
Intervention
Systematic
Problem
Solving
Data
Monitoring
and
Analysis
Turn and Talk - Summarize
• Partner A says the 4 priorities
• Partner B says the 3 cornerstones
• Partner A and B share which of the
conerstones their school is implementing
the best.
MTSS: Key Concepts
• Academic Engaged Time (AET) is the best predictor of
student achievement
–
–
–
–
330 minutes in a day, 1650 in a week and 56,700 in a year
This is the “currency” of instruction/intervention
Its what we have to spend on students
How we use it determines student outcomes.
• MOST students who are behind will respond positively to
additional CORE instruction.
– Schools have more staff qualified to deliver core instruction
than specialized instruction.
– Issue is how to schedule in such a way as to provide more
exposure to core.
MTSS: Key Concepts
• Managing the GAP between student current
level of performance and expectation
(benchmark, standards, goal) is what RtI/MTSS
is all about.
• The two critical pieces of information we need
about students are:
– How BIG is the GAP?
• AND
– How much time do we have to close it?
• The answers to these 2 questions defines our
instructional mission.
NEXT –
WHAT IS PROBLEM
SOLVING?
What is Problem Solving?
Define the Problem
What Do We Want Students to KNOW and Be Able to DO?
Evaluate
Did It WORK?
(Response to Intervention –
RtI)
Problem Analysis
Why Can’t They DO It?
Implement Plan
What Are WE Going To DO About It?
The Problem Solving approach is
supported by student progress
monitoring data that supports
data-based decision making
throughout the
in the RtI
process.
How do we Identify the Problem?
• By looking at the data of…
– Screening Assessments
– Diagnostic Assessments
– Progress Monitoring Assessments
– Summative Assessments
– Formative Assessments
• Interventions are generated directly from
assessment data which is collected in a direct and
objective fashion.
• Help distinguish between student
learning/behavior problems and core instructional
problems
• Utilizes a multi-tiered model of service delivery to
ensure efficient allocation of these limited
resources.
• Intensity of instruction and intervention is in direct
proportion to student level of need.
Where is the problem?
Is this an
individual
student
problem, or
a larger,
systemic
problem?
WHAT DOES
PROBLEM SOLVING
LOOK LIKE AT TIER
1?
Traditional Instruction
vs.
Standards-Based Instruction
Standards-Based Classroom
Traditional Classroom
•
•
•
•
•
•
Whole class instruction dominates
Student differences are acted upon when
problematic
Mastery of facts is focus of learning
Coverage of texts and curriculum drives
instruction
Lesson topic is selected from curriculum
and/or text
Single option assignments are the norm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Assessment is most common at the end of
learning to see “who got it”
A single form of assessment is often used
Teachers administers tests then moves on to
curriculum
•
•
•
Many instructional strategies are used
Students differences are studied as a basis for
planning
Use of essential skills to make sense of and
understand key concepts & big ideas are the
focus of learning
Student readiness, interest, and learning
profile shape instruction
Lesson topic is selected based on state
standards
Multi-option assignments are frequently used
Assessment is ongoing to understand how to
make instruction more responsive to learner
Students are assessed in multiple ways
Teachers assess and reteach based on
student mastery level
Examine Health of Tier One
Differentiated
Instruction
I Do, We Do, You
Do
Scaffolded
Instruction
Opportunities to
Apply skills to
new content area
Formative
Assessments with
ReTeach
Practice, Practice,
Practice &
Feedback
What is the Focus of Tier 1 ?
Academic
• High quality instruction and classroom management
• Universal Screening to determine each student’s
level of proficiency
• Differentiated instruction is used and student’s
progress monitored
• Differentiation occurs in small, teacher-led flexible
groups during the 90 min block
What is the Focus of Tier 1?
Behavior
• High quality classroom
management
• Effective school-wide
discipline plan and/or
positive behavior support
• Questions to ask?
– Do 80-90% of students in the school respond
positively to the school-wide discipline plan?
– Does the behavior level of the target student differ
significantly from that of the peer group?
How Can Tier One be Improved?
Student Performance Report
Is the Core Healthy?
Looking at Tier 1 Data - Grade 3 Math Inventory
Define the Problem
Student
Name
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3
Student 4
Student 5
Student 6
72
72
88
72
84
40
Item
s
1
A/1
C/0
A/1
A/1
A/1
B/0
2
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
3
A/0
C/1
C/1
C/1
C/1
A/0
4
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
5
C/1
B/0
C/1
C/1
C/1
B/0
6
A/0
C/1
A/0
D/0
C/1
A/0
7
C/0
B/0
D/1
D/1
D/1
C/0
8
A/0
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
D/0
9
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
10
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
11
C/1
C/1
C/1
C/1
C/1
D/0
12
B/0
D/1
D/1
A/0
D/1
A/0
13
C/0
D/0
A/1
C/0
A/1
C/0
14
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
15
B/1
A/0
A/0
B/1
A/0
C/0
16
A/1
A/1
B/0
A/1
B/0
B/0
17
B/1
C/0
B/1
C/0
B/1
C/0
18
B/1
D/0
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
19
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
D/1
20
C/1
C/1
C/1
C/1
C/1
A/0
21
C/0
A/1
A/1
C/0
A/1
A/1
22
D/1
D/1
D/1
A/0
D/1
B/0
23
B/1
B/1
B/1
B/1
C/0
B/1
24
A/1
A/1
A/1
A/1
D/0
A/1
25
D/1
D/1
D/1
A/0
D/1
A/0
Student 9
100 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 A/1 A/1 B/1 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1
64 A/1 B/1 D/0 D/1 B/0 D/0 B/0 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 B/0 A/1 D/0 C/0 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 C/0 A/0 B/1 A/1 D/1
96 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 A/1 A/1 B/1 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 B/0
Student 10
80 A/1 B/1 B/0 D/1 C/1 A/0 D/1 A/0 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 C/0 A/1 D/0 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1
Student 11
68 A/1 B/1 A/0 D/1 C/1 C/1 C/0 A/0 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 B/0 A/1 B/1 B/0 A/0 B/1 D/1 C/1 D/0 D/1 B/1 D/0 D/1
Student 12
88 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 C/0 A/1 B/1 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 D/0 D/0 D/1
Student 13
88 A/1 B/1 A/0 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 C/0 A/1 D/0 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1
Student 14
88 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 A/0 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 A/1 A/1 D/0 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 C/0 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1
Student 15
72 A/1 B/1 A/0 D/1 C/1 A/0 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 D/0 A/1 B/1 A/1 B/1 B/1 B/0 B/0 A/1 A/0 C/0 A/1 D/1
Student 16
92 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 B/0 A/1 A/0 A/1 B/1 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1
Student 17
56 A/1 B/1 B/0 A/0 B/0 C/1 A/0 B/1 A/1 D/1 A/0 D/1 D/0 A/1 A/0 A/1 C/0 B/1 D/1 A/0 C/0 B/0 B/1 A/1 D/1
Student 18
80 A/1 B/1 C/1 D/1 C/1 C/1 D/1 B/1 A/1 D/1 C/1 D/1 B/0 A/1 D/0 A/1 C/0 B/1 D/1 C/1 A/1 D/1 A/0 A/1 C/0
Student 7
Student 8
Correct
Responses
16
18
10
17
14
10
12
14
18
18
16
15
5
18
7
13
12
17
17
15
12
13
14
15
14
Incorrect
Responses
2
0
8
1
4
8
6
4
0
0
2
3
13
0
11
5
6
1
1
3
6
5
4
3
4
Correct
Response
Percentag
e
A
B
C
D
100
100 100
89% % 56% 94% 78% 56% 67% 78% % % 89% 83% 28%
100
89%
28% 6%
33% 6% 17% %
6% 11% 28%
100
6% % 11%
22%
11% 78%
6% 22%
6%
56%
6% 94%
78% 56% 17%
11% 67% 6%
89%
33%
100
% 6% 83% 17%
100
% 39% 72% 67% 94% 94% 83% 67% 72% 78% 83% 78%
100
% 28% 72% 6%
11% 67% 17% 6% 83% 11%
39% 22% 67% 94% 6% 6%
6% 6% 28%
28%
83% 28%
6% 94%
11% 78%
6%
11%
6%
6% 72% 6% 17% 78%
1. What are some areas
of concern?
2. How would your
instructional action plan
be impacted by this
assessment?
3. What skills would an
instructor address in the
Universal, Core
Instruction(Tier 1) ?
4. How would an instructor
group students using
this data?
Teacher Data Team
Discussion Questions for Tier 1 Data
• Are 75-80% of the students meeting proficiency
based on the screening data or the common
assessment data?
• Is the core curriculum meeting the needs of most
(75-80%) of my class? The grade level?
• Are the core instructional methods meeting the
needs of most (75-80%) of the class? The grade
level?
• Is the classroom environment effective so that 7580% of students respond to the classroom rules,
procedures, and routines?
• If not, what can we do about these?
THERE IS NO AMOUNT OF
INTERVENTION THAT CAN
SUBSTITUTE QUALITY
INSTRUCTION.
Turn and Talk - Summarize
• What are some ways you monitor and
problem solve Tier 1 at your school?
Tier 3 is “MOST”
• (Most) Time (Core Program + to Greatest
Degree Possible)
• (Most) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction
• (Most) Scaffolded Instruction
• (Most) Opportunities to Respond with
Corrective Feedback
• (Most) Language Support, Especially
Vocabulary
• (Most) Intensive Motivational Strategies
• (Most) Frequent Progress Monitoring
WHAT DOES
PROBLEM SOLVING
LOOK LIKE AT TIER
2?
Tier 2 is “MORE”
(More) Time (Core Program +)
(More) Explicit Teacher-Led Instruction
(More) Scaffolded Instruction
(More) Opportunities to Respond with
Corrective Feedback
• (More) Language Support, Especially
Vocabulary
• (More) Intensive Motivational Strategies
• (More) Frequent Progress Monitoring
•
•
•
•
Staff Skills
• Problem Solving Process (e.g., problem
identification and validation
• Knowledge of Curriculum
• Intervention (Design, implementation,
integrity)
• Progress monitoring, graphing
• Data analysis, decision points
Components of Problem Analysis
• Clear understanding of the cause/functions of the
problem
• Determine if the problem is a skill or performance
deficit
• Develop hypothesis as to why the problem is occurring
• Determine if the problem is Instructional (I), Curricular
(C), Environmental (E), or Learner (L) related
• Identify relevant obstacles
• Develop observable and measurable goals to address
the problem
Teacher Data Team Discussion Questions
to Guide Tier 2 Data Discussions
• Are about 70% of the students in the intervention making progress
based on the ongoing progress monitoring data points?
• Is the intervention curriculum addressing the needs of most (70%) of
the intervention group class?
• Are the intervention instructional methods meeting the needs of most
(70%) of the students in the intervention group?
• If not, what can we do about this? Curriculum? Instruction?
Environment?
• Do we need more diagnostic information?
• Do we need to look at different supplemental material to meet the
needs of our students in the core program?
How Data is Used
for Selecting Interventions
• Look at students with similar data profiles,
indicating very specific instructional needs:
– Link those data with that group of students – both
differentiating that within the general classroom and
providing supplemental or “tier time.”
• Tier time: extra time during the school day when
students who are behind can actually get
intensive interventions to accelerate learning so
they can catch up.
Screening and Progress Monitoring Not Always Enough
• Screening assessments sometimes do not
go far enough in answering the question:
– We will need to “DIG DEEPER!”
• Quick phonics screener, Error Analysis, Curriculumbased evaluation procedures, etc.
Digging Deeper
• How deep you dig depends on the intensity of the
problem.
OR
Diagnostic Assessments
•PSI
•PASI
•Running Records
•DAR
•Math Fluency checks
Match the Intervention
to the Skill Deficit/Student Need
• What is the root cause of the problem?
–
–
–
–
Lack of Phonological Awareness
Phonics/Decoding/Text Processing
Fluency
Comprehension
• Performance deficit or skill deficit?
• Without a match, student will be practicing
skills that are good, but not directly related to
what they need to make progress
Data Documentation: Tier 2
• Baseline data; determination of baseline
data.
• Aim Line or Goal
• Intervention selected – IPST Form 7
• Progress monitoring data
• Comparison with national norms
• Interventions/Fidelity
• Observations
41
PROBLEM ANALYSIS:
GETTING FAMILIAR
WITH ICEL
Activity: Generate your own
ICEL Chart
Instruction
Curriculum
Environment
Learner
**Review Pink ICEL pages**
**Review IPST FORM 6**
B.E.S.T. Instruction
• Students placed with appropriate
level of resources/materials
• Clarity of instructions
• Systematic and explicit instruction
• Frequency of interaction/reinforcement
• Clear academic and behavioral expectations
• Sequencing of lessons designs to promote success
• Variety of practice activities (behavioral and academic)
Curriculum
•
•
•
•
•
Curriculum map – long term goals
Instructional materials
Sequence of the content/instruction
Pacing
Formative assessments drive teach/reteach
Environment
• peer interaction, expectations, reinforcement,
support
• physical arrangement of the room
• furniture/equipment
• clear classroom expectations
• management plans
• schedule
• task pressure
• home/family supports
Learner
•
•
•
•
Skills
Motivation
Health
Prior knowledge
Why is the Problem Occurring?
• Form 6A
MTSS Decision Matrix
Tier 1 ↑
Tier 1 ↑
Tier 2 ↑
Tier 2 ↑
 Life is good! Keep going!
Eventually eliminate Tier 2 when gap
is closed.
Tier 1 ↓
Tier 1↓
Tier 2 ↑



Tier 2 ↓
Tier 1 ↑
Tier 2 ↓

Change intervention delivery or
problem solve to determine an
alternate area of focus for
intervention.
Weak evidence of ability of Tier
2 interventions impact on Tier 1
instruction.
Narrow Focus of intervention
OR Individual Problem solve
and create Tier 3 Intervention
OR
Continue Intervention for longer
period of time.
Tier 1 ↓
Tier 2 ↓

Change intervention delivery or
problem solve to determine an
alternate area of focus for
intervention.
Tier 1 = Assessments that all students get including, but not limited to FAIR, DRLA, Math Core Assessments.
Tier 2 =Assessments that groups of students get including, but not limited to PASI, PSI, ORF, OPM on FAIR etc.
↑= indicates an increase in performance data
↓= indicates a decrease in performance data
Individual Students: What to Change
•
Are there individual students in intervention groups not
making adequate progress? If so, what changes will be
made?
a) Examine existing data and determine if additional data are
needed, including:
i) Progress monitoring data, diagnostic data, daily lesson data, curriculum
assessments, observational data during intervention and core
instruction, teacher and parent input, etc.
b) If a change is needed, consider the following options:
(1)Does the student need a different, more appropriately matched intervention?
(2)Does the student need a more intensive intervention with same instructional
focus?
(3)Can you modify the current intervention to accommodate the student?
(a)Consider adjusting group size, amount of intervention time, frequency of
intervention, or other alterable variables
WHAT DOES
PROBLEM SOLVING AT
TIER 3 LOOK LIKE?
Problem Solving
through the IPST Forms
Define the Problem
What Do We Want Students to KNOW and Be Able to DO?
Forms 1 - 6
Evaluate
Did It WORK?
(Response to Intervention –
RtI)
Form 8
Problem Analysis
Why Can’t They DO It?
Implement Plan
What Are WE Going To DO About It?
Form 7
Use repeatedly
until you finds
what works!
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 1
History and Cumulative Review
Problem Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 First step in Problem
Solving is to gather
and review
information about
the “L” in ICEL. If the
teacher has a
concern about the
“Learner”, historical
information must be
documented.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 2
Parent/Guardian Contact and Staff Consultations
Problem Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 Parents play an integral
part in informing and
helping school personnel
know how to support the
student more effectively.
 Seeking staff
consultations helps the
classroom teacher
address the student’s
area of difficulty.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 3
Student’s teacher as observer
Classroom Observation
Problem Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 Gathering additional
information in the general
classroom setting
addressing ICEL which
focuses on the Instruction,
Curriculum, Environment,
and the Learner.
 This information helps the
team to determine what
factors enable the student
to learn.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 4
Third Party Observation
Classroom Observation
Problem Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 Successful problem
analysis requires the team
to look at multiple sources
of data.
 ICEL factors are
documented as well as the
relationship between the
student’s classroom
behavior and academic
performance.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 5
Academic Data Collection
Problem Analysis and Identification
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 Reviewing student
performance data and
comparing to peer groups
will determine the
magnitude of the academic
concern.
 This specific data assists the
team to identify or eliminate
concerns in Instruction and
Curriculum (ICEL).
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 6
ACADEMIC
Academic Problem Identification / Analysis / Hypothesis
Problem Identification/Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 The intent of the ICEL table on
this form is to review of all the
ICEL factors. It’s almost a
check and balance system to
ensure the focus is on the ICEL
factors and not just the learner.
 Keep in mind, when creating a
hypothesis, it is important to
determine if it is a skill deficit
or motivation deficit?
 Determining the point at which
the target student will come in
range of the expected rate of
progress.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 6
BEHAVIOR
Problem Behavior Identification / Analysis / Hypothesis
Problem Identification/Analysis
Why is the Problem Occurring?
 Same format at IPST Form 6
Academics but focuses on
the Behavior component.
 The intent of this form is to
guide the IPST to design
effective interventions.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
IPST FORM 7
Intervention Design and Ongoing Progress Monitoring (OPM)
Intervention #: ______
Page ____ of ____
Implementation Plan
What are We Going to do About It?
 Spending time designing a
quality intervention plan will
be most beneficial to the
student.
 The alignment between the
area of concern to the goal
statement, intervention plan
and ongoing progress
monitoring tool is crucial.
BREVARD PUBLIC SCHOOLS, FLORIDA IPST FORM 8
Individual Problem Solving Team (IPST)
Analysis of Interventions and Recommendations
EVALUATE
Did it WORK?
 The IPST will utilize the rate
of progress data and post
intervention analysis to
make informed decisions
regarding the educational
needs of the student.
PROBLEM SOLVING
TO SUMMARIZE….
64
Changing Up Interventions
• When Progress Monitoring shows intervention
is not effective enough
– Change intervention strategies
– Add time to intervention strategies
– Reduce size of intervention group
– Change intervention instructor
66
67
68
69
70
THE
END

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