Chapter 18

Chapter 18
Structure of the Endocrine System
All the cells in your body respond to messages sent by three of your major body
◦ Nervous System
◦ Immune System
◦ Endocrine System
Endocrine glands are ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secret
hormones directly into the blood stream
Hormones are chemical substances that are produced in glands and help
regulate many of your body’s function
◦ Secreted by the endocrine glands and are carried by the blood to their
destination in the body
◦ Influence physical and mental responses
Structure of the Endocrine System
Pituitary Gland
◦ Regulates and controls the
activities of all other endocrine
◦ Has 3 sections
◦ Anterior lobe
◦ Production of sex hormones
◦ Intermediate lobe
◦ Darkening of the skin by
stimulating skin pigment
◦ Posterior lobe
◦ Secreting ADH
Adrenal Gland
◦ Regulates the body’s salt and
water balance
◦ Helps the body recover from
stress and response to
◦ There are two parts
◦ Adrenal cortex
◦ Adrenal medulla
Problems of the Endocrine System
Diabetes Mellitus
◦ A disorder in which the
pancreas produces too little or
no insulin, resulting in high
blood glucose levels
Cushing’s disease
◦ Results from the overproduction
of adrenal hormones.
◦ Symptoms include round face,
humped upper back, thin and
easily bruised skin, and fragile
Graves’s Disease
Growth disorder
◦ also called hyperthyroidism, a
disorder in which an overactive ◦ Caused by abnormal amounts of
growth hormone
and enlarged thyroid glands
produces excessive amounts of
The Male Reproductive
Structure and Function of the Male
Reproductive System
The reproductive system is the system of organs involved in producing
The two main functions of the male reproductive systems are the production
and storage of sperm and the transfer of sperm to the female’s body during
sexual intercourse.
Hormones produced in the pituitary gland stimulate the production of
testosterone, the male sex hormone
Testosterone initiates physical changes that signal maturity, including
broadening of the shoulders, development of muscles and facial hair and
other body hair, and deepening of the voice.
Testosterone also controls the production of the sperm
Structure and Function of the Male
Reproductive System
◦ Two small glands that produce sperm
◦ An external sac
◦ Tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes
◦ Thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive
◦ The joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell
Internal Male Reproductive organs
◦ See pg. 470 figure 18.2
Care of the Male Reproductive System
Get regular check up
Bathe regularly
Wear protective equipment
Perform regular self-examinations
Practice abstinence
STDs (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
STDs that can affect the male reproductive system
◦Genital Herpes
The primary means of transmission of all STDs is
sexual activity
Problems of the Male Reproductive
Inguinal Hernia
◦ A separation of tissue that allows part of the intestine to push the
abdominal wall near the top of the scrotum
◦ Treatment includes surgery
◦ The inability to reproduce
◦ Can result from environmental hazards, including exposure to X
rays and other radiations, toxic chemicals, and lead. Hormonal
imbalance, certain medications, and use of drugs, including
anabolic steroids.
Problems of the Male Reproductive
Testicular Cancer
◦ Can affect males of any age but occurs most often in males between the ages of
14 and 40
◦ Factors that increase the risk of developing TC are undescended testicle,
abnormal testicular development, and family history of testicular cancer.
◦ Symptoms include painless lump or swelling. Pain or discomfort in testicle or
Prostate Gland
◦ Can become enlarged as a result of an infection, a tumor, or age-related
◦ An enlarged gland presses against the urethra, resulting in frequent or difficult
urination. Symptoms may indicate prostate cancer
◦ Treatment includes radiation, hormone therapy, and surgery.
The Female
Reproductive System
Structure and Function of the Female
Reproductive System
The functions of the female reproduction
system includes producing female sex
hormones and storing female reproductive
cells called ova.
◦ a hollow, muscular pear-shaped organ
inside a female’s body
◦ The female sex glands that store the ova
and produce female sex hormones
◦ the process of releasing a mature ovum into
the fallopian tube each month
Fallopian tubes
◦ A pair of tubes with fingerlike
projections that draw on the ovum
◦ A muscular, elastic passageway that
extends from the uterus to the
outside of the body
◦ The opening to the uterus
◦ The shedding of the uterine lining
Care of the Female Reproductive System
Females should care for her reproductive system by
◦ Bathing regularly
◦ Feminine deodorant sprays and douches are not necessary and
may cause irritation or infection in the sensitive tissues around
the vagina
◦ Practice abstinence from sexual activity
Breast Self-Exam
◦ Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading
cause of the death, after lung cancer, for women.
◦ Females should begin examining their breasts right after their
menstrual cycle, once a month
Problems of the Female Reproductive
Menstrual Cramps
◦ Can be relieved with light exercise or applying a heating pad to the
abdominal area
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
◦ Disorder caused by hormonal changes
◦ Symptoms include nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating,
weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigue
Toxic shock syndrome
◦ Bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver,
and can be fatal
Problems related to Infertility
◦ Painful, chronic disease occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates and
grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, or the lining of the pelvic
◦ Endometrium
◦ The thickened lining of the uterus
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
◦ An infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the surrounding areas of the
◦ Most often caused by STDs
◦ The most common causes of infertility and other disorders of the reproductive
Other Female Reproductive Disorders
◦ Most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age, and is often
accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning
Blocked fallopian tubes
◦ The leading cause of infertility, may result from PID, abdominal surgery, STDs,
or endometriosis
Ovarian cysts
◦ Fluid filled sacs in the ovary wall
Cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer
◦ Regular check ups and pelvic exams are important for early detection and

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