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Osmotic
Regulation and
Excretion
Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
Excretion Systems
Nitrogenous Wastes
Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
• Introduction to Osmoregulation
• Transport of Electrolytes across Cell Membranes
• Concept of Osmolality and Milliequivalent
• Osmoregulators and Osmoconformers
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
Introduction to Osmoregulation
• Osmoregulation maintains the proper balance of electrolytes in the human body,
despite external factors such as temperature, diet, and weather conditions.
• By diffusion of water or solutes, osmotic balance ensures that optimal
concentrations of electrolytes and non-electrolytes are maintained in cells, body
tissues, and in interstitial fluid.
• Solutes or water move across a semi-permeable membrane, causing solutions on
either side of it to equalize in concentration.
• Cells in hypotonic solutions swell as water moves across the membrane into the
cell, whereas cells in hypertonic solutions shrivel as water moves out of the cell.
• Water movement due to osmotic pressure across membranes may change the
Response of red blood cells in hypertonic,
hypotonic, and isotonic solutions
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volume of the body's fluid compartments; therefore, it can directly influence
medical indicators, such as blood pressure.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
Transport of Electrolytes across Cell Membranes
• Important ions cannot pass through membranes by passive diffusion; if they
could, maintaining specific concentrations of ions would be impossible.
• Osmotic pressure is directly proportional to the number of solute atoms or
molecules; ions exert more pressure per unit mass than do non-electrolytes.
• Electrolyte ions require facilitated diffusion and active transport to cross the semipermeable membranes.
• Facilitated diffusion occurs through protein-based channels, which allow passage
of the solute along a concentration gradient.
• In active transport, energy from ATP changes the shape of membrane proteins
that move ions against a concentration gradient.
Transport across cell membranes
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
Concept of Osmolality and Milliequivalent
• Osmotic pressure is calculated from a solution's molarity and the charge on the
ions.
• A solution's molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution, while a
solution's molality is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
• Osmolarity is related to osmolality, but osmolality is unaffected by temperature
and pressure.
• Electrolyte concentrations are usually expressed in terms of milliequivalents per
liter (mEq/L), which is the ion concentration, in millimoles, multiplied by the
number of electrical charges on the ion.
Concentration of solutions; part 2; moles,
millimoles & milliequivalents by Professor Fink
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
Osmoregulators and Osmoconformers
• Stenohaline organisms can tolerate only a relatively-narrow range of salinity.
• Euryhaline organisms are tolerant of a relatively-wide range of salinity.
• Osmoconformers are organisms that remain isotonic with seawater by conforming
their body fluid concentrations to changes in seawater concentration.
Salmon physiology responds to freshwater and
seawater to maintain osmotic balance
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
• The Kidney
• Kidney Function and Physiology
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
The Kidney
• Kidneys regulate the osmotic pressure of a mammal's blood through extensive
filtration and purification, in a process known as osmoregulation.
• Kidneys filter the blood; urine is the filtrate that eliminates waste from the body via
the ureter into the bladder.
• The kidneys are surrounded by three layers: renal fascia, perirenal fat capsule,
and the renal capsule.
• Internally, kidneys are mainly composed of over one million nephrons and an
extensive network of blood vessels and capillaries.
• Kidneys contain two types of nephrons: cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary
nephrons, which are located in different parts of the renal cortex.
Kidneys' location and function
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• A nephron is composed of a renal corpuscle, a renal tubule, and the associated
capillary network.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
Kidney Function and Physiology
• Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion are the three
primary steps in which kidneys filter blood and maintain proper electrolyte
balance.
• Glomerular filtration removes solutes from the blood; it is the first step of urine
formation.
• In tubular reabsoption, the second step of urine formation, almost all nutrients are
reabsorbed in the renal tubule by active or passive transport.
• Tubular secretion is the last step of urine formation, where solutes and waste are
secreted into the collecting ducts, ultimately flowing to the bladder in the form of
Nephron structure
urine.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Excretion Systems
Excretion Systems
• Contractile Vacuoles in Microorganisms
• Flame Cells of Planaria and Nephridia of Worms
• Malpighian Tubules of Insects
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Excretion Systems
Contractile Vacuoles in Microorganisms
• Contractile vacuoles protect a cell from absorbing too much water and potentially
exploding by excreting excess water.
• Wastes, such as ammonia, are soluble in water; they are excreted from the cell
along with excess water by the contractile vacuoles.
• Contractile vacuoles function in a periodic cycle by expanding while collecting
water and contracting to release the water.
Contractile vacuole of Euglena
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Excretion Systems
Flame Cells of Planaria and Nephridia of Worms
• Nephridia are more evolved than flame cells because they can reabsorb useful
metabolites before excretion of waste.
• Both nephridia and flame cells are ciliated tubules that filter fluids in the cell to
remove waste.
• Flame cells are connected to a duct system of pores to expel wastes, while
nephridia often are open to the exterior of the organism.
Flame cells and nephridia
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Excretion Systems
Malpighian Tubules of Insects
• Malpighian tubules are found in the posterior regions of insects, where they work
with glands in the rectum to excrete waste and maintain osmotic balance.
• Ions are transported through active pumps found in the malpighian tubules; as the
ions are secreted, water and waste are drawn to the tubules due to the change in
osmotic pressure.
• Nitrogenous wastes, such as uric acid, are precipitated as thick pastes or powder
to be excreted.
Malpighian tubules in bees
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Nitrogenous Wastes
Nitrogenous Wastes
• Nitrogenous Waste in Terrestrial Animals: The Urea Cycle
• Nitrogenous Waste in Birds and Reptiles: Uric Acid
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Nitrogenous Wastes
Nitrogenous Waste in Terrestrial Animals: The Urea Cycle
• Ureotelic animals, which includes mammals, produce urea as the main
nitrogenous waste material.
• 2 NH3 + CO2 + 3 ATP + H2O → H2N-CO-NH2 + 2 ADP + 4 Pi + AMP is the
chemical reaction by which toxic ammonia is converted to urea.
• The urea cycle involves the multi-step conversion (carried out by five different
enzymes) of the amino acid L-ornithine into different intermediates before being
regenerated.
Urea Cycle
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Nitrogenous Wastes
Nitrogenous Waste in Birds and Reptiles: Uric Acid
• Nitrogenous wastes in the body tend to form toxic ammonia, which must be
excreted.
• Mammals such as humans excrete urea, while birds, reptiles, and some terrestrial
invertebrates produce uric acid as waste.
• Uricothelic organisms tend to excrete uric acid waste in the form of a white paste
or powder.
• Conversion of ammonia into uric acid is more energy intensive than the
conversion of ammonia into urea.
• Producing uric acid instead of urea is advantageous because it is less toxic and
reduces water loss and the subsequent need for water.
Nitrogen excretion
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
• Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
• Other Hormonal Controls
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
• Epinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla, causes either smooth muscle
relaxation in the airways or contraction of the smooth muscle in arterioles, which
results in blood vessel constriction in the kidneys, decreasing or inhibiting blood
flow to the nephrons.
• Norepinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla, is a stress hormone that
increases blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose from energy stores; in the
kidneys, it will cause constriction of the smooth muscles, resulting in decreased or
inhibited flow to the nephrons.
• Together, epinephrine and norepinephrine cause constriction of the blood vessels
associated with the kidneys to inhibit flow to the nephrons.
Adrenal gland
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion > Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
Other Hormonal Controls
• Renin, a hormone produced by the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys,
converts angiotensinogen (which is made in the liver) to angiotensin I.
• Angiotensin I is then converted to angiotensin II by the angiotensin converting
enzyme (ACE), increasing blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction of the
blood vessels.
• Angiotensin II causes the release of aldosterone which is produced by the adrenal
cortex; it functions to maintain both sodium and water levels (osmotic balance) in
the blood.
• Angiotensin II also causes the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which
functions to conserve water in the body when volume is low; it does this by
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
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inserting aquaporins in the collecting duct of the nephron to promote water
reabsorption.
• The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is another hormone that is produced to
function as a vasodilator and lower blood pressure by preventing sodium
reabsorption.
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Appendix
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Key terms
• active transport movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient (from low to high
concentration) facilitated by ATP conversion
• adrenergic containing or releasing adrenaline
• angiotensin any of several polypeptides that narrow blood vessels and thus regulate arterial pressure
• aquaporin any of a class of proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells
• arteriole one of the small branches of an artery, especially one that connects with capillaries
• catecholamine any of a class of aromatic amines derived from pyrocatechol that are hormones produced by the adrenal gland
• contractile vacuole a vacuole that removes waste or excess water
• countercurrent a current that flows against the prevailing one
• electrolyte any of the various ions (such as sodium or chloride) that regulate the electric charge on cells and the flow of water
across their membranes
• electrolyte any of the various ions (such as sodium or chloride) that regulate the electric charge on cells and the flow of water
across their membranes
• epinephrine (adrenaline) an amino acid-derived hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress
• euryhaline able to tolerate various saltwater concentrations
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• facilitated diffusion The spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing through specific
transmembrane integral proteins.
• flame cell a specialized excretory cell found in the simplest freshwater invertebrates
• glomerulus a small intertwined group of capillaries within nephrons of the kidney that filter the blood to make urine
• guano the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or birds more generally
• hemolymph a circulating fluid in the bodies of some invertebrates that is the equivalent of blood
• hypertonic having a greater osmotic pressure than another
• hypoxanthine an intermediate in the biosynthesis of uric acid
• loop of Henle a loop-like structure in the kidney's nephron that connects the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted
tubule
• malpighian tubule a tubule that extends from the alimentary canal to the exterior of the organism, excreting water and wastes in
the form of solid nitrogenous compounds
• molality the concentration of a substance in solution, expressed as the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
• molarity the number of moles of solute per liter of solution, giving a solution's molar concentration
• mole in the International System of Units, the base unit of amount of substance
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• nephridiopore the external opening of a nephridium, where waste is excreted from the cell
• nephridium a tubular excretory organ in some invertebrates
• nephrostome the funnel-shaped opening of a nephridium into the body cavity
• norepinephrine a neurotransmitter found in the locus coeruleus which is synthesized from dopamine
• ornithine an amino acid, which acts as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of urea
• osmoconformer a marine organism (usually an invertebrate) that maintains its internal salinity such that it is always equal to the
surrounding seawater
• osmolarity The osmotic concentration of a solution, normally expressed as osmoles of solute per litre of solution.
• osmoregulation the homeostatic regulation of osmotic pressure in the body in order to maintain a constant water content
• osmosis The net movement of solvent molecules from a region of high solvent potential to a region of lower solvent potential
through a partially permeable membrane
• osmotic pressure the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a solution across a semipermeable membrane from a pure solvent
• osmotic pressure the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a solution across a semipermeable membrane from a pure solvent
• passive diffusion movement of water and other molecules across membranes along a concentration gradient
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• purine any of a class of organic heterocyclic base containing fused pyrimidine and imidazole rings; they are components of
nucleic acids
• renal pertaining to the kidneys
• renin a circulating enzyme released by mammalian kidneys that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin-I that plays a role in
maintaining blood pressure
• stenohaline tolerant of only a narrow range of saltwater concentrations
• urea a water-soluble organic compound, CO(NH2)2, formed by the metabolism of proteins and excreted in the urine
• urea a water-soluble organic compound, CO(NH2)2, formed by the metabolism of proteins and excreted in the urine
• ureotelic animals that secrete urea as the primary nitrogenous waste material
• uric acid a bicyclic heterocyclic phenolic compound, formed in the body by the metabolism of protein and excreted in the urine
• uric acid a bicyclic heterocyclic phenolic compound, formed in the body by the metabolism of protein and excreted in the urine
• xanthine a precursor of uric acid found in many organs of the body
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Response of red blood cells in hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions
Cells placed in a hypertonic environment tend to shrink due to loss of water.In a hypotonic environment, cells tend to swell due to intake of water.The
blood maintains an isotonic environment so that cells neither shrink nor swell.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Transport across cell membranes
Paul Andersen describes how cells move materials across the cell membrane.All movement can be classified as passive or active.Passive transport,
such as diffusion, requires no energy as particles move along their gradient.Active transport requires additional energy as particles move against their
gradient.Specific examples, such as GLUT and the Na/K, pump are included.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Concentration of solutions; part 2; moles, millimoles & milliequivalents by Professor Fink
Professor Fink reviews the use of moles, millimoles & milliquivalents in expressing concentration and dosage.Example problems are presented
explaining how to prepare molar solutions and convert to percent concentration.In addition, Professor Fink explains how to convert from millimoles to
milliequivalents, or convert milliequivalents back to millimoles.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Salmon physiology responds to freshwater and seawater to maintain osmotic balance
Fish are osmoregulators, but must use different mechanisms to survive in (a) freshwater or (b) saltwater environments.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Nephrons perform the main function of the kidney
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney.The glomerulus and convoluted tubules of the nephron are located in the cortex of the kidney, while
collecting ducts are located in the pyramids of the kidney's medulla.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Structure of the kidney
Externally, the kidney is surrounded by the renal fascia, the perirenal fat capsule, and the renal capsule.Internally, the kidney is most importantly filled
with nephrons that filter blood and generate urine.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Kidneys' location and function
Kidneys filter the blood, producing urine that is stored in the bladder prior to elimination through the urethra.They are located in the peritoneal cavity.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Loop of Henle
The loop of Henle acts as a countercurrent multiplier that uses energy to create concentration gradients.The descending limb is water permeable.Water
flows from the filtrate to the interstitial fluid, so osmolality inside the limb increases as it descends into the renal medulla.At the bottom, the osmolality is
higher inside the loop than in the interstitial fluid.Thus, as filtrate enters the ascending limb, Na+ and Cl- ions exit through ion channels present in the cell
membrane.Further up, Na+ is actively transported out of the filtrate and Cl- follows.Osmolarity is given in units of milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L).
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Nephron structure
Each part of the nephron performs a different function in filtering waste and maintaining homeostatic balance.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Contractile Vacuoles in Amoeba
Some unicellular organisms, such as the amoeba, ingest food by endocytosis.The food vesicle fuses with a lysosome, which digests the food.Waste is
excreted by exocytosis.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Contractile vacuole of Euglena
Structure of Euglena: 1 - Flagellum; 2 - Eye spot / Pigment spot / Stigma; 3 - Photoreceptor; 4 - Short second flagellum; 5 - Reservoir; 6 - Basal body; 7 Contractile vacuole; 8 - Paramylon granule; 9 - Chloroplasts; 10 - Nucleus; 11 - Nucleolus; 12 - Pellicle
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Flame cells and nephridia
In the excretory system of the (a) planaria, cilia of flame cells propel waste through a tubule formed by a tube cell.In (b) annelids, nephridia filter fluid
from the body cavity.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Malpighian tubules in bees
Malpighian tubules of insects and other terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogenous wastes and other solutes from the hemolymph.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Urea Cycle
The urea cycle converts ammonia to urea in five steps that include the catalyzation of five different enzymes.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Nitrogen excretion
Nitrogenous waste is excreted in different forms by different species.These include (a) ammonia, (b) urea, and (c) uric acid.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Adrenal gland
The adrenal medulla, located toward the bottom of this image, is responsible for the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increases blood pressure and volume.The hormone ANP has antagonistic effects.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following correctly describes electrolytes?
A) They do not contribute to the osmotic balance.
B) They are found only in hypotonic solutions.
C) They dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.
D) They do not pass through a semipermeable membrane.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following correctly describes electrolytes?
A) They do not contribute to the osmotic balance.
B) They are found only in hypotonic solutions.
C) They dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.
D) They do not pass through a semipermeable membrane.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Hagfish live in a marine environment with a salinity which closely
matches the ionic concentration of their bodily fluids. Which of the
following statements best describes the hagfish?
A) hagfish are osmoregulators because they maintain the same
osmolarity as their external environment
B) hagfish are osmoconformers because they maintain the same
osmolarity as their external environment
C) hagfish are osmoconformers because they control internal osmolarity
independent of their environment
D) hagfish are osmoregulators because they control external osmolarity
independent of their environment
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Hagfish live in a marine environment with a salinity which closely
matches the ionic concentration of their bodily fluids. Which of the
following statements best describes the hagfish?
A) hagfish are osmoregulators because they maintain the same
osmolarity as their external environment
B) hagfish are osmoconformers because they maintain the same
osmolarity as their external environment
C) hagfish are osmoconformers because they control internal osmolarity
independent of their environment
D) hagfish are osmoregulators because they control external osmolarity
independent of their environment
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following requires ATP conversion for
osmoregulation?
A) passive diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) osmotic pressure
D) active transport
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following requires ATP conversion for
osmoregulation?
A) passive diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) osmotic pressure
D) active transport
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
How does water pass through a semipermeable membrane?
A) passive diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport
D) ATP conversion
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
How does water pass through a semipermeable membrane?
A) passive diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport
D) ATP conversion
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
What does the milliequivalent measure?
A) a solution's molarity in moles of solute per liter of solution
B) the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
C) the number of electrical charges on the ion
D) a solution's ion concentration and the charge on the ions
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
What does the milliequivalent measure?
A) a solution's molarity in moles of solute per liter of solution
B) the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
C) the number of electrical charges on the ion
D) a solution's ion concentration and the charge on the ions
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following is an adaptation of a euryhaline fish such
as salmon?
A) skin absorbs water in a hypertonic environment
B) concentrated urine is passed in a hypotonic environment
C) blood releases urea to maintain an isotonic environment
D) gills take up salts in a hypotonic environment
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following is an adaptation of a euryhaline fish such
as salmon?
A) skin absorbs water in a hypertonic environment
B) concentrated urine is passed in a hypotonic environment
C) blood releases urea to maintain an isotonic environment
D) gills take up salts in a hypotonic environment
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following enables sharks to survive the high salinity
of their environment?
A) active transport of salts through the gills
B) storing and secretion of high levels of urea
C) body fluids that conform to seawater concentration changes
D) passing a lot of very dilute urine
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following enables sharks to survive the high salinity
of their environment?
A) active transport of salts through the gills
B) storing and secretion of high levels of urea
C) body fluids that conform to seawater concentration changes
D) passing a lot of very dilute urine
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following describes an osmoconformer?
A) a fish that spends some of its lifecycle in fresh water and part in
seawater
B) a stenohaline organism that can tolerate only a relatively-narrow range
of salinity
C) a ureotelic animal that secretes urea to maintain osmotic balance
D) a marine invertebrate that is isotonic with seawater
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following describes an osmoconformer?
A) a fish that spends some of its lifecycle in fresh water and part in
seawater
B) a stenohaline organism that can tolerate only a relatively-narrow range
of salinity
C) a ureotelic animal that secretes urea to maintain osmotic balance
D) a marine invertebrate that is isotonic with seawater
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following is a stenohaline organism?
A) salmon
B) shark
C) a ureotelic animal
D) goldfish
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following is a stenohaline organism?
A) salmon
B) shark
C) a ureotelic animal
D) goldfish
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
As the primary osmoregulatory organs, the kidneys filter blood
many times each day. This requires large amounts of oxygen,
which is needed to manufacture __________ for energy.
A) DCT
B) PCT
C) ATP
D) dNTP
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
As the primary osmoregulatory organs, the kidneys filter blood
many times each day. This requires large amounts of oxygen,
which is needed to manufacture __________ for energy.
A) DCT
B) PCT
C) ATP
D) dNTP
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
The function of the nephron is to:
A) segment arteries
B) anchor the kidneys in place
C) absorb oxygen
D) eliminate wastes from the body
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
The function of the nephron is to:
A) segment arteries
B) anchor the kidneys in place
C) absorb oxygen
D) eliminate wastes from the body
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Blood is filtered in which part of the nephron?
A) renal pelvis
B) medullary papillae
C) loop of Henle
D) glomerulus
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Blood is filtered in which part of the nephron?
A) renal pelvis
B) medullary papillae
C) loop of Henle
D) glomerulus
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
The osmolarity of body fluids is maintained at ________.
A) 3 mOsm
B) 300 mOsm
C) 30 mOsm
D) 3000 mOsm
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
The osmolarity of body fluids is maintained at ________.
A) 3 mOsm
B) 300 mOsm
C) 30 mOsm
D) 3000 mOsm
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following solutes is not filtered out during glomerular
filtration?
A) proteins
B) sodium ions
C) positively charged ions
D) negatively charged ions
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following solutes is not filtered out during glomerular
filtration?
A) proteins
B) sodium ions
C) positively charged ions
D) negatively charged ions
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Contractile vacuoles in amoeba remove ammonia and excess
water by:
A) filtering waste similarly to kidneys.
B) expelling the waste through a gated pore in the cytoplasm.
C) merging with the cell membrane and expelling wastes to the
extracellular region.
D) precipitating the nitrogenous waste and excreting the excess water as
urine.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Contractile vacuoles in amoeba remove ammonia and excess
water by:
A) filtering waste similarly to kidneys.
B) expelling the waste through a gated pore in the cytoplasm.
C) merging with the cell membrane and expelling wastes to the
extracellular region.
D) precipitating the nitrogenous waste and excreting the excess water as
urine.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the
difference between the excretion of waste in annelids versus
planaria?
A) Only flame cells in planaria consist of ciliated tubules.
B) Only nephridia in annelids reabsorb useful metabolites before
excretion.
C) Only flame cells in planaria filter waste.
D) Only nephridia in annelids remove excess ions.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the
difference between the excretion of waste in annelids versus
planaria?
A) Only flame cells in planaria consist of ciliated tubules.
B) Only nephridia in annelids reabsorb useful metabolites before
excretion.
C) Only flame cells in planaria filter waste.
D) Only nephridia in annelids remove excess ions.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Malpighian tubules contain exchange pumps that secrete ions.
How does this allow the tubules to maintain osmotic balance and
excrete wastes in insects?
A) The secreted ions draw wastes back into the cell to balance the
osmotic pressure.
B) The secretion of ions affects the osmotic pressure and draws water to
produce urine.
C) None of these.
D) The exchange pumps filter the metabolites out of the cell to rebalance
the osmotic pressure.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Malpighian tubules contain exchange pumps that secrete ions.
How does this allow the tubules to maintain osmotic balance and
excrete wastes in insects?
A) The secreted ions draw wastes back into the cell to balance the
osmotic pressure.
B) The secretion of ions affects the osmotic pressure and draws water to
produce urine.
C) None of these.
D) The exchange pumps filter the metabolites out of the cell to rebalance
the osmotic pressure.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
In the urea cycle:
A) ammonia is converted to a non-toxic, colorless, and odorless urineexcreted waste product.
B) the end product is hypoosmotic urine.
C) involves a multi-step process with ammonia as an end product.
D) involves the conversion of L-ornithine into ammonia.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
In the urea cycle:
A) ammonia is converted to a non-toxic, colorless, and odorless urineexcreted waste product.
B) the end product is hypoosmotic urine.
C) involves a multi-step process with ammonia as an end product.
D) involves the conversion of L-ornithine into ammonia.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements is true regarding key
differences between ammonia metabolism in the differing animal
groups?
A) Uricothelic animals convert ammonia to uric acid while mammals
convert it into urea.
B) Uricothelic organisms metabolize ammonia into urea, which is
excreted as a white paste.
C) Reptiles create a toxic form of uric acid, whereas humans can
metabolize it into urea.
D) Compared to uric acid, urea is insoluble and requires more energy to
create from ammonia.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements is true regarding key
differences between ammonia metabolism in the differing animal
groups?
A) Uricothelic animals convert ammonia to uric acid while mammals
convert it into urea.
B) Uricothelic organisms metabolize ammonia into urea, which is
excreted as a white paste.
C) Reptiles create a toxic form of uric acid, whereas humans can
metabolize it into urea.
D) Compared to uric acid, urea is insoluble and requires more energy to
create from ammonia.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements best describes the regulation of
kidney function in response to epinephrine and noepinephrine?
A) Epinephrine alone causes vasoconstriction that inhibits flow into the
nephron.
B) Norepinephrine alone causes vasoconstriction that inhibits flow into
the nephron.
C) Both epinephrine and norepinephrine cause vasoconstriction that
inhibits flow into the nephron.
D) Neither epinephrine nor norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction; they
maintain flow into the nephron.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following statements best describes the regulation of
kidney function in response to epinephrine and noepinephrine?
A) Epinephrine alone causes vasoconstriction that inhibits flow into the
nephron.
B) Norepinephrine alone causes vasoconstriction that inhibits flow into
the nephron.
C) Both epinephrine and norepinephrine cause vasoconstriction that
inhibits flow into the nephron.
D) Neither epinephrine nor norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction; they
maintain flow into the nephron.
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
How would blood pressure and cardiac output be effected if there
was defective renin production?
A) can cause a continued increase in cardiac output and blood pressure
B) can cause a continued decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure
C) would not effect cardiac output and cause an increase in blood
pressure
D) would not effect cardiac output and cause a decrease in blood
pressure
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
How would blood pressure and cardiac output be effected if there
was defective renin production?
A) can cause a continued increase in cardiac output and blood pressure
B) can cause a continued decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure
C) would not effect cardiac output and cause an increase in blood
pressure
D) would not effect cardiac output and cause a decrease in blood
pressure
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following descriptions is correctly matched with the
appropriate hormone?
A) ANP: functions to increase blood pressure by acting as a
vasoconstrictor when salt levels are low
B) Aldosterone: functions to decrease reabsorption of Na+ in the tubules
of the nephron
C) Angiotensin II: functions to cause vasodilation in the arteries to lower
blood pressure
D) ADH: functions to conserve water in the body when blood volume is
low
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Which of the following descriptions is correctly matched with the
appropriate hormone?
A) ANP: functions to increase blood pressure by acting as a
vasoconstrictor when salt levels are low
B) Aldosterone: functions to decrease reabsorption of Na+ in the tubules
of the nephron
C) Angiotensin II: functions to cause vasodilation in the arteries to lower
blood pressure
D) ADH: functions to conserve water in the body when blood volume is
low
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Attribution
• Connexions. "Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44808/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Osmoconformer." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osmoconformer
• Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44807/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "osmotic pressure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmotic+pressure
• Wiktionary. "osmosis." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmosis
• Wiktionary. "electrolyte." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/electrolyte
• Wikipedia. "facilitated diffusion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/facilitated%20diffusion
• Wikipedia. "active transport." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/active%20transport
• Wikipedia. "passive diffusion." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/passive%20diffusion
• Connexions. "Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44808/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Plasma osmolality." CC BY-SA 3.0 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_osmolality
• Connexions. "Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44808/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "mole." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mole
• Wiktionary. "molality." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/molality
• Wiktionary. "molarity." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/molarity
• Wiktionary. "osmotic pressure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmotic+pressure
• Connexions. "Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44808/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• Wiktionary. "osmoconformer." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmoconformer
• Wiktionary. "stenohaline." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stenohaline
• Wiktionary. "euryhaline." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/euryhaline
• Connexions. "The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44809/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/The Urinary System." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/The_Urinary_System#Nephrons
• Wiktionary. "loop of Henle." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/loop+of+Henle
• Wikipedia. "glomerulus." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/glomerulus
• Wiktionary. "renal." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/renal
• Connexions. "The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44809/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "countercurrent." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/countercurrent
• Wiktionary. "electrolyte." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/electrolyte
• Wiktionary. "arteriole." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/arteriole
• Connexions. "Excretion Systems." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44810/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Contractile vacuoles." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contractile_vacuoles
• Wiktionary. "hypertonic." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypertonic
• Wiktionary. "osmolarity." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmolarity
• Wiktionary. "osmoregulation." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmoregulation
• Wiktionary. "contractile vacuole." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/contractile+vacuole
• Wikipedia. "flame cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/flame%20cell
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• Connexions. "Excretion Systems." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44810/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Nephridia." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephridia
• Wikipedia. "Flame cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame_cell
• Wiktionary. "nephrostome." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nephrostome
• Wiktionary. "nephridiopore." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nephridiopore
• Wiktionary. "nephridium." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nephridium
• Wikipedia. "Malpighian tubules." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malpighian_tubules
• Connexions. "Excretion Systems." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44810/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "hemolymph." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hemolymph
• Wiktionary. "uric acid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/uric+acid
• Wiktionary. "malpighian tubule." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/malpighian+tubule
• Connexions. "Nitrogenous Wastes." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44811/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Urea." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urea
• Connexions. "Nitrogenous Wastes." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44811/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "urea." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/urea
• Wiktionary. "ornithine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ornithine
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/ureotelic
• Wikipedia. "Uric acid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uric_acid
• Wikipedia. "Metabolic waste." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolic_waste
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• Connexions. "Nitrogenous Wastes." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44811/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Nitrogenous Wastes." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44811/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "hypoxanthine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypoxanthine
• Wiktionary. "xanthine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/xanthine
• Wiktionary. "purine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/purine
• Wikipedia. "guano." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/guano
• Wiktionary. "urea." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/urea
• Wiktionary. "uric acid." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/uric+acid
• Connexions. "Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44828/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wikipedia. "Norepinephrine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norepinephrine#Mechanism
• Wikipedia. "Epinephrine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epinephrine#Mechanism_of_action
• Wiktionary. "catecholamine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/catecholamine
• Wiktionary. "norepinephrine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/norepinephrine
• Wiktionary. "epinephrine." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/epinephrine
• Wiktionary. "adrenergic." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/adrenergic
• Connexions. "Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44828/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44828/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "angiotensin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/angiotensin
• Wiktionary. "aquaporin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aquaporin
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Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
• Wiktionary. "renin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/renin
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