Moche and beyond

Report
Moche (Mochica) society
north Peruvian coastal desert
100-800 CE
The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political
unity on areas where previously there had been competing states. Required examples of
key states and empires (Students should know the location and names):
Andean South America: Moche
• Developed a powerful elite and
specialized craft production
• instituted labor tribute*
payments.
• new technologies in metallurgy,
pottery, and textile production,
Royal Textiles
Concept 2.2, III
C. Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide
rewards for the loyalty of the elites.
Teach one illustrative example of such methods, either from the list below or an example of your choice:
• Corvee • Slavery • Rents and tributes • Peasant communities • Family and household production
Teotihuacán
The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas
where previously there had been competing states.
Required examples of key states and empires (Student should know the location and names):
,. . . • Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city-states
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires.
Teach one illustrative example of cities, either from the list below or an example of your choice:
• Persepolis , • Chang’an • Pataliputra• Athens• Carthage• Rome• Alexandria• Constantinople • Teotihuacan
One of the largest cities of the world
• Started building approx 100 BCE; lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th
centuries CE.
• At its zenith, Teotihuacan largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas.
• more than 200,000inhabitants
• multi-floor apartment compounds
How about: Oh crap those messy Mayans
Mayan
City-__________ of Mayan Civilization
Classical era : 200-900 CE
The ruins of Palenque.
Codex
(Books)
Mayan Technology’s role in state building
Most lands occupied by the Maya were poorly drained lowlands with poor soil. To improve
agricultural production, the Maya constructed terraces, which trapped silt carried by rivers and
so retained rich earth for planting, thereby allowing their expansion and population growth.
Persia
basis of agriculture was the labor of free farmers and tenants and in
handicrafts the labor of free artisans
Small number of slaves from conquered populations
Satrapies collected tribute
Major Developments:
200 CE to 600 CE
Collapse of empire; Han china, western portion of
Roman empire, Gupta
Collapse of empire was more severe in _______
Europe than it was in the ________Med or China
SIMILARITIES
Several common factors caused H, R and G empires to fall:

Attacks from ___________ or migratory groups Their migration was probably caused
by drought and lack of pasture, and the invention and use of the s__________facilitated
their attacks on all three established civilizations.

Deterioration of political institutions - All three empires were riddled by political
___________during their latter days, and all three suffered under weak-willed rulers. Moral
decay also characterized the years prior to their respective falls.

Protection/maintenance of __________- which had grown so large that their military
had trouble guarding them. A primary example is the failure of the Great Wall to keep the
Huns out of China. The Huns generally just went around it.

__________that followed the trade routes - Plagues and epidemics may have killed
off as much as half of the population of each empire.
COMMON CONSEQUENCES
____________was disrupted but survived, keeping intact the trend toward increased
long-distance contact. Trade on the ________ _________even increased as conflict
and decline of political authority affected overland trade. (ooh ccot pt)
The importance of ____________increased as political authority decreased. In the
west religion, particularly______, developed authority in many areas of people's lives.
________also spread quickly in China, presenting itself as competition to Confucian
traditions.
DIFFERENCES in the effect of the fall
The fall of the Gupta probably had the least impact, partly because
political unity wasn't the rule anyway, and partly because the traditions
of _________ and the ________system continued on after the empire
fell.
The fall of the Han Dynasty –takes several 100 years before next
dynasty—but tho discredited, __________traditions continued to give
coherence to Chinese society. Nomads (as usual) adopted Ch ways
The most devastating fall of all occurred in the _______ part of the
Roman Empire. Roman civilization depended almost exclusively on the
ability of the government and the military to control territory. Even
though __________emerged as a major religion, it appeared so late in
the life of the empire that it provided little to unify people as Romans
after the empire fell. Instead, the areas of the empire fragmented into
small parts and developed unique characteristics, and the Western
Roman Empire never united again.
Spread of __________
Gupta Golden
Age
•
•
"[Sugar cane] was brought to the [Indian] subcontinent during the B.C.E., era
but it was not until the Gupta period that someone in India discovered how to
reduce the juice of the sugar cane into crystallized sugar and thereby began an
industry that has played a significant role in history for more than a
millennium."
-Asia in Western and World History, by Ainslie T. Embree & Carol Gluck
• records of knowledge of sugar among the ancient
Greeks and Romans, but only as an imported
medicine, and not as a food.
• For example Dioscorides in Greek in the 1st
century (AD) wrote: "There is a kind of
coalesced honey called sugar found in reeds in
India and Arabia Felix [Yemen], similar in
consistency to salt and brittle enough to be
broken between the teeth like salt. It is good
dissolved in water for the intestines and stomach,
and taken as a drink to help a painful bladder and
kidneys."
Key Concept 2.3 Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and
Exchange
With the organization of large-scale empires, the volume of long-distance trade
_________ dramatically. Much of this trade resulted from the demand for raw
materials and l________ goods. Land and water routes linked many regions of the
E_________Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the
peoples and societies of the Americas. Exchanges of people, technology, religious and
cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed
alongside the trade in goods across far-flung networks of communication and
exchange.
I. Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication
and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate
networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americas.
NOTE: Students should know how factors including the climate and location of the
routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved shaped the
distinctive features of the following trade routes.
A. Eurasian ________Roads
B. Trans-Saharan c_________routes
Check out that chart . . . .
C. Indian Ocean sea lanes
D. Mediterranean sea lanes
The earliest evidence for domesticated ________ in the region about 7th cent BCE;
late centuries BCE special camel _________ developed. Used by the B_______
people, they enabled more regular contact across the entire width of the Sahara.
By 300s CE camels repalce donkey and horse. But . . . it was not until the 7th and 8th
centuries, with the conversion of West Africa to I_______ that routes became
regular. --- ooh CCOT point
Who participated: Chinese, Indians, Malays, Persians, Arabs, East Africans
Created a trading class with _________of cultures
Imp of ___________; use of ________ sails
II. New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.
A. New technologies (such as yokes, saddles or stirrups) permitted the use of
domesticated pack animals (such as horses, o______, l_______ or ca_______) to
transport goods across longer routes.
B. Innovations in maritime technologies (such as the l________sail or d_______ ships)
as well as advanced knowledge of the ___________ winds stimulated exchanges along
maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia.
III. Alongside the trade in goods, exchanges of people, technology, religious and
cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed
across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
A. The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East,
encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques (such as the development of
the q________t system in Persia).
B. The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to
the decline of some empires (such as Rome or China)
C. Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread including Chinese
culture, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism.
AKA great vehicle bodhisattvas , revere e Buddha influence in China and Japan
Hsiung-nu—pastoral nomads originate in the ________ lived
in areas that sedentary agriculture could not cuz not enuf
rain, incursions into China, Gupta and Rome, played major
role in rise and fall of empires in civilized cores—courage
culture, kin-related bands, honor, vendettas, men dominate,
short legged horses, some social stratification
Where?
New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across
longer routes.
Teach one illustrative example of new technologies, either from the list below or an example of
your choice: • Yokes • Saddles• Stirrups
Teach one illustrative example of domesticated pack animals, either from the list below or an
example of your choice:
• Horses • Oxen • Llamas • Camels
Horses in warfare
The __________ which gives greater stability to a
rider, has been described as one of the most
significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior
to gunpowder.
As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare,
the stirrup is often called the third revolutionary
step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle.
Chariots and
archers were
weapons of war in
Ancient Egypt.
The invention of the stirrup occurred relatively late in
history, considering that horses were domesticated in
approximately 4500 BC, and the earliest forms of the
saddle—a simple blanket with light padding and a
surcingle appeared about 800 BC.
The Horse: a weapon
• In most civilizations the horse was used more in chariots than for
riding until about 800 BC. Before stirrups most equestrian cultures
used no support for the feet at all. There are records of a loose
surcingle being employed behind the girth, into which the feet could be
tucked. Toe stirrups (loops of rope which held the big toe) were first
recorded in Northern India in the 2nd century BC, their use was
somewhat limited by climate and footwear.
• The first stirrups designed to take the entire foot were probably single
mounting stirrups recorded in China in the 4th Century AD. The
mounting stirrup was easier than using a stool to mount and safer than
vaulting on when fully armed (Cambyses, king of Persia stabbed
himself while mounting when fully armed in 522 BC - A.D.H.Bivar,
"The Stirrup and Its Origins." Oriental Arts, n.s. 1 (1955): 61-68. )
•
•
A rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and
could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and
momentum of horse and rider. Among other advantages, stirrups provided
greater balance and support to the rider, which allowed a mounted soldier (part
of the cavalry) to use a sword more efficiently without falling, especially
against infantry adversaries.
The earliest manifestation of the stirrup was a toe loop that held the big toe and
was used in India, possibly as early as 500 BC.This ancient foot support
consisted of a looped rope for the big toe which was at the bottom of a saddle
made of fibre or leather. Such a configuration was suitable for the warm
climate of south and central India where people used to ride horses barefoot
Real first stirrup was Kush—about 100 CE—
founded by white Huns
Appears in China in widespread use 400s
Depiction of a Kushan divinity using an early platformstyle stirrup, circa AD 150. British Museum.
Trans Saharan Trade
gold, ivory trade, and salt sent
north and east to population
centers in North Africa, the Middle
East and Europe in exchange for
glassware, cloth, ceramics etc
Although there are Classical
references to direct travel from the
Mediterranean to West Africa most
of this trade was conducted
through nomads (middlemen),
inhabiting the area and aware of
passages through the
First mention of camels across _______comes
in 46 bce, probably from Arabian peninsula
by way of Egypt
Trans Saharan Trade and Carthage
Carthage founded c. 800 BCE,
one terminus for West African gold, ivory, and salt.
Even after fall of Carthaginian
Empire Trade continued into
Roman times.
Innovations in maritime technologies, as well as advanced knowledge of the
monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa
to East Asia.
Teach one illustrative example of innovations in maritime technologies, either
from the list below or an example of your choice:
• Lateen sail • Dhow ships
• Add east weast point from ap curriculum
The Mediterranean runs east-west, and so there is little variation in its ecology. Some
bits are wetter and some drier, but mostly it’s all “Mediterranean.”
By contrast, the Indian Ocean includes environments as varied as tropical East Africa,
the deserts that border the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the intensely wet areas of southern
India, and the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia. This ecological variety served as a
stimulus to trade.
The Persian Gulf had little in the way of timber, but the teak forests of India and the
mangrove swamps of East Africa were only a month away by ship. Horses do not thrive
in southern India, but they were needed for military purposes. Arabian horses were
exported by ship to the ports of southern India to meet this need. Spices and
incenses grew only in a few favored places. P_______was grown throughout southern
India, but some of the more valuable spices like nutmeg and cloves were produced in
a few little islands in Southeast_______. Frankincense comes from a few places in South
Arabia and the Horn of Africa. These goods, however, were desired throughout the
Indian Ocean and beyond.
The ecological diversity of the region is
paralleled by its human diversity. Because of
its size, the Indian Ocean connects several
regions of Africa, Southwest Asia, South
Asia, Southeast Asia, and, to a degree, East Asia.
People in these places eat different
foods, dress differently, talk differently, build
their houses differently, and perhaps most
tellingly build their boats differently. Despite
their differences, these regions and the
people in them were, for most of their history, in
regular and intimate contact with each
other. What the
Trade in the Med
First,
Phoenicians
Then Greeks
Carthage and
Romans
3
2
1
4
9
8
7
6
Teach one illustrative example of cities, either from the list below or an
example of your choice:
• Persepolis , • Chang’an • Pataliputra• Athens• Carthage• Rome•
Alexandria• Constantinople • Teotihuacan
3 4
9
2
8
7
5
1
6
Teach one illustrative example of cities, either from the list below or an
example of your choice:
• Persepolis (8) , • Chang’an (7) • Pataliputra•(6) Athens (3)•
Carthage (2) Rome (4)• Alexandria (5)• Constantinople (9) •
Teotihuacan (1)
First Persian Empire Achemenids– founded by Cyrus the Great (r. 558530 BCE) created largest known empire
•
CLASSICAL
CHINA
Qin Dynasty 221-
Han Dynasty
202 BCE
202 BCE to 220 CE
The Location . . .

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