Presented at the OSFMA 2013 Conference.

Report
CODES
CONDENSATION &
GUARANTEES
Presented By
Keith Schaber, President
Schaber Roof Consultants, Inc
.
THE OSFMA
ROOF
THE OSFMA ROOF
& HOW YOU CAN GET IT
OREGON’S MOST POPULAR
“REROOF”/RECOVER FOR SCHOOLS
SAD, BUT TRUE………
1. Seldom meets code for wind, slope, vapor
retarder, puncture resistance, and plumbing.
2. Requires additional insulation to be equal in
energy efficiency to fully adhered assemblies.
3. Fosters condensation where ponding water
occurs without adequate insulation or venting
between vapor retarder and roof covering.
4. Poor base of financially responsible contractors
with good performance records.
5. Spotty service performance.
Currently, mechanically attached recovers are the cheapest and
riskiest to install and poorest in energy conservation in Oregon.
Oregon’s Most Popular Method
for Reroofing…
Has it’s drawbacks!!!
• Purchasers Price Motivated.
• Lack of Experience or Equipment to Install
other methods or roof assemblies.
• Less Training for Roofers.
• Less Compliant With Codes or Accepted
Practices Which, to Comply With, Would
Increase Installed Cost.
Cheapest Assembly is Always Easiest to Sell
THE OSFMA ROOF ASSEMBLY
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
1. Roof assemblies code compliant for it’s location for
new construction, recovers and reroofing.
2. Roof assemblies that are energy efficient.
3. Roof assemblies with a verifiable record of long term
performance of 20 or more years.
4. Practical resistance to vandalism or other roof
traffic.
5. Installed by financially responsible contractors
capable of bonding project(s) including verifiable
record of exemplary performance.
Competitively priced while meeting performance criteria.
Today’s information is factual
BUT….
It may contradict much of what
you’ve heard and believed about
roofs until today.
MOST OF TODAY’S
INFORMATION IS FROM….
• Oregon State Structural Specialty Code
• Federal-DOE-Oakridge Labs
• WSCRA 10 Year TPO Testing
• SPRI – Laboratory Testing
• Firestone, Carlisle, DOW (JP Stevens),
Soprema, NRCA, NRC & RCI
• WUFI
• Oregon SRC Field Experience
A Bibliography is Included
METAL ROOF
The metal roof supplier will not guarantee
their roof against condensation.
BUT
The metal roof salesman or your architect can’t tell you how
to design their roofs to avoid, or prevent, condensation.
SHINGLE ROOF
The insulation supplier recommends
a vapor retarder under the shingles.
BUT
The vapor retarder is excluded from the architect’s
specifications because is wasn’t “required”.
WHY
Roofs with vapor retarders can cost 5-7% more.
THE RECOMMENDED VAPOR RETARDER WAS
OMITTED & CONDENSATION DEVELOPED
Horizontal Wrinkles Completed The “Picture Framing”
RESPONSIBILITY AVERSION
& CONFLICT CREATION
A technical drawing illustrated the size and attachment
pattern on the top of a wall and
The architect said……..
“That’s far more detail than we ever show, and a good
deal of it falls under the Contractors Means and
Methods of how to install a roof.”
An attorney receives an award for “opining”…….
“The contractor is not responsible for the adequacy of
the performance OR design criteria required by the
contract”.
OOPS!!!
ROOFING FACT
THE MOST COMMON SOURCE FOR
“TECHNICAL” INFORMATION COMES
FROM SALESMEN WHO CARRY NO
PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
AND HAVE NO CONTRACTURAL
AGREEMENTS WITH THE DISTRICT
OR THE ARCHITECTS THEY WORK FOR
FULLY ADHERED COOL ROOF
WITHOUT VAPOR RETARDER
Specifications
Provided by Sales
Rep and Followed
by Architect, Owner
and Roofer
ROOF COMPLIED WITH
REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND
UPLIFT BUT COULDN’T
WITHSTAND INTERIOR
VAPOR MIGRATION AND
BALLOONED ITSELF APART.
CODES
THE CODE FOR OREGON IS:
THE 2010 OREGON
STRUCTURAL
SPECIALTY CODE
It is based primarily on the
International Building Code.
CODES DO NOT
APPLY TO ONE KIND
OF ROOF ASSEMBLY….
BUT NOT TO ANOTHER
Codes are Based on
Minimum Standards
This new school had 2 kinds of roof assemblies.
The insulation under the built-up roof assembly
had a vapor retarder.
The insulation under the metal roof assembly
had none.
WHAT IS A ROOF “ASSEMBLY”?
AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
A Roof “Assembly” is:
All of the components necessary to keep
water out of the building from the “roof”
covering.
And
All of the components necessary to keep
water out of the roof “assembly” from the
inside.
A roof failure is a failure of any roof assembly
component, regardless of it’s location.
CHAPTER 15
ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES
Oregon Structural Specialty Code
DEFINITION
ROOF ASSEMBLY; A system designed to
provide weather protection and resistance to
wind loads. A roof assembly includes the roof
deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal
barrier, insulation and roof covering.
ONE LITTLE WALL WITHOUT A
VAPOR RETARDER…..
Caused condensation that showed with a
wrinkle at every insulation joint
• Decking, plumbing, sheet metal, seismic anchors,
HVAC, electrical, skylights and insulation add up to
a ROOF ASSEMBLY.
• Carpenters, Electricians, Welders, HVAC
Contractors, Plumbers, Sheet Metal Workers, and
General Contractors work impacts the ROOF
ASSEMBLIES PERFORMANCE.
• Manufacturers, Mechanical Engineers, Structural
Engineers and Architects designs affect the ROOF
ASSEMBLIES PERFORMANCE.
WHAT IS “ROOF” FAILURE?
A “ROOF” FAILURE IS
A FAILURE OF ANY DESIGN,
MATERIAL OR WORKMANSHIP
COMPONENT OF THE ROOF
ASSEMBLY
Only a few of the roof assembly components are
designed or installed by a roofer
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ventilation
Roof Insulation
Energy Conservation
Drainage
Wind
The Plumbing Code
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 13
Chapter 16
Chapter 16
AND……………
The code for vapor retarders
is listed in
Section 1312
Exterior Envelope-Other Buildings
There is no cross reference in the Roof Assembly Chapter
to help in locating the requirements for a vapor retarder.
• Impact Puncture Resistance: CGSB
37-GP-52M or FM4470 Section 5.5
• Material Standards. Thermoset singleply: ASTM D 4637, ASTM 5019, or
• ASTM 4434, 6754 6878 or CGSB
CAN/CGSB 37-54.
• Roof Insulation: FM4450 or UL1266.
( Includes passing dart drop testing)
1312.1.4 Moisture Control. A 1-perm vapor
retarder shall be installed on the warm side
(in winter) in all exterior floors, walls and ceilings of
heated buildings.
MOST SCHOOLS IN OREGON ARE HEATED
(There is only one exception which is for insulation installed
in ceilings in an existing structure and where ventilation has
been provided as specified in Section 1203).
CODE COMPLIANCE
ROOF DRAINAGE
SECTION 1504.1
ROOF DRAINAGE. Roofs shall be sloped a minimum of 1
unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for
drainage unless designed for water accumulation in
accordance with Section 1611.2 and approved by the building
official. (requires verification to preclude progressive
deflection)
SECTION 1504.3
Overflow drains and scuppers. Drains must have overflows,
the same size as the drain or overflow scuppers three times
the size of the drain with minimum height of 4”.
A Local Roofers Idea…
Of An Overflow Scupper
CODE COMPLIANCE
REROOFING
1511.1 General. Materials and methods of
application used for recovering or
replacing an existing roof covering shall
comply with the requirements of
Chapter 15.
Literally, whatever is required for new roofs is
required for reroofs or recovers.
CODE COMPLIANCE
Does the code require a 2% slope
for ALL roofs including reroofs and recovers?
SECTION 1511.1
REROOFING
Exception : If the roof doesn’t have a 2% slope it is required to
provide positive roof drainage which is defined asPOSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in
which consideration has been made for all loading deflections
of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to
ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.
There are NO exclusions (“excuses” for ponding water) on
any type of roof.
A CODE CONUNDRUM!
• Building officials don’t interpret the code
consistently.
• Failing to obtain a building permit has little
“consequences”.
• Few contractors have code manuals and few
building officials have roofing manuals.
• Building departments do not carry liability
insurance for incorrect decisions,
interpretations or failures to uphold the code.
CODE COMPLIANCE
OREGON’S REROOFING CODE
IN LAYMAN’S TERMS!
SECTION 1511
REROOFING
1511.1 General. Materials and methods of
application used for recovering or replacing
an existing roof covering shall comply with
the requirements of Chapter 15.
Exception: Reroofing shall not be required to
meet the minimum design slope requirement
of one-quarter unit vertical in 12 units
horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section 1508
for roofs that provide positive roof drainage.
1511.2 Structural and construction loads.
Structural roof components shall be capable
of supporting the roof-covering system and
the material and equipment loads that will be
encountered during installation of the system.
Requires compliance for drain sizes,
installation of overflows, vapor
retarders, ventilation and applicable
cross-references to other sections.
Requires positive drainage with
additional slope provided to ensure
drainage within 48 hours of
precipitation (applies to all types of
roofs with no exclusions).
New structural codes often consider
structures to be overloaded with one
roof only. Even a 10% increase in
weight triggers seismic upgrades.
THE CODE IS THE SAME FOR REROOFING AS
IT IS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION!
CONDENSATION
FACTS ABOUT
COOL ROOFS &
CONDENSATION
Being Cool Has Consequences
That someone will have to pay for.
A BIG CONUNDRUM
WHAT DOE RECOMENDS IS NOT INSTALLED
Fully-adhered (compact) cool roof system
is the only system recommended by DOE
It is the most expensive for both materials and labor
- It is the least risky for condensation and
highest in energy efficiency
HOWEVER
Mechanically-attached cool roofs installed
over other roofs is popular in Oregon
- It is the least expensive
- It has the highest risk for condensation
& the lowest energy efficiency
CAN YOU AFFORD TO SAVE MONEY AND BE COOL?
Energy Loss Clues…
WESTERN OREGON EXPERIENCE
ROGUE RIVER HIGH SCHOOL
To my knowledge…
Oregon’s most expensive per square
foot cool roof condensation failure
required nearly 60% of steel decking to
be replaced
COOL? BUT NOT IN OREGON
THE COOL ROOF SAVINGS CALCULATOR
COOL………………
The DOE/WUFI Cool Roof Savings Calculator will calculate
your conversion to a cool roof in 2 minutes.
NOT SO COOL…………
It only compares black roofs to cool roofs (more than 90% of
Oregon’s conventional roofs have white ceramic surfaces)
REALLY NOT COOL……………..
The Cool Roof Savings Calculator’s formula is based on fully
adhered roofs with insulation and not for Oregon’s most
popular method for installing cool roofs- mechanically
attached. Roofs that are vented were not tested.
COOL ROOF SAVINGS CALCULATOR
TELLS IT LIKE IT IS
From Oakridge National Labs
“The calculator was designed for compact low slope roofs only. It is probably
OK for unvented assemblies not for vented roofs.”
NOTE: Most cool roofs recovers are mechanically attached over vented roof
spaces which will not enhance cool roof savings.
From Lew Seagraves, Licensed Mechanical Engineer
“Using applicable energy rates and mechanical efficiencies revealed that none
of the listed locations (Astoria, Burns, Eugene, Medford, North Bend,
Pendleton, Portland, Redmond and Salem) would retain any cool savings
without addressing, or re-engineering the amount of insulation required to
show a savings when converting from a black surface to a cool roof rated
surface. The black surface requires less insulation to achieve maximum
savings.”
NO savings for any location in Oregon. AND, not valid for Oregon’s most
common construction and widely used cool roof method of installation.
WSRCA 10 YEAR FIELD TESTING
RECOMMENDS 45 MIL THICK TPO VAPOR
RETARDER AND THICKER MEMBRANES
“TPO Roof Research & Testing Project 10th –Year Update (Excerpts)
“However, the presence of moisture is of serious concern to the authors, and
brings the subject of vapor retarders back to remind manufacturers, architects
and roof designers, as well as contractors, that prudent vapor retarder
practices cannot be overlooked, especially in mechanically-attached single-ply
systems in cool climates.” ( Vapor retarders of 45 mils are suggested).
Western States continues to suggest “that when TPO is considered for a
roofing project in the western regions of North America, a white, 60 mil
minimum (or thicker) membrane be used. Based on this study, 60 mil and
thicker TPO membranes, where appropriate, are a reasonable option in the
single-ply roofing system category.
Comment
Western States recommendations adds substantially to the cost of the most
popular TPO Cool Roof Membrane – After just 10 years the TPO Cool Roofs are
exhibiting no characteristics of being sustainable.
GUARANTEES
ROOFING FACT
GUARANTEES ARE WRITTEN BY
ATTORNEYS WHOSE SOLE JOB
IS TO LIMIT THEIR EMPLOYER’S
LIABILITY
Your Attorneys know Legalese, but
they probably don’t know roofing too well
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Limited to cost of materials.
Workmanship covered only if done correctly.
Design not covered, nor reviewed.
Excludes components not sold or furnished by guarantor.
If roof fails, you must by a new one from company whose roof
failed.
30 year guarantee-a series of 5 year maintenance requirements,
inspections, and renewal fees all at your expense.
Guarantee voided if roof not kept clean.
Guarantee not in effect until the roof hasn’t’ leaked for two
continuous years.
Any disputes (arbitration, court, etc.) must be settled in supplier’s
home town.
Valleys, waterways, and gutters not included.
THE OSFMA
ROOF
PREMISES
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
EVERY ROOF (ANY ROOF)
INSTALLED IN OREGON
SHOULD LAST 20 YEARS…
Even on Schools !
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
ANYONE DOING ANYTHING
RELATING TO ROOFS
SHOULD KNOW AND
BE RESPONSIBLE FOR
WHAT THEY’RE DOING…
Especially on Schools…
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
EVERYONE DOING ANYTHING TO A
SCHOOLS’ ROOF MUST PROVIDE
ROOFS THAT:
•
Meet Code
• Are Correctly Designed
• Will Last 20 Years
• Are Correctly Installed
• Have Realistic Guarantees
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
EVERYONE DOING ANYTHING
RELATING TO A SCHOOLS’ ROOF…
SHOULD PLAY FOR THE SAME TEAM!
Does it leave room for opinions? Yes
Does it leave roof for code violations? No
WHO PAYS FOR POOR DESIGN?
WE PAY HIGHER INSURANCE PREMIUMS
AS A RESULT OF CODE VIOLATIONS
SDAO (Special Districts Association of Oregon), Oregon’s
largest school facilities insurer reports:
Only 1 loss in 27 was
installed to meet Oregon’s
code for wind uplift
resistance.
Roof losses as a result of
code violations are
involved in over 70% of all
claims.
Your District pays for bad advice, designs, or poor workmanship….
Unless, you’re able to sue successfully.
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
GETTING STARTED
Step 1:
Supply Statistical Information
About Codes, Condensation and Guarantees
to Anyone Who Will Listen.
Step 2:
Provide Training of Building Officials Through The
Oregon Building Codes Officials Association. Develop
Pool of Roofing Special Inspectors in Outlying Areas.
Step 3:
Add Roof Assembly Plan Review to Permit Process for
Schools and 1 ½% of Roof Assembly Contract Amount.
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
Is There Money for Increased
Project Inspection?
RCA/Wholesalers Estimate
$ 2.4 to $ 2.6 Million in
Uncollected Permit Fees
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
Step 4:
Furnish OSFMA Roof Requirements
to Design Professionals, AGC,
Roofing Contractors, Consultants
and Material Suppliers.
Requirement: Library & Dissemination Fees
Paid by “Applicants”.
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
Step 5:
Create and Maintain a Roofing
Technical Library and/or Blog for
Internet Access From Schools.
Step 6:
Thorough Analysis, Design and
Installation Process Project
Commissioning by Trained &
Licensed OSFMA Roof Protectors.
THE OSFMA ROOF &
HOW YOU CAN GET IT
Step 7:
Write Realistic Oregon OSFMA Roof
Guarantees That Protect Schools.
Step 8:
Receive DISCOUNT from Insurance
Carriers for CODE-Compliant
Guaranteed Roofs That are
Commissioned.
THE OSFMA ROOF
LET’S GO GET
ONE!!!!!!!!

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