CODES CONDENSATION & GUARANTEES Presented By Keith Schaber, President Schaber Roof Consultants, Inc . THE OSFMA ROOF THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT OREGON’S MOST POPULAR “REROOF”/RECOVER FOR SCHOOLS SAD, BUT TRUE……… 1. Seldom meets code for wind, slope, vapor retarder, puncture resistance, and plumbing. 2. Requires additional insulation to be equal in energy efficiency to fully adhered assemblies. 3. Fosters condensation where ponding water occurs without adequate insulation or venting between vapor retarder and roof covering. 4. Poor base of financially responsible contractors with good performance records. 5. Spotty service performance. Currently, mechanically attached recovers are the cheapest and riskiest to install and poorest in energy conservation in Oregon. Oregon’s Most Popular Method for Reroofing… Has it’s drawbacks!!! • Purchasers Price Motivated. • Lack of Experience or Equipment to Install other methods or roof assemblies. • Less Training for Roofers. • Less Compliant With Codes or Accepted Practices Which, to Comply With, Would Increase Installed Cost. Cheapest Assembly is Always Easiest to Sell THE OSFMA ROOF ASSEMBLY PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Roof assemblies code compliant for it’s location for new construction, recovers and reroofing. 2. Roof assemblies that are energy efficient. 3. Roof assemblies with a verifiable record of long term performance of 20 or more years. 4. Practical resistance to vandalism or other roof traffic. 5. Installed by financially responsible contractors capable of bonding project(s) including verifiable record of exemplary performance. Competitively priced while meeting performance criteria. Today’s information is factual BUT…. It may contradict much of what you’ve heard and believed about roofs until today. MOST OF TODAY’S INFORMATION IS FROM…. • Oregon State Structural Specialty Code • Federal-DOE-Oakridge Labs • WSCRA 10 Year TPO Testing • SPRI – Laboratory Testing • Firestone, Carlisle, DOW (JP Stevens), Soprema, NRCA, NRC & RCI • WUFI • Oregon SRC Field Experience A Bibliography is Included METAL ROOF The metal roof supplier will not guarantee their roof against condensation. BUT The metal roof salesman or your architect can’t tell you how to design their roofs to avoid, or prevent, condensation. SHINGLE ROOF The insulation supplier recommends a vapor retarder under the shingles. BUT The vapor retarder is excluded from the architect’s specifications because is wasn’t “required”. WHY Roofs with vapor retarders can cost 5-7% more. THE RECOMMENDED VAPOR RETARDER WAS OMITTED & CONDENSATION DEVELOPED Horizontal Wrinkles Completed The “Picture Framing” RESPONSIBILITY AVERSION & CONFLICT CREATION A technical drawing illustrated the size and attachment pattern on the top of a wall and The architect said…….. “That’s far more detail than we ever show, and a good deal of it falls under the Contractors Means and Methods of how to install a roof.” An attorney receives an award for “opining”……. “The contractor is not responsible for the adequacy of the performance OR design criteria required by the contract”. OOPS!!! ROOFING FACT THE MOST COMMON SOURCE FOR “TECHNICAL” INFORMATION COMES FROM SALESMEN WHO CARRY NO PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE AND HAVE NO CONTRACTURAL AGREEMENTS WITH THE DISTRICT OR THE ARCHITECTS THEY WORK FOR FULLY ADHERED COOL ROOF WITHOUT VAPOR RETARDER Specifications Provided by Sales Rep and Followed by Architect, Owner and Roofer ROOF COMPLIED WITH REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND UPLIFT BUT COULDN’T WITHSTAND INTERIOR VAPOR MIGRATION AND BALLOONED ITSELF APART. CODES THE CODE FOR OREGON IS: THE 2010 OREGON STRUCTURAL SPECIALTY CODE It is based primarily on the International Building Code. CODES DO NOT APPLY TO ONE KIND OF ROOF ASSEMBLY…. BUT NOT TO ANOTHER Codes are Based on Minimum Standards This new school had 2 kinds of roof assemblies. The insulation under the built-up roof assembly had a vapor retarder. The insulation under the metal roof assembly had none. WHAT IS A ROOF “ASSEMBLY”? AND WHAT DOES IT DO? A Roof “Assembly” is: All of the components necessary to keep water out of the building from the “roof” covering. And All of the components necessary to keep water out of the roof “assembly” from the inside. A roof failure is a failure of any roof assembly component, regardless of it’s location. CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES Oregon Structural Specialty Code DEFINITION ROOF ASSEMBLY; A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to wind loads. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation and roof covering. ONE LITTLE WALL WITHOUT A VAPOR RETARDER….. Caused condensation that showed with a wrinkle at every insulation joint • Decking, plumbing, sheet metal, seismic anchors, HVAC, electrical, skylights and insulation add up to a ROOF ASSEMBLY. • Carpenters, Electricians, Welders, HVAC Contractors, Plumbers, Sheet Metal Workers, and General Contractors work impacts the ROOF ASSEMBLIES PERFORMANCE. • Manufacturers, Mechanical Engineers, Structural Engineers and Architects designs affect the ROOF ASSEMBLIES PERFORMANCE. WHAT IS “ROOF” FAILURE? A “ROOF” FAILURE IS A FAILURE OF ANY DESIGN, MATERIAL OR WORKMANSHIP COMPONENT OF THE ROOF ASSEMBLY Only a few of the roof assembly components are designed or installed by a roofer • • • • • • Ventilation Roof Insulation Energy Conservation Drainage Wind The Plumbing Code Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Chapter 16 Chapter 16 AND…………… The code for vapor retarders is listed in Section 1312 Exterior Envelope-Other Buildings There is no cross reference in the Roof Assembly Chapter to help in locating the requirements for a vapor retarder. • Impact Puncture Resistance: CGSB 37-GP-52M or FM4470 Section 5.5 • Material Standards. Thermoset singleply: ASTM D 4637, ASTM 5019, or • ASTM 4434, 6754 6878 or CGSB CAN/CGSB 37-54. • Roof Insulation: FM4450 or UL1266. ( Includes passing dart drop testing) 1312.1.4 Moisture Control. A 1-perm vapor retarder shall be installed on the warm side (in winter) in all exterior floors, walls and ceilings of heated buildings. MOST SCHOOLS IN OREGON ARE HEATED (There is only one exception which is for insulation installed in ceilings in an existing structure and where ventilation has been provided as specified in Section 1203). CODE COMPLIANCE ROOF DRAINAGE SECTION 1504.1 ROOF DRAINAGE. Roofs shall be sloped a minimum of 1 unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for drainage unless designed for water accumulation in accordance with Section 1611.2 and approved by the building official. (requires verification to preclude progressive deflection) SECTION 1504.3 Overflow drains and scuppers. Drains must have overflows, the same size as the drain or overflow scuppers three times the size of the drain with minimum height of 4”. A Local Roofers Idea… Of An Overflow Scupper CODE COMPLIANCE REROOFING 1511.1 General. Materials and methods of application used for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15. Literally, whatever is required for new roofs is required for reroofs or recovers. CODE COMPLIANCE Does the code require a 2% slope for ALL roofs including reroofs and recovers? SECTION 1511.1 REROOFING Exception : If the roof doesn’t have a 2% slope it is required to provide positive roof drainage which is defined asPOSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. There are NO exclusions (“excuses” for ponding water) on any type of roof. A CODE CONUNDRUM! • Building officials don’t interpret the code consistently. • Failing to obtain a building permit has little “consequences”. • Few contractors have code manuals and few building officials have roofing manuals. • Building departments do not carry liability insurance for incorrect decisions, interpretations or failures to uphold the code. CODE COMPLIANCE OREGON’S REROOFING CODE IN LAYMAN’S TERMS! SECTION 1511 REROOFING 1511.1 General. Materials and methods of application used for recovering or replacing an existing roof covering shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 15. Exception: Reroofing shall not be required to meet the minimum design slope requirement of one-quarter unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in Section 1508 for roofs that provide positive roof drainage. 1511.2 Structural and construction loads. Structural roof components shall be capable of supporting the roof-covering system and the material and equipment loads that will be encountered during installation of the system. Requires compliance for drain sizes, installation of overflows, vapor retarders, ventilation and applicable cross-references to other sections. Requires positive drainage with additional slope provided to ensure drainage within 48 hours of precipitation (applies to all types of roofs with no exclusions). New structural codes often consider structures to be overloaded with one roof only. Even a 10% increase in weight triggers seismic upgrades. THE CODE IS THE SAME FOR REROOFING AS IT IS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION! CONDENSATION FACTS ABOUT COOL ROOFS & CONDENSATION Being Cool Has Consequences That someone will have to pay for. A BIG CONUNDRUM WHAT DOE RECOMENDS IS NOT INSTALLED Fully-adhered (compact) cool roof system is the only system recommended by DOE It is the most expensive for both materials and labor - It is the least risky for condensation and highest in energy efficiency HOWEVER Mechanically-attached cool roofs installed over other roofs is popular in Oregon - It is the least expensive - It has the highest risk for condensation & the lowest energy efficiency CAN YOU AFFORD TO SAVE MONEY AND BE COOL? Energy Loss Clues… WESTERN OREGON EXPERIENCE ROGUE RIVER HIGH SCHOOL To my knowledge… Oregon’s most expensive per square foot cool roof condensation failure required nearly 60% of steel decking to be replaced COOL? BUT NOT IN OREGON THE COOL ROOF SAVINGS CALCULATOR COOL……………… The DOE/WUFI Cool Roof Savings Calculator will calculate your conversion to a cool roof in 2 minutes. NOT SO COOL………… It only compares black roofs to cool roofs (more than 90% of Oregon’s conventional roofs have white ceramic surfaces) REALLY NOT COOL…………….. The Cool Roof Savings Calculator’s formula is based on fully adhered roofs with insulation and not for Oregon’s most popular method for installing cool roofs- mechanically attached. Roofs that are vented were not tested. COOL ROOF SAVINGS CALCULATOR TELLS IT LIKE IT IS From Oakridge National Labs “The calculator was designed for compact low slope roofs only. It is probably OK for unvented assemblies not for vented roofs.” NOTE: Most cool roofs recovers are mechanically attached over vented roof spaces which will not enhance cool roof savings. From Lew Seagraves, Licensed Mechanical Engineer “Using applicable energy rates and mechanical efficiencies revealed that none of the listed locations (Astoria, Burns, Eugene, Medford, North Bend, Pendleton, Portland, Redmond and Salem) would retain any cool savings without addressing, or re-engineering the amount of insulation required to show a savings when converting from a black surface to a cool roof rated surface. The black surface requires less insulation to achieve maximum savings.” NO savings for any location in Oregon. AND, not valid for Oregon’s most common construction and widely used cool roof method of installation. WSRCA 10 YEAR FIELD TESTING RECOMMENDS 45 MIL THICK TPO VAPOR RETARDER AND THICKER MEMBRANES “TPO Roof Research & Testing Project 10th –Year Update (Excerpts) “However, the presence of moisture is of serious concern to the authors, and brings the subject of vapor retarders back to remind manufacturers, architects and roof designers, as well as contractors, that prudent vapor retarder practices cannot be overlooked, especially in mechanically-attached single-ply systems in cool climates.” ( Vapor retarders of 45 mils are suggested). Western States continues to suggest “that when TPO is considered for a roofing project in the western regions of North America, a white, 60 mil minimum (or thicker) membrane be used. Based on this study, 60 mil and thicker TPO membranes, where appropriate, are a reasonable option in the single-ply roofing system category. Comment Western States recommendations adds substantially to the cost of the most popular TPO Cool Roof Membrane – After just 10 years the TPO Cool Roofs are exhibiting no characteristics of being sustainable. GUARANTEES ROOFING FACT GUARANTEES ARE WRITTEN BY ATTORNEYS WHOSE SOLE JOB IS TO LIMIT THEIR EMPLOYER’S LIABILITY Your Attorneys know Legalese, but they probably don’t know roofing too well • • • • • • • • • • Limited to cost of materials. Workmanship covered only if done correctly. Design not covered, nor reviewed. Excludes components not sold or furnished by guarantor. If roof fails, you must by a new one from company whose roof failed. 30 year guarantee-a series of 5 year maintenance requirements, inspections, and renewal fees all at your expense. Guarantee voided if roof not kept clean. Guarantee not in effect until the roof hasn’t’ leaked for two continuous years. Any disputes (arbitration, court, etc.) must be settled in supplier’s home town. Valleys, waterways, and gutters not included. THE OSFMA ROOF PREMISES THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT EVERY ROOF (ANY ROOF) INSTALLED IN OREGON SHOULD LAST 20 YEARS… Even on Schools ! THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT ANYONE DOING ANYTHING RELATING TO ROOFS SHOULD KNOW AND BE RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT THEY’RE DOING… Especially on Schools… THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT EVERYONE DOING ANYTHING TO A SCHOOLS’ ROOF MUST PROVIDE ROOFS THAT: • Meet Code • Are Correctly Designed • Will Last 20 Years • Are Correctly Installed • Have Realistic Guarantees THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT EVERYONE DOING ANYTHING RELATING TO A SCHOOLS’ ROOF… SHOULD PLAY FOR THE SAME TEAM! Does it leave room for opinions? Yes Does it leave roof for code violations? No WHO PAYS FOR POOR DESIGN? WE PAY HIGHER INSURANCE PREMIUMS AS A RESULT OF CODE VIOLATIONS SDAO (Special Districts Association of Oregon), Oregon’s largest school facilities insurer reports: Only 1 loss in 27 was installed to meet Oregon’s code for wind uplift resistance. Roof losses as a result of code violations are involved in over 70% of all claims. Your District pays for bad advice, designs, or poor workmanship…. Unless, you’re able to sue successfully. THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT GETTING STARTED Step 1: Supply Statistical Information About Codes, Condensation and Guarantees to Anyone Who Will Listen. Step 2: Provide Training of Building Officials Through The Oregon Building Codes Officials Association. Develop Pool of Roofing Special Inspectors in Outlying Areas. Step 3: Add Roof Assembly Plan Review to Permit Process for Schools and 1 ½% of Roof Assembly Contract Amount. THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT Is There Money for Increased Project Inspection? RCA/Wholesalers Estimate $ 2.4 to $ 2.6 Million in Uncollected Permit Fees THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT Step 4: Furnish OSFMA Roof Requirements to Design Professionals, AGC, Roofing Contractors, Consultants and Material Suppliers. Requirement: Library & Dissemination Fees Paid by “Applicants”. THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT Step 5: Create and Maintain a Roofing Technical Library and/or Blog for Internet Access From Schools. Step 6: Thorough Analysis, Design and Installation Process Project Commissioning by Trained & Licensed OSFMA Roof Protectors. THE OSFMA ROOF & HOW YOU CAN GET IT Step 7: Write Realistic Oregon OSFMA Roof Guarantees That Protect Schools. Step 8: Receive DISCOUNT from Insurance Carriers for CODE-Compliant Guaranteed Roofs That are Commissioned. THE OSFMA ROOF LET’S GO GET ONE!!!!!!!!