Biology Starr review

Report
Feb 22, 2012
(4)
Science concepts. The
student knows that cells are
the basic structures of all living
things with specialized parts
that perform specific functions
and that viruses are different
from cells. The student is
expected to:
Provides a selectively permeable barrier
around the cell
Controls the passage of substances in and
out of the cell.
Maintains homeostasis for the cell.



Cells will shrivel when put into a solution
with MORE SOLUTE. Ex. salt water
(Hypertonic)
If solute concentration is equal on both sides
of the membrane, the cell does not change.
(Isotonic)
Cells will swell or burst when put into a
solution with LESS SOLUTE Ex. Fresh water
(Hypotonic)
PASSIVE
 Does NOT require energy
 Goes with the concentration gradient
(high to low)
 Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion
ACTIVE
 Requires energy from ATP
 Goes against the concentration
gradient (low to high)
 Active Transport, Endocytosis,
Exocytosis
Living prokaryote
Non –living – not made of cells
must reproduce in host cell
▪Lysogenic
pathway
The virus stays within
the cell until certain
environmental triggers
cause it to enter the
lytic cycle.
▪
A
vaccine is a biological preparation that
improves immunity to a particular disease.
 A vaccine typically contains an agent that
resembles a disease-causing microorganism,
and is often made from weakened or killed
forms of the microbe.
(5)
Science concepts.
The student knows how
an organism grows and
the importance of cell
differentiation.
During the cell
cycle, cell grows,
prepares for
division, and divides
to form two
daughter cells ,
each which begins
the cycle again.
New DNA is formed
during 3 phases:
4 phases:
G1 – 1st period of growth
(PMAT)
2. Makes new proteins and
organelles.
Mitosis
1. Increase in size.
S1 – DNA is synthesized
or replicated
1. Chromosomes are
replicated.
2. New DNA molecules are
synthesized.
G2 – final cell growth
1. Shortest phase
2. Prepares cell for mitosis
Interphase
1)
2)
3)
4)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telephase
Cell division

MITOSIS produces 2 identical diploid (2N) cells

MEIOSIS produces 4 different haploid (N) cells
(GAMETES)
Causes of cancer
smoking tobacco
Radiation exposure
Viral infection



DNA determines an organism’s traits by
controlling the manufacturing of
proteins.
The sequencing of nucleotides forms
unique genetic information.
(6)
Science concepts.
The student knows the
mechanisms of genetics,
including the role of
nucleic acids and the
principles of Mendelian
Genetics.
* PHOSPHATE group
* SUGAR - deoxyribose
* nitrogen bases (1of4)
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T)
purines
pyrimidines
EXAMPLE:
Gene 1 - body covering
GUA-AGC-UUA
(Use chart to find amino acids)
val
- ser – leu
The amino acids sequence will
determine the trait.
hairless
RNA contains the
base uracil (U)
DNA has
thymine (T)
RNA molecule is
single-stranded
A
codon
designates an
amino acid
 An amino acid may
have more than
one codon
 There are 20
amino acids, but
64 possible codons
 Some codons tell
the ribosome to
stop translating
 Transcription-
mRNA leaves the
nucleus through
its pores and
goes to the
ribosomes
 Translation
is the
process of
decoding the
mRNA into a
polypeptide chain
replication
crossing over
error of
error of
•
DELETION
–
•
DUPLICATION
–
•
repeat a segment
INVERSION
–
•
loss of a chromosomal segment
reverses a segment
TRANSLOCATION
–
move segment from one chromosome to another
4 haploid (N) cells
Genetically different
from each other & the
original cell
 Is
the direct human manipulation of an
organism's genome using modern DNA
technology.
 Examples
o
o
o
Cloning
Gene therapy
Genetically engineered plants
(7) Science concepts. The
student knows
evolutionary theory is a
scientific explanation for
the unity and diversity of
life.

Fossil record
Similar characteristics due
to relatedness are known
as homologies.
Homologies
 Another
example of homology is the forelimb
of tetrapods (vertebrates with legs).
 Snakes
have legged ancestors.
Some species of living snakes have hind limbbuds as early embryos but rapidly lose the
buds and develop into legless adults. The
study of developmental stages of snakes,
combined with fossil evidence of snakes with
hind limbs, supports the hypothesis that
snakes evolved from a limbed ancestor.
 Different
species share genetic homologies as
well as anatomical ones. Roundworms, for
example, share 25% of their genes with
humans.
 These
fundamental similarities are most
easily explained by evolutionary theory: life
shares a common ancestor.
Divergent
Evolution is also
known as Adaptive Radiation
Evolutionary
Stasis occurs
when one or many species
remain the same genetically
with little change over long
geological periods of time
Darwin’s finches
31
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
WHAT OTHER INDUSTRIES WOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT
RESISTANCE?
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
ALL IMAGES: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
(8)
Science concepts. The
student knows that taxonomy
is a branching classification
based on the shared
characteristics of organisms
and can change as new
discoveries are made. The
student is expected to:
(9) Science concepts. The
student knows the significance
of various molecules involved
in metabolic processes and
energy conversions that occur
in living organisms.
COMPOSITION/STRUCTURE
C, H, O
FUNCTION
MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY
TYPE/EXAMPLES
GLUCOSE, GLYCOGN, FRUCTOSE,
CELLULOSE, POLYSACCHARIDES,
MONOSACCHARIDS, STARCH
COMPOSITION/STRUCTURE
C,H,O
ONE GLYCEROL & 3 FATTY
ACIDS
FUNCTION
•STORES ENERGY
•MAIN COMPONENT
OF CELL
MEMBRANE
•WATERPROOF COVERING
TYPE/EXAMPLES
FATS, OILS, POLYUNSATURATED
COMPOSITION/STRUCTURE
C, H, O, N
LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS
FUNCTION
BUILD MUSCLES, CELL MEMBRANES
TYPE/EXAMPLES
ENZYMES
COMPOSITION/STRUCTURE
C, H, O, N, & P
FUNCTION
STORE & TRANSMIT GENETIC
INFO
TYPE/EXAMPLES
DNA, RNA, NUCLEOTIDES

Large organic molecules
are created by the process
of POLYMERIZATION.
Mono=1 poly=many
Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
 Lower
activation
energy
 Speed up chemical
reactions that take
place in cells.
 Make materials
cells need
 Releasing energy
Temperature
PH
Salt
(11)
Science concepts. The
student knows that
biological systems work to
achieve and maintain
balance. The student is
expected to:
• Abiotic
factors include any
physical, or nonliving, part of
the environment.
• Biotic factors include any
living part of the
environment.
Autotrophs/ Producers (Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic)
Heterotrophs/Consumers (Herb-/Carn-/Omn-ivores and Decomposers)
(12)
Science concepts. The
student knows that
interdependence and
interactions occur within an
environmental system. The
student is expected to:
THE THREE SYMBIOTIC
RELATIONSHIPS ARE...
PARASITISM
MUTUALISM
COMMENSALISM
Food Chains = a series of steps in
which organisms transfer energy
by eating and being eaten
Trophic Levels = each step in a
food chain or food web
Main
Source
Energy flow through an Ecosystem
“Autotrophs”
“Producers”
“Heterotrophs”
“Consumers”
Nutrient Cycles
The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
Proteins
78%
Nitrogen Fixation

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