EQ: How can I extend my students thinking through Classification?

Report
Extending
Student
Thinking
2010:
A presentation
created by the
Lower Dauphin
Administrative
team
EQ: How does
Extended Thinking
impact student
achievement?
Top Five
What are the Top Five Strategies that Most Impact
Achievement?
Percentile Gain
1. Extended Thinking Skills
45
2. Summarizing
34
3. Vocabulary in Context
33
4. Advance Organizers
28
5. Non-Verbal Representations
25
What is Extended Thinking?
Work with your
partner to create a
definition of
Extended Thinking.
Now let’s work
together to create a
group definition!
What are the
Extended Thinking Skills?
Abstracting
Comparing/Contrasting
Classifying/Categorizing
Constructing Support
Analyzing Perspective
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Error Analysis
Learning Units
Can you identify each
part of a Learning
Unit? What does each
color represent?
Acquisition
Culminating Activity
Test
Activating
Extended Thinking
EQ: How can I
extend my students
thinking through
Classification?
What
is
Classifying?
Remember
$25,000
Pyramid?
Let's Watch!
Now It’s
your turn
to give it a
try!!!
Things
you
stir
Things
that
wander
Things
put on
with a
brush
Things
in a
basket
Classifying is the
process by which
we organize
things into
groups on the
basis of their
attributes
CLASSIFY
rank
sort
attributes
group
order
organize
hoose the items to classify
ist the attributes of an item
sk if there are other items like it
tate the rule for the category
elect another item and its attributes and identify others like it
dentify the rule for the new category
ind other categories until all items are classified
ou might need to combine or split up categories
How to Classify…
1. Choose
the item
to classify
Candy bars!!!!
How to Classify…
2. List the
attributes
of an
item
1. Chocolate
2. Peanut Butter
3. Multiple pieces
How to Classify…
3. Ask if
there are
other
items like
it
1. Chocolate
2. Peanut Butter
3. Multiple pieces
How to Classify…
4. State
the rule
for the
category
*Candy bars made of
chocolate, peanut butter,
and multiple pieces
How to Classify…
5. List the
attributes
of
another
item
1. Chocolate
2. Caramel
3. Nougat
How to Classify…
6. Ask if
there are
other
items like
it
1. Chocolate
2. Caramel
3. Nougat
How to Classify…
7. State
the rule
for the
category
*Candy bars made of
chocolate, caramel,
and nougat
How to Classify…
8. Repeat
steps until
all items
are
classified
How to Classify…
9. Is there
another
way I could
classify
these
items?
Let’s Practice!
In pairs, look
at your list of
fictional
characters
and classify
them using
this process
Now share the groups
you created with
your table group
How could
you use
classification
in your
classroom?
Remember that
the purpose is to
extended your
students’ thinking!
Math
Types
of
triangles
Language
Arts
Words
with
short
vowels
Social
Studies
Symbols
of
America
Extending Thinking
through Classifying
• Generate 2 pyramid
categories based on
what you teach
• Keep them a secret!!!
• Take turns being the
giver or the guesser
SUMMARIZER
• How did classifying
extend your thinking?
• How else can you use
classification to
extend your students’
thinking?
Examples in the classroom…
• Social Studies – “How might the states be
classified other than regions?”
questions
can
• Math –PlaceWhat
the following
math
problems,
shapes, fractions,
into
you etc.
pose
togroups.
students
• Reading – Sort
words
by
vowel
pattern,
prefix,
thatofare
examples
of
etc.; Sort by type
figurative
language
• Writing – Write aclassifying?
classification essay
• Science – Use a matrix graphic organizer to
classify animals: fish, reptile, bird, mammal, or
amphibian
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates
the purpose?
• What items will students classify?
• Will students be given the items or will they identify
their own list?
• Will students need a scaffold to help them identify?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate
expectations?
EQ: How can I
extend my students
thinking through
Analyzing
Perspective?
What
is
Analyzing
Perspective?
What’s your perspective on…
• Dieting?
• Civil rights?
• Marriage?
• Animal rights?
• Smoking in public places?
• Parenting?
Analyzing
Perspective is
describing reasons
for a personal
viewpoint as well
as the viewpoint
of others
What is Homer
Simpson’s
perspective
on…
Dieting?
Parenting?
Free cable?
Let's Watch!
Stick Figure Perspective
Stick Figure Perspective
ANALYZE PERSPECTIVE
fact
logic
opinion
position
analyze
evidence
How to Analyze
Perspective…
1. On an issue
of different
opinions,
first identify
your own
perspective.
What do
you
think?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
2. Try to
determine
the reasons
or logic
behind that
perspective
Why do
you think
that?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
3. Identify a
different
perspective
What
does
Homer
think?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
4. Try to
determine
the reasons
or logic
behind that
perspective
Why does
he think
that?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
5. Identify a
different
perspective
What does
The Cable
Guy think?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
6. Try to
determine
the reasons
or logic
behind that
perspective
Why does
he think
that?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
7. Identify a
different
perspective
What does
Flanders
think?
How to Analyze
Perspective…
8. Try to
determine
the reasons
or logic
behind that
perspective
Why does
he think
that?
Let’s Practice!
In pairs, watch
the video clip
and think
about each
character’s
perspective on
summer
vacation.
Let’s watch!!!
Stick Figure Perspective
Now share the
perspectives you
identified with your
table group
How can you
use Analyzing
Perspectives in
your
classroom?
Remember that
the purpose is to
extend your
students’
thinking!
SUMMARIZER
• How did analyzing
perspective extend
your thinking?
• How else can you use
analyzing perspective
to extend your
students’ thinking?
Examples in the classroom…
• Social Studies – Write a poem for 2 voices which
What from
questions
canevent (ex.
illustrates 2 perspectives
a historical
King George v. George
Washington)
you pose
to students
• Math –You have been asked to find the area of this
thattoare
examples
of
figure. Explain how
do the
task. Then explain
how
someone else might do the task and why.
Analyzing
• Reading – Increase story comprehension describing it
Perspective?
from the point of view
of each character
• Writing – RAFT writing
• Science – being built near a lake in your town:
describe the perspective of the chemical company,
town mayor, owner of home near lake, fish
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates
the purpose?
• Is there an issue related to my content that would
lend itself to analysis?
• How much of the process will students complete
independently?
• What graphic organizer will help students to
analyze various perspectives?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate
expectations?
EQ: How can
deductive reasoning
be used to extend
student thinking
about content?
EQ: What questions
can you pose to
students that are
examples of
deductive
reasoning?
What
is
Deductive
Reasoning?
HAIKU
On your
own, develop
a Haiku
riddle about
one
character on
the list.
A HAIKU Reminder 
____ ____ ____ ____ ____
____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____
____ ____ ____ ____ ____
5 syllables
7 syllables
5 syllables
When you are finished,
take turns
trying
Why is solving
a to
on a list
guess riddle
yourbased
tablemates’
of characters
riddles.
Deductive
Reasoning?
Deductive
Reasoning is
identification of
specific
examples to
support a
general
statement, rule,
or principle.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
true
Cause
& effect
conclusion
prediction
If…then
assumption
Deductive Reasoning
Reaching conclusions based on known facts, principles, or
generalizations. (based on what I know to be true)
If _____ is true then ________.
Let’s watch!!!
– One Minute Mystery
– Worlds Smartest Dog
Steps in Deductive Reasoning
1. Identify the generalization(s) that
apply to the situation.
2. Identify the conditions or reasons that
have to be in place for that
generalization.
3. If the conditions are in place, determine
whether the generalization is true or
false.
Examples for the classroom…
• Social Studies – examine a historical event’s causes
and effects What questions can
• Math – Tangrams cut from a square must be able
you
pose
to
students
to be reassembled in a square
that
are
examples
of
• Reading – word splash: student’s make predictions
on what thedeductive
story is aboutreasoning?
• Writing – write a riddle to be answered by a
partner
• Science – Have students predict results of an
experiment based on previous experiment results
How can you
use Deductive
Reasoning in
your
classroom?
Remember that
the purpose is to
extend your
students’
thinking!
www.electrical-res.com
You try it!!
With your
collaborative
partner, work
together develop a
graphic organizer
that provides an
example of
deductive
reasoning.
Premise
Premise
Logic is
valid
conclusion
SUMMARIZER
• How else can you use
deductive reasoning to
extend your students’
thinking?
• Provide an example, in
your content area, where
you could add a deductive
reasoning extended
thinking strategy to an
EATS plan.
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates the
purpose?
• Is there an issue related to my content that would lend
itself to deductive reasoning?
• How much of the process will students complete
independently and how much will be provided?
• What graphic organizer will help my students to use the
deductive reasoning process?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?
EQ: How can
inductive reasoning
be used to extend
student thinking
about content?
EQ: What questions
can you pose to
students that are
examples of
inductive
reasoning?
What
is
Inductive
Reasoning?
TITLE?
Examine the
characters on
the list. What
do you think
is the title of
the book
they were
taken from?
When you are finished,
Why is generating a
take turns
title forsharing
a book
based
on
its
list
of
your
titles.
characters an
example of Inductive
Reasoning?
Inductive
reasoning is
inferring
unknown
generalizations
from
information or
observations.
INDUCTIVE REASONING
valid
hypothesis
observation
inferring
logical
assumption
Inductive Reasoning
Questions:
What does this information tell you?
What is a likely conclusion?
How did you reach that conclusion?
Let‘s watch!!!
YouTube - A Lesson In Logic
Steps in Inductive Reasoning
1. Focus on specific pieces of information or
observations.
2. Do not assume anything.
3. Look for patterns or connections in the
identified information.
4. Make a general statement that explains
the observed pattern.
5. Make additional observations to see if the
generalization holds up. If not, change the
generalization.
Examples in the classroom…
• Social Studies – examine artifacts from a particular
culture – what inferences can you draw?
• Math – measure
interior
angles of several
What
questions
can triangles to
discover is always 180 degrees.
youDr.pose
to students
• Reading – solve
Doriddles
“I cover that tree, I cover
that log, or else
I’m aare
sound
that’s made of
by a dog.” What
that
examples
am I?
inductive
• Writing – PWIM
– (Picturereasoning?
Word Inductive Model)
Teacher selects a picture - student lists words they know
associated with picture - student classifies words by
attributes - creates title for picture- builds sentences
• Science – Inquiry based experiment
How can you
use Inductive
Reasoning in
your
classroom?
Remember that
the purpose is to
extend your
students’
thinking!
You try it!!
With your
collaborative
partner, work
together develop a
graphic organizer
that provides an
example of
inductive reasoning.
Specific
information or
observation
Patterns or
connections
General
conclusions or
predictions
Is there
additional
information I
can find to
support the
conclusion
SUMMARIZER
• How else can you use
inductive reasoning to
extend your students’
thinking?
• Provide an example, in
your content area, where
you could add an inductive
reasoning extended
thinking strategy to an
EATS plan.
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates the
purpose?
• What information will students be given and in what
form?
• How much of the process will students complete
independently and how much will be provided?
• What graphic organizer will be best for organizing the
information?
• How will my students summarize and show what they
have learned?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?
EQ: How do I impact
student learning by
using comparing and
contrasting to better
understand content?
What
is Comparing
and Contrasting?
What do
you think?
Choose 2
characters on
the list. Discuss
their similarities
and differences
with your
partner.
Comparing and Contrasting
is the identification of
similarities and differences.
COMPARE & CONTRAST
compare
different
although
as well
as
same
however
Steps in the Process
1. Select items to compare.
2.Select characteristics of the items on
which to base comparisons.
3.Explain how items are similar and
different with respect to
characteristics.
4.Summarize what has been learned.
How to Compare and
Contrast…
1. Select
items to
compare.
How to Compare and
Contrast…
2. Select
characteristics Whopper
vs.
of the items
on which to
Big Mac
base
comparisons.
How to Compare and
Contrast…
3. Explain how items
are similar and
different with
respect to
characteristics.
• Taste
• Condiments
• Nutrition
• Quantity
• Grill v. Flame Broil
How to Compare and
Contrast…
4. Summarize
what
has been
learned.
Compare & Contrast:
Your Turn
Compare and
contrast inductive
and deductive
reasoning with
your partner.
How can you
use Compare
and Contrast
in your
classroom?
Remember that
the purpose is to
extend your
students’
thinking!
Examples for the classroom…
• Social Studies – Compare & contrast two different
What questions can
explorers
• Math – Writeyou
different
problems about the same
posemath
to students
picture, then compare
and of
numbers used
that areoperations
examples
• Reading- Read Comparing
two poems andand
then use a graphic
organizer to identify similarities and differences
Contrasting?
• Writing – Writing a compare and contrast essay based
on graphic organizer
• Science –Write a Diamante-Comparing & contrasting
two animals that live in the in the same ecosystem
SUMMARIZER
• How else can you use
compare and contrast to
extend your students’
thinking?
• With your partner, develop
two compare and
contrasting strategies that
can be used as a preview,
activator, teaching
strategy, distributed guided
practice, or a summarizing
strategy.
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates
the purpose?
• What items will students compare?
• Where will they get the information they need for
the comparison?
• What are the characteristics for the comparison?
• What graphic organizer will be best for organizing
the information?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate
expectations?
EQ: How do I impact
learning by finding and
describing errors in both
my own thinking or
performance, and in the
performance of others?
What
is
Error
Analysis?
What do you
think?
Do you
believe this list
is valid? Did
the author
show bias in
creating it?
Explain your
response.
Error Analysis
is finding and
describing
errors in the
thinking or
performance
of yourself or
others.
ERROR ANALYSIS
bias
errors
Opinions
persuade
analyze
credibility
Steps in Error Analysis
1. Identify the situation
2. Identify unusual claims or reasoning
3. Look for errors in the claims, the
thinking, or steps in the process
4. If errors are found, look for more
clarification or more accurate
information
How to Analyze Error…
1. Identify
the
situation
How to Analyze Error…
2. Identify
unusual
claims or
reasoning
A message from Tony
Hayward
How to Analyze Error…
3. Look for
errors in the
claims, the
thinking, or
the steps in
the process
BP Timeline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
April 20 - Deepwater Horizon rig hit by explosion. Eleven workers die. Rig sinks. .
April 22-The Deepwater horizon rig burned for more than a day and ultimately sank into the
Gulf
April 24 - Incident response team reports first oil leaking from blown-out well.
April 28-BP officials announced that they had underestimated the flow by fivefold.
May 6-a specially constructed containment vessel was lowered into the Gulf of Mexico, but ice
crystals plugged the top of the structure, preventing it from capping the leak.
May 11- Lamar McKay and officials from BP service providers Transocean and Halliburton, all
tried to deflect blame for the Gulf of Mexico disaster.
May 17-BP reports that a tube it had inserted into a broken pipe was gathering more than onefifth of the oil gushing from the Gulf of Mexico spill, but that sliver of good news was offset when
scientists reported that the spill had found its way into the Gulf of Mexico's powerful loop current,
and that oil could be headed for Florida and the East Coast of the United States
May 20-Kevin Costner and his brother have created a device they say can separate fuel from
water by using centrifugal force.
May 24-BP officials acknowledged public frustration that they had been unable to halt the spill.
May 25-members of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee vowed to hold BP
'fully accountable' for the disaster.
May 29 - Effort to "top kill" the well by pumping heavy fluid into it declared unsuccessful.
June 3 - BP and contractors succeed in placing cap on well to collect leaking oil.
How to Analyze Error…
4. If errors are
found, ask
for
clarification
or more
accurate
information
JUNE 9, 2010
(CNN) -- Federal
authorities have given
BP a 72-hour deadline
to provide
contingency plans for
the collection of oil in
the Gulf of Mexico,
according to a letter -sent to the company.
Analyze 2 activating
strategies, instructional
strategies, or assessments
in a specific content area.
• Is there bias toward one
method vs. another?
• Persuade your partner
on the merits of your
method.
• Was there discovery of
any errors regarding
methodology or
pedagogy?
Examples for the classroom…
• Social Studies – Study a historical event that ended
badly to discover
wherequestions
the errors may
What
canhave occurred.
• Math – Study a completed math problem to discover
you
pose
to
students
where the mistake occurred
that
are
examples
of
• Reading- Identifying Fact and Opinion
Error
Analysis?
• Writing – Analyzing
writing
with a rubric
• Science –Dr. Whoops just completed an experiment and
it was a failure. Read the steps he took to determine
why the error occurred.
SUMMARIZER
• How else can you use
error analysis to extend
your students’ thinking?
• How can you
incorporate error
analysis into your
teaching throughout
the school year?
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates the
purpose?
• Is there an issue related to my content that would lend itself
to error analysis
• How much of the process will students complete
independently and how much will be provided?
• What graphic organizer will help my students use the error
analysis process?
• How will students summarize and show what they have
learned by using an error analysis process?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?
EQ: How does
constructing
support increase
student
achievement?
EQ: How can
constructing
support be added to
an EATS lesson?
What
is
Constructing
Support?
What do you
think?
With your
partner, select
the character
on the list you
believe had
the biggest
influence.
Why did you
select that
character?
Now share the
character you chose
with your table
group
Constructing
Support is
providing
proof to
support an
opinion.
CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT
persuade
justify
support
proof
opinion
verify
Constructing Support
Our ability to provide
support or proof of our
statements.
When choice
and
emotions are involved
Why would activities
thatwill tend to be
students
require students to
more
actively
engaged.
construct support
increase student
achievement?
What does constructing
support require?
• Collect Data
• Develop a deeper understanding of new
information
• Provide choices
• Use techniques and skills related to persuasion
• Engage our emotions as well…
Steps in the process
1. Identify statement or argument
2. Determine whether the situation or position
warrants support
3. Identify reasons for support
4. Supply facts, evidence, examples or appeals to
support the position
Graphic Organizer:
CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT
I
Identify
the issue
D
E
Decide
Examine
your
the reasons
position,
which is
your
“opinion”
A
Argue
your
position
using
“facts”
Graphic Organizer:
CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT
Write a persuasive letter to the Food
Network
I
D
E
A
Identify the issue
Decide your
position, which is
your “opinion”
Examine the
reasons
Argue your position
using “facts”
What is the perfect
food?
Name of the food
Give the reasons to
support your
“opinion”
A strong argument
includes detailed
“facts” as support
Graphic Organizer:
CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT
I
D
E
A
Identify the issue
Decide your
position, which is
your “opinion”
Examine the
reasons
Argue your position
using “facts”
What is the perfect
food?
Peanut butter is
the perfect food.
•The protein and
fiber help you feel
full.
•It contains mostly
healthy fats
•The protein gives
you energy
•It’s affordable
•It tastes great
Peanut butter is the
perfect food because
it is nutritious,
delicious, and budget
friendly.
Graphic Organizer:
CONSTRUCTING SUPPORT
I
Identify the issue
What is the perfect
food?
D
Decide your
position, which is
your “opinion”
?
E
Examine the
reasons
?
What food will you choose?
A
Argue your position
using “facts”
?
SUMMARIZE
With your
partner, select
the character
on the list you
believe is the
most popular.
Why did you
select that
character?
Now share the
character you chose
with your table
group
How could you apply this
graphic organizer to your
content area?
I
Identify
the issue
D
E
Decide
Examine
your
the reasons
position,
which is
your
“opinion”
A
Argue
your
position
using
“facts”
SUMMARIZER
How else can
constructing
support be used
to increase
student
achievement?
Examples in the classroom…
• Social Studies-Which
historical
period,
state,
What
questions
can
etc. is the most important and why -use
personification you pose to students
• Math –Name that
shapesare
andexamples
write why each
of is
useful
Constructing
• Reading –Which character is most important to
the story and why? Support?
• Writing – Write a persuasive essay
• Science – Which type of weather has the
greatest impact on our lives and why?
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates the
purpose?
• Is there a position that could be defended related to this
content?
• How much of the process will students complete
independently, and how much will be provided?
• What graphic organizer will be best for organizing the
information?
• How will students summarize and show what they have
learned?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate expectations?
EQ: How can
abstracting be used
to extend student
thinking about
content?
EQ: How can
abstracting be
added to an EATS
lesson?
What
is
Abstracting?
What’s the relationship between or
among words or concepts?
Let’s try a few:
IRON: ANEMIC as WATER: _____________
(caustic, dehydrated, humidified, flowing)
See how you do
ANGLE : POLYGON as RAY : __________________
(point, line, circle, arc)
COUNTY : NEW YORK as PARISH : _____________________
(priest, church, Louisiana, Colombia)
SOUTH AMERICA : PAMPAS as NORTH AMERICA : _______________
(Rockies, states, prairies, borders)
SONAR : SOUND WAVES as RADAR : ______________________
(light waves, telegraphy, electromagnetic waves, broadcasting)
Here are a few more
WELDER : TORCH as PAPERER : ______________
(glue, staples, wall, sponge)
DYNE : FORCE as _____________: LOUDNESS
(amp, minute, sone, din)
DICKENS : PIP as ______________: FANTINE
(Eliot, Thackeray, Austen, Hugo)
NIXON : AGNEW as EISENHOWER : ____________________
(Kennedy, Truman, Dulles, Nixon)
Abstracting is the
process of finding,
identifying, and
explaining general
patterns in specific
information, and
applying this
information to a
new situation.
ABSTRACTING
pattern
relationship
generalize
order
specific
associate
How can abstracting help improve
student achievement?
Being able to recognize patterns is a
foundational skill for most subject areas.
Patterns help us to organize and use
information more easily.
This process helps build connections between
different sets of information, deepening our
understanding of both sets of information.
How is this accomplished?
Abstracting enables us to compare and contrast
types of information, even though they may
not seem similar at all.
Comparing unfamiliar or new with something
familiar, we can…
• improve communication
• deepen comprehension
• provide insight to the recipient
Steps in the process
1. Identify what is considered important
information
2. Write the information in a more general
form
– Replacing specific words with more general
things
– Summarize information whenever possible
3. Find new information or situations where
the pattern applies
Graphic Organizer:
ABSTRACTING
First Example
Pattern
Second Example
ABSTRACTING:
Money & Food
First Example
Pattern
Second Example
Money comes in
Something comes in
different denominations different forms
There are many forms
of food
Some money is worth
more than others
Some foods are more
nutritious than others
Some forms are more
valuable than others
Money can be
combined in different
ways to get the same
amount
?
?
Money is exchanged for
goods and services
?
?
ABSTRACTING:
Money & Food
First Example
Pattern
Second Example
Money comes in
Something comes in
different denominations different forms
There are many forms
of food
Some money is worth
more than others
Some forms are more
valuable than others
Some foods are more
nutritious than others
Money can be
combined in different
ways to get the same
amount
Different combinations
result in the same
outcome
Different combinations
of food can provide the
same nutritional value
Money is exchanged for
goods and services
Something is exchanged Food is exchanged for
for something else
energy
Let’s Practice!
In pairs, look
at your list of
fictional
characters
and identify
one to
represent
each of the 8
thinking
strategies
Now share the
characters you chose
with your table
group
How could you apply this graphic
organizer to your content area?
First Example
Pattern
Second Example
SUMMARIZER
How else can
abstracting be
used to extend
student
thinking about
content?
Examples in the classroom…
• Social Studies-Finding a pattern in a historical
What
questions
event (like a war),
then
identifyingcan
other
historical events
with
similar
you
pose
to patterns
students
• Math –Complete the analogy; Find the pattern
that
are
examples
of
• Reading – Use a story map to identify story
elements in a fictionAbstracting?
story. Now find the same
elements in other stories
• Writing – Writing a metaphor poem
• Science – Learning the life cycle of one
organism, then identifying organisms with similar
life cycles
Consider…
• What is the purpose of the lesson?
• What is the Essential Question that communicates
the purpose?
• Is there an abstract pattern or theme in the
information?
• How much of the process will students complete
independently and how much will be provided?
• How will students summarize and show what they
have learned by completing the abstracting?
• How will I design a rubric to communicate
expectations?

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