Theocracy and Iran Hobbes Locke Rousseau Writing Question to Begin • Is the world getting more religious or less religious? • • • • • • • 1000 1400 1800 1900 1950 1970 2000 You pick the starting point. But please make it explicit in your response. *Messianic means democracy by force* Today’s EQ • EQ: – Can a theocracy be a legitimate government? – Can a theocracy be a democratic government? – Can a theocracy be a liberal government? – How does modern religion use political philosophy in its legitimacy? Fukuyama • History has ended. • It has ended on the principle of liberal democracies as being the pinnacle of forms of government. The Politics of God • Mahmoud Ahmadinejad– “Liberalism and Western-style democracy have not been able to help realize the ideals of humanity.” – “Whether we like it or not, the world is gravitating towards faith in the Almighty and justice and the wil of God will prevail over all things” The Politics of God • “But how is the guidance[of god] to be understood, and whether believers think it is authoritative, will depend on how they imagine God. If God is thought to be passive, a silent force like the sky, nothing in particular may follow. He is a hypothesis we can do without. But if we take seriously the thought that God is a person with intentions, then a great deal can follow” The Politics of God • If God is a force with intention, how are those intentions communicated? • Then, is this a story not only about God, but also about Man and his beliefs? The Politics of God • How does Hobbes believe man would use God? • “Hobbes planted a seed, a thought that it might be possible to build legitimate politics institutions without grounding them on divine revelation….The new political thinking would no longer concern itself with God’s politics, it would concentrate on men as believers in God and try to keep them from harming one another” The Politics of God • The Great Separation- put it into your own words? The Politics of God • Rousseau– “It is the most beautiful and convincing defense of man’s religious instincts ever to flow from a modern pen — and that, apparently, was the problem. Rousseau spoke of religion in terms of human needs, not divine truths, and had his Savoyard vicar declare, “I believe all particular religions are good when one serves God usefully in them.” – “Rousseau sang the praises of conscience, of charity, of fellow feeling, of virtue, of pious wonder in the face of God’s creation.” How can this be created in government or society? Quick Review • Hobbes thought there should be a strong government that dictates life. Otherwise, religious prophets would constantly interpret divine revelation. This would cause perpetual conflict and misery. • Locke shared the thoughts of Hobbes, but thought that Hobbes’s government should have a separations of power, checks and balances, and civil governance. • Rousseau thought that religion was essentially tied to humanity. He believed all humans have to find their “inner light” and this search was inseparable from politics. • If you need to take the vocabulary test, please show up at lunch today or immediately after school. I have to leave at 3:30. • A lot of grades will be updated today and tomorrow, check over the weekend and help me correct discrepancies on Monday. The Politics of God • “tells the parable of a young vicar who loses his faith and then his moral compass once confronted with the hypocrisy of his co-religionists. He is able to restore his equilibrium only when he finds a new kind of faith in God by looking within, to his own “inner light” • “The point of Rousseau’s story is less to display the crimes of organized churches than to show that man yearns for religion because he is fundamentally a moral creature.” • “Rousseau was the first to declare that there is no shame in saying that faith in God is humanly necessary. Religion has its roots in needs that are rational and moral, even noble; once we see that, we can start satisfying them rationally, morally and nobly.” Rousseau • “Religion is simply too entwined with our moral experience ever to be disentangled from it, and morality is inseparable from politics.” • Does this provide a legitimacy for government? The Politics of God • Can a theocracy be democratically legitimate? • Why or why not? The Politics of God • Can a theocracy be liberal? • Why or why not? Persepolis • A question you will be writing on tomorrow: – How does Persepolis’s journey reflection a conflict between Hobbes and Rosseau’s beliefs?