Heritage Speakers: A Unique Challenge for Instructors

Report
Teaching Heritage Speakers
Part I
STARTALK Workshop, 2013
NHLRC, UCLA
Maria M. Carreira
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
• Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
(this presentation + others);
• Build in pathways for individual learners
• Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC, using
authentic, engaging, and accessible materials (Olga
Kagan + others)
In a nutshell: Keep your eye on the
learner
WHAT (WHO) IS A HERITAGE
LANGUAGE LEARNER?
Definitions:
Who is a heritage language learner?
• Narrow definitions – based on proficiency
• Broad definitions – based on affiliation
Example of a narrow definition
“An individual who is raised in a home where a
non-English language is spoken, who speaks or
merely understands the heritage language,
and who is to some degree bilingual in English
and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001, p.
38)
Example of a broad definition
Heritage language learners are individuals who
“…have familial or ancestral ties to a particular
language and who exert their agency in
determining whether or not they are HLLs
(heritage language learners) of that HL
(heritage language) and HC (heritage culture)
(Hornberger and Wang, 2008, p. 27)
Learners who fit the narrow definition also fit
the broad definition
Broad definition
Narrow
definition
In high school I was one of very few Latinos. My friend and I were
called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my
Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled
Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each,
but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered
Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by
my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard.
It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos
are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are
not connected to their heritage. You take pride in both cultures and
learn to deal with the rejection. You may never be fully embraced
by either side. That's why you seek out other people like yourself.
Socializing with people who share a common experience helps you
deal with this experience.
Broad + narrow definitions = two
orientations to HL teaching
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Affective needs (broad
definition)
To fill in the details…
• Research on the “typical” HL learner
Typical HL learner
(from NHLRC Survey, Carreira and Kagan,
2010)
• Used their HL exclusively until age 5, when
they started school
• Has visited their country of origin once or
twice;
• Listens to music, watches soap operas, and
attends religious services in their HL (not
much reading);
• Little to no schooling in the HL;
• US born
THESE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
MAP ONTO LINGUISTIC
CHARACTERISTICS
A metaphor for thinking about HLLs’
linguistic proficiency
• A house in different stages of “life”
The foundations
(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
A metaphor for language learning in
children
• By age 3, the foundations of language
are set;
• Between ages 5-8 the structure is
fortified and critical details are added
• During adolescence the finishing touches
are put in
The complete structure
(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
A metaphor for language learning in
children
• By age 3, the foundations of language
are set;
• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing
is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER
• During adolescence the finishing touches
are put in
The finished house
(Courtesy of Margot Mel)
A metaphor for language learning in
children
• By age 3, the foundations of language
are set;
• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing
is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER
• During adolescence the finishing touches
are put in
What does this mean for us?
• An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively up
to age 3 will likely have complete HL
foundations (e.g. canonical gender, basic
aspectual differences, word order);
• An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively or
mostly spoke it between 5-8 will have pretty
much the complete structure but will need the
finishing touches (fine details);
What does your learner look like?
(1) The foundations are set;
(2) The framing is complete;
(3) The house is complete but in need of details
A more complete picture…
Factors in heritage language development
• Order of acquisition of the languages (HL first,
followed by Eng., both lags. at the same time);
• Age of acquisition of English (ages 3-5, 6-10)
• Language use at home (only the HL, HL + Eng.,
English only);
• Schooling in the HL;
• General exposure to the HL (e.g. time spent abroad,
media use, demographic density of local HL speakers,
peer interactions);
Knowledge of the HL:
It boils down to exposure
• Order of acquisition:
Simultaneous bilingual < sequential bilingual;
• Age of acquisition of English: The later the better
• Home use:
Only HL < HL + English < Overwhelmingly English
• Schooling:
No schooling < schooling (a variety of types)
• Other exposure (media, church, peers, family,
travel abroad, social clubs, etc.)
Also…
• Language-learning aptitude
• General academic aptitude
• Motivation
Putting these concepts into
practice
Order the following in terms of
likely proficiency in the HL
(1) Sequential bilingual, attends church services
in the HL, speaks English and HL at home;
(2) Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and
HL at home;
(3) Sequential bilingual, three years of
community school, lives in a neighborhood
with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL
at home.
Order the following in terms of
probable proficiency in the HL
(1) Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL,,
speaks English and HL at home, high language learning
aptitude, is studying the HL to learn about his roots and
connect with friends and family;
(1) Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home, has
visited his HL country several times, wants to make
professional use of the HL;
(1) Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives
in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the
HL at home, is taking HL to fulfill a language requirement
Take away message
• It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for
purposes of teaching;
• Greater proficiency does not always mean
“better” from the point of view of
teaching/learning;
• Variation has many dimensions (background,
aptitude, motivations, etc.);
Take away message
• It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for
purposes of teaching;
• Greater proficiency does not always mean
“better” from the point of view of
teaching/learning;
• Variation has many dimensions;
• Design the curriculum with the “typical HL
learner” in mind (roughly), build in pathways
for all learners;
What about the elements of the broad
definition?
Broad definition
Narrow
definition
Recall
Heritage language learners are individuals who
“…have familial or ancestral ties to a particular
language and who exert their agency in
determining whether or not they are HLLs
(heritage language learners) of that HL
(heritage language) and HC (heritage culture)
(Hornberger and Wang, 2008, p. 27)
Typical learner
(from the NHLRC survey)
• Has positive associations with his HL, but also
some insecurities;
• Is a “hyphenated American” (e.g. Arab-American)
• Wants to learn more about his roots;
• Wants to connect with other members of his/her
community;
• Enjoys using his/her HL to help others;
• Would like to take professional advantage of
his/her HL skills (only Spanish, Chinese, and
Japanese speakers)
The typical learner benefits from his
HL along the following dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
Peer relations;
Identity development;
Family connections;
Connection to the community;
Horizon expanding experiences;
(Carreira and Kagan, 2010)
The typical learner benefits from his
HL along the following dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
Peer relations;
Identity development;
Family connections;
Connection to the community;
Horizon expanding experiences;
(Carreira and Kagan, 2010)
Peer relations, identity
• All my life, I've been around people not of my native heritage.
To be in a class with people of the same culture as I am feels
inviting and accepting. I am now able to speak to my classmates
in a different language whilst making myself feel integrated in my
culture (Vietnamese)
• During middle school and high school, I felt that my heritage
language was not something that I would consider a valuable
skill. I only spoke Tagalog when calling relatives back in the
Philippines during holidays and special occasions. I only started
to take pride in my knowledge of my heritage language after
coming to UCSD and joining Filipino clubs as well as enrolling in
classes such as Advanced Filipino.
Parenthetically…
• Yi (2008) examines how peer networks
contributes to literacy.
• The subjects of her study (2 Korean
adolescents) were avid participants in instant
messaging, online community posting, online
diary writing, etc. to discuss topics of personal
interest with their peers;
• Yi argues that HL literacy should be tied to
personal interests and peer relations.
The typical learner benefits from his
HL along the following dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
Peer relations;
Identity development;
Family connections;
Connection to the community;
Horizon expanding experiences;
(Carreira and Kagan, 2010)
Research on connections to HL culture,
family
•Immigrant children are generally best served by
maintaining ties to their culture of origin. This is
because immigrant cultures are the repositories of
beliefs and attitudes that are conducive to success,
such as respect of family and authority, deference for
education, and optimism about the future. In addition,
by holding on to their expressive culture immigrant
children can retain a sense of identity and social
connectedness, both of which are crucial to the
psychological well-being of children (Suárez-Orozco and
Suárez Orozco, 2001)
Family and community
(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)
Knowledge of my heritage language has helped me outside
of school in that I've been able to communicate and
connect with my family and the greater Ethiopian
community…Knowledge of my heritage language has also
helped me at church in that I have been able to understand
parts of and follow along in the sermons (which are partly
held in Amharic). Perhaps the most important thing to note
about knowing my heritage language is that it has allowed
me to communicate with my family (especially because
many older relatives, like my grandmothers, speak very little
to no English at all).
The typical learner benefits from his
HL along the following dimensions
•
•
•
•
•
Peer relations;
Identity development;
Family connections;
Connection to the community;
Horizon expanding experiences;
(Carreira and Kagan, 2010)
Expanding horizons
(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)
• It has helped me understand people better,
and understand the different levels of diversity
we have in our university. It has allowed me to
understand who I am and how I relate to my
school environment. (Chinese)
• It’s made me a more “global citizen”, “a
more open-minded person”, “more curious of
the other”
Now we have a plan
Linguistic needs (narrow
definition)
Socio-affective needs (broad
definition)
Topics
Topics that respond to the need to
Grammatical features acquired after age
5 – aspect, mood, subordination,
perfective tenses
Build self-understanding and connect
with roots;
Skills acquired in school – reading,
writing, register
Vocabulary
Connect with friends and family in the
US.
Make professional and social use of the
HL
Horizon expanding experiences
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
√ Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
(this presentation);
• Build in pathways for individual learners
• Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC, using
authentic, engaging, and accessible materials (Olga
Kagan, next)
ARE WE DONE?
Traditionally, language teaching
has been “what centered”
“What centered” = “curriculum
centered”
Teachers start at the front of the
curriculum
The what-centered view with L2 learners
Peter
Past
tense
Paul
Mary
The curriculum-centered classroom
But what if…
And...
The curriculum-centered approach in a
mixed class (HL + l2 learners)
Juan: 3rd generation
immigrant
Past
tense
Pedro: 1st generation, no
education in Spanish
The curriculum-centered approach with HL
learners (An HL class – all HLLs)
Juan: 3rd generation
immigrant
Past
tense
Maria: 1st generation,
educated abroad
Pedro: 1st generation, no
education in Spanish
Classes with HL learners are always
heterogeneous
• Specialized HL classes;
• Mixed classes (HL + L2);
Effective teaching in both of these contexts
requires dealing with issues of learner variation.
To respond to variation:
Focus on the “who”
The learner
“Who” centered teaching
What
Who
Why
How
Why do we need learner-centered
teaching?
• HL learners differ from each other and from L2
learners with regard to key pedagogical issues:
- linguistic ability (in the HL and in English)
- language aptitude
- academic skills
- affective needs
- goals for their HL
The institutional context
introduces additional variation
One-track program: L2 and HL learners together
(mixed classes)
Dual-track program: Separate classes for L2 and
and HL learners (HL classes)
Type 1: Only one HL course (most
common);
Type 2: Two levels of HL instruction;
Build in pathways in two contexts
• Specialized HL classes (Tuesday + Wednesday);
• Mixed classes (HL + L2) (Thursday);
For now…
A fitting metaphor for HL teaching
What not to do
Don’t…
• Ignore diversity (i.e. exclude learners who
don’t fit the model)
I did not give particular consideration to HL--they are usually a very
small segment of the class. (The programs survey)
Don’t…
• Enforce the paradigm/status quo at all cost:
(i.e. force all learners to conform to the
curriculum)
(Name of book) does not address the needs of HL but it does a
good job at the beginning level where the majority of our
students take the (name of language) as a general language
requirement and where we have less HL (15%) than at more
advanced levels.
Don’t
• Create courses than are ill-conceived from a
linguistic standpoint.
An HL Class:
Arabic 100 for HL learners
Arabic: Diglossia
• Modern Standard Arabic (High prestige, formal situations, written,
known by educated speakers, lingua franca among Arabs from different
countries);
• Colloquial Arabic (Low prestige, home language, informal
communications, not commonly written, mutually unintelligible regional
dialects) (Maamouri 1998)
Arabic 100:
• 11 students from six Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,
Jordan, Morocco, Egypt) and 1 student from Indonesia (Muslim).
• 2 have four or more years of education abroad, 3 have three years of
religious education in Arabic in the US; the rest have no literacy skills in
Arabic;
Variation in Arabic 100
• Between HL learners (as a function of life
experiences)
• Dialectal (language-specific properties)
• Diglossic (language-specific properties)
An HL Class:
Hindi 100 for HL learners
India: Hindi is the official language of the country. Individual states have
their own official languages. 29 languages have over 1 million speakers.
India’s languages stem primarily from two language families: Indo-Aryan
in the north, and Dravidian in the south. Many languages have their own
writing systems (Brass 2005, Hasnain 2003).
Gambhir (2008) identifies two primary categories of HL learners in Hindi
classes – ancestral, associate (cognate and non-cognate)
Hindi 100:
16 students from five different language backgrounds;
Hindi/Urdu (7); Gujarati (4); Punjabi (2);Telugu (2); Marathi (1)
Variation in Hindi 100
• Dialectal
• Cross linguistic (different languages)
• Between learners (HL and L2)
The crux of the problem
• In the Arabic and Hindi programs “HL classes”
are seen as a “catch all” destination for all
students that do not meet the traditional
profile of L2 learners.
• Arabic and Hindi 100 do not make linguistic
sense.
A better conceived class: Japanese 300
(Third year college course)
• 16 students (12 HL learners + 4 L2 learners)
• HL learners:
All have intermediate-to-advanced aural skills
8 had three or more years of schooling;
4 had one to two years of schooling;
• L2 learners: All had taken four semesters of
Japanese
Do…
Program level: Mitigate the problems of diversity
through smart curriculum design and placement.
1) Design courses that are tailored to the local
student population and that make linguistic sense
for them (orient teaching around the typical
learner)
2) Use placement to build maximally
homogeneous classes.
Class level: Accept and deal with diversity through
Differentiated Teaching (DT). Build in pathways
for all learners.
Summarizing
The “what” centered view of teaching
enforces the paradigm at all cost
Not so good
Better
Best
Start at the front of the Start with a studentbook, curriculum is fixed focused curriculum that
targets the needs of the
typical learner
Start with a curriculum
that targets majority
needs and is flexible
enough to respond to
the needs of individual
learners.
May work in relatively
homogeneous classes,
not in highly
heterogeneous classes
Strength: Meets the
needs of all learners.
Weakness: Neglects
those who fall outside
that group.
The “who” centered curriculum for the
typical HL learner ignores diversity
Not so good
Better
Best
Start at the front of the Start with a studentbook, curriculum is fixed focused curriculum that
targets the needs of the
typical learner
Start with a curriculum
that targets majority
needs and is flexible
enough to respond to
the needs of individual
learners.
May work in relatively
homogeneous classes,
not in highly
heterogeneous classes
Strength: Meets the
needs of all learners.
Weakness: Neglects
those who fall outside
that group.
The next step…Wednesday
The differentiated way: Build in
pathways for all learners
Not so good
Better
Best
Start at the front of the Start with a studentbook, curriculum is fixed focused curriculum that
targets the needs of the
typical learner
Start with a curriculum
that targets majority
needs and is flexible
enough to respond to
the needs of individual
learners.
May work in relatively
homogeneous classes,
not in highly
heterogeneous classes
Strength: Meets the
needs of all learners.
Weakness: Neglects
those who fall outside
that group.
Let’s put these ideas to work
• Handout, p. 2
Part I and Part II #3
Other options
Sample activities – individual
activities
• If your name could be any number, what
would it be? (My name is the roman numeral
MC).
• What color is your name? (My name is the
color of cookies)
• What sound is your name? (My name is the
sound of church bells)
Latin grandmas: Horses or mice?
Person
Horse or mouse
______?
Anecdote
Naming practices:
How did you get your name?
Name of a family member
Name with religious significance
Name of a famous or popular figure
Popular/trendy name
Made up name:
Picked a name that works in both languages
Living with Spanish names in an
English-speaking society
•
•
•
•
•
Two last names or one?
Nicknames?
Two different first names?
Maiden name or husband’s last name?
What do you do with difficult to pronounce
names? Keep them as they are? Modify them?
Drop and substitute?
Next step…
• Part II, #4
• Interview parents regarding how they got
their name;
• Study of the most popular Hispanic names
and naming practices in the US (charts, tables,
summary statements);
• Change the genre (go from short story to
poem, song, etc.)
Change the genre
My name means hope In Spanish It has too many letters Sadness
and w a i t i n g It is the number 9 A muddy color Mexican
records My father plays When shaving, songs Like sobbing
Writing activity for less proficient
learners
Musical
Artistic
Resilient
Intellectual
Affectionate
More proficient learners
My grandmother is a piano sonata
My grandmother is deep orange coral
My grandmother is a rocking chair
My grandmother is breakfast in bed
Exit card: Choose one
• Formulate a question about something that
remains unclear to you;
• Describe an “aha!” moment;
End of presentation
Differentiation
Principles of Differentiated
Teaching (DT)
In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students
are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They accept and build
upon the premise that learners differ in important ways…In
differentiated classrooms, teachers provide specific ways for
each individual to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly
and possible, without assuming one student’s roadmap for
learning is identical to anyone else (Tomlinson, 2000:2).
Five tools of differentiation
• Agendas – lists of tasks students must
complete within a specified period of time.
• Centers and stations
• Rubrics
• Exit cards
• Visual checks for understanding
Sample agenda from my class
(an HL class)
Date due: (usually in 1-2 weeks)
Work to be completed:
• Workbook # 7, 8, 9, 10
• Blackboard, #1, 2. Must be completed with a
grade of 90% or better.
• Textbook, read “xxxxx” and answer questions
1-7. Use a spell check.
• Prepare a “Sum it up” card for this unit.
Instructional practices
• Agendas
• Centers and stations: Repositories of resources
which support independent learning.
• Exit cards
• Visual checks
How I use centers
• Virtual spaces (Blackboard)
• Computer graded
• Work can be repeated for a better grade
• Work is done outside of class
• Work is done independently by students
• Work is self-paced
(the workbook can also be a source of
center activities)
Instructional practices
• Agendas
• Centers and stations
• Exit cards: Short assignments that students
must complete and turn in before leaving class
• Visual checks
Sample exit cards
• Formulate a question about something that remains
unclear to you about today’s class;
• Identify something that you already knew about
today’s lesson and something that is new to you;
• Describe an “Aha!” moment in this lesson;
• Explain a contribution you made today to group
work;
• Summarize a comment someone else made that was
useful to you
Instructional practices
• Agendas
• Centers
• Exit cards: Short assignments that students
must complete and turn in before leaving class
• Visual checks for understanding
T/F?
• The narrow definition focuses on linguistic
issues;
• The “what” centered view of teaching is
better suited to teaching HL learners than the
“who” centered view of teaching;
• Background factors can give an indication of
linguistic ability in HL learners
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
 Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
 Build in pathways for individual learners
• Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC
Oral -> written
Informal -> formal
Personal -> impersonal (public)
Focus on the big ideas
Mind the gap
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
 Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
 Build in pathways for individual learners
• Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC
Oral -> written
Informal -> formal
Personal -> impersonal (public)
Focus on the big ideas, have realistic expections
• Mind the gap
• My name by Sandra Cisneros
Task 1: How can you use “My
name” in an HL class and…
• Address issues of affect and identity (as per
the broad definition of HL learners);
• Address language topics of particular
importance to HL learners (e.g. aspect, mood,
vocabulary, infinitive/gerund, spelling…);
• Differentiate instruction so as to deal
effectively with the problem of heterogeneity
Addressing issues in the broad
definition
• Ideas?
Task 1: How can you use “My
name” in an HL class and…
• Address issues of affect and identity (as per
the broad definition of HL learners);
• Address language topics of particular
importance to HL learners (e.g. aspect, mood,
vocabulary, subordinationa, spelling…);
• Differentiate instruction so as to deal
effectively with the problem of heterogeneity
Addressing issues in the broad
definition
• The grandma
• Naming practices
• Spanish names in an English-speaking society
Latin grandmas: Horses or mice?
Person
Horse or mouse
______?
Anecdote
Naming practices:
How did you get your name?
Name of a family member
Name with religious significance
Name of a famous or popular figure
Popular/trendy name
Made up name:
Picked a name that works in both languages
Living with Spanish names in an
English-speaking society
•
•
•
•
Two last names or one?
Nicknames?
Two different first names?
Maiden name or husband’s last name?
These “starter” activities are all
• Personal
• Oral
• Informal
Next step..
• Personal -> public
• Oral -> Written
• Informal -> formal
Ideas?
It doesn’t have to involve an essay
• Interview parents regarding how they got
their name;
• Study of the most popular Hispanic names
and naming practices in the US (charts, tables,
summary statements);
• Change the genre (go from short story to
poem, song, etc.)
Change the genre
My name means hope In Spanish It has too many letters Sadness
and w a i t i n g It is the number 9 A muddy color Mexican
records My father plays When shaving, songs Like sobbing
The text-to-self connection:
Language
Test-to-self connection
1. Pick out five words that are new to you
2. Classify them as “must know” or “worth
knowing” or “fun knowing”
3. Pick out three nouns that are important
for you to know and write the verbs they go
with.
4. Pick out three words that you already
knew how to use but did not know how to
spell
5. Pick out five past-tense verbs, write their
infinitive form.
6. Find two differences between English and
Spanish with regard to the use of
capitalization.
“Mi nombre”
The text-to-self connection: socio-affective
needs, identity, connections, etc.
Test-to-self connection
1. Pick a sentence that
caught your attention
and copy it in the next
column.
2. Explain your personal
connection to this phrase
“Mi nombre”
The KWL chart
Something you
already know
about this topic
Something you
want to learn
Something you
learned
When designing instruction
Focus on the big ideas
• Big ideas function as the keys that unlock
content for all learners
• Plan instruction with a focus on the most
critical big ideas;
• Articulate the learning goals and success
criteria
Big ideas and realistic expectations
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
 Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
 Build in pathways for individual learners
Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC
Oral -> written
Informal -> formal
Personal -> impersonal (public)
Focus on the big ideas, have realistic expections
• Mind the gap
Minding the gap
• Academic deficiencies can interfere with
learners’ ability to expand their command of
registers and reach higher levels of
proficiency;
• Latinos face particular challenges of this
nature;
To address Latinos’ academic
needs
• Draw connections between Spanish and other
subject areas;
• Emphasize general literacy skills;
• Engage students in thinking critically about
language;
• Teach students to become independent
learners;
Teaching vocabulary with word
clouds
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
 Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
 Build in pathways for individual learners
√ Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC
Oral -> written
Informal -> formal
Personal -> impersonal (public)
Focus on the big ideas, have realistic expections
√ Mind the gap
What about mixed classes?
• Same principles:
think in terms of general needs and strengths;
attend to individual needs; focus on the big
ideas;
• In addition…
think of seating arrangements at fancy dinner
parties
Paired interactions between HL
and L2 (Bowles, 2011, 2012)
• HL and L2 learners were matched for
proficiency and worked together on a task.
• In the first study learners benefited more from
the activity than HL learners.
• In the second study, both types of learners
benefited equally from the activity.
What made the difference?
• Material + task
HL learners are better at tasks that tap into
intuitive use of language, L2 learners, on the
other hand, do better at tasks that require
meta-linguistic knowledge;
HL learners are more familiar with home
vocabulary; L2 learners, on the other hand,
are more familiar with academic vocabulary
Take home lesson about HL + L2
pairings
• Take advantage of complimentary strengths of
HL and L2 learners
• Match HL-L2 learners for proficiency
• Mix tasks that require intuitive knowledge
(hard for L2Ls), and tasks that require metalinguistic knowledge (hard for HLLs;
• Hold both students accountable for
contributing to the task (assign the harder
task to each type of learner)
“Mi nombre” in mixed classes
(HL + L2 learners)
• Cloze activity
• Dictado a la carrera
• Dictado a larga distancia
Cloze activity: HL-L2 learner groupings
Dice la historia que ella jamás lo _________(perdonar). Toda su vida _______ (mirar) por la
ventana hacia afuera, del mismo modo en que muchas mujeres apoyan su tristeza en su
codo. Yo me pregunto si ella ________ (hacer) lo mejor que ________ (poder) con lo que
le ________ (tocar), o si __________ (estar) arrepentida porque no _________ (ser) todas
las cosas que __________ (querer) ser. Esperanza. _________ (heredar) su nombre, pero
no quiero heredar su lugar junto a la ventana.
Say it
Write it
“Mi nombre” in mixed classes
(HL + L2 learners)
• Cloze activity
• Dictado a la carrera
• Dictado a larga distancia
Take home points
Keep your eye on the learner
Core principles of HL teaching and
curriculum design
• Orient the curriculum around the “typical” HL learner
• Build in pathways for individual learners
• Build on learners’ knowledge of the HL and HC
Oral -> written
Informal -> formal
Personal -> impersonal (public)
Focus on the big idea, have realistic expectations
• Mind the gap
• Curriculum and syllabus design: The broad and
narrow definitions of the term “HL learner” identify
two general orientations for curriculum and syllabus
design: language and identity. Use the profile of the
“typical HL learner” to lay the general instructional
plan. Build in additional pathways to help students
that deviate from this profile achieve objectives.
Core knowledge
• Curriculum and syllabus design: The broad and
narrow definitions of the term “HL learner” identify
two general orientations for curriculum and syllabus
design: language and identity. Use the profile of the
“typical HL learner” to lay the general instructional
plan. Build in additional pathways to help students
that deviate from this profile achieve objectives.
• Curriculum and syllabus design: Build on learners’
knowledge of the HL and HC and progress from
familiar to unfamiliar. Be mindful of learners’
academic needs. Focus on the big ideas.
• Learner-centered Teaching: HL learners present a
wide range of linguistic, social, and psychological
profiles. For that reason, HL teaching should be
learner-centered, rather than curriculum centered.
Thank you!
• For a copy of this presentation please email
me at: [email protected]

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