Rickey Yada – Food Security (Powerpoint Presentation)

Report
Feeding the world into the future: the
role of food science and technology
Nutrition:
Research, Innovation and Markets
University of Toronto
10 October 2013
Rickey Y. Yada, Ph.D.
Professor
Canada Research Chair in Food Protein Structure
Scientific Director
Advanced Foods and Materials Canada (AFM Canada)
President Elect IUFoST
Department of Food Science
University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1
What is food security?
As defined by the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations:

Food security “exists when all people at all
times have both physical and economic access
to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that
meets their dietary needs for an active and
healthy life.”
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2013). Hunger Portal: FAQ. Date retrieved: June 11, 2013.
Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/
Challenges






Increasing global population
Climate change
Potable water shortage
Loss of arable land, urbanization
Increasing food wastage
Food related issues


Malnutrition
Obesity
Challenges

An increasing global population, in combination with
climate change, poses a threat to food security as
arable land becomes more scarce

Global population: 4.4 billion  6.1 billion from 1980-2000



Projected 9 billion 2050
Food production: 50% increase from 1980-2000
Degradation of arable land:



75% in Central America
One-fifth in Africa
11% in Asia
Sample, I. (2007, August 31). Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land.
The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/aug/31/climatechange.food
Growing our Energy for Security –
Food vs Fuel?
de Gorter, H., Drabik, D., & Just, D. R. (2013). Biofuel Policies and Food Grain
Commodity Prices 2006-2012: All Boom and No Bust?. AgBioForum 16(1): 1-13
Malnutrition Worldwide
World
Number and percentage of undernourished persons
2010-2012
868
million (12%)
2007-2009
867
million (13%)
2004-2006
898
million (14%)
1991-2001
919
million (15%)
1990-1992
1000
million (19%)
The FAO defines undernourishment
as the state of consistently consuming
less energy, in the form of protein and
calories, to maintain a weight
appropriate for height, and for mild
activity.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2013). Hunger Portal: FAQ. Date retrieved: June 11, 2013.
Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/


Approximately 500 million people across the world are obese (BMI of
30 or greater), and if the population that is overweight was also
included (BMI of 25 or greater), 1.5 billion people would fall into this
category.
If nothing is done to remedy the issue, 1 billion people are predicted
to be obese by 2030.
Harvard School of Public Health (2013). Adult obesity. Date retrieved: June 11, 2013. Retrieved from:
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-trends/obesity-rates-worldwide/
World Health Organization (2013, March). Obesity and overweight Fact sheet No311. Date retrieved: June 11, 2013.
Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
Health Care Costs – Malnutrition
& Obesity





Malnutrition on a global $3.5 trillion dollars, or
5% of the global GDP
Obesity
Obesity
Obesity
Obesity
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013, June 4). FAO urges end of malnutrition as priority. Date retrieved: June 12,
2013. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/176888/icode/
http://obesity.ulaval.ca/obesity/generalities/mortalite_morbidite.php
Vitamin/Mineral deficiencies



Vitamin A
 Approximately 250000 – 500000 children that are
Vitamin A deficient develop blindness each year
Iron
 Affects approximately 30% of people in the world
Zinc
 As of 2009, it was estimated that approximately 2
billion people were deficient in zinc
Sprinkles
Iron Tea
Iron Fish
- Univ. Guelph project
- placed into water that is being sterilized or used to prepare food
- provide about 75 per cent of daily iron requirements
http://atguelph.uoguelph.ca/2013/09/iron-fish-a-finalist-in-innovation-competition/
Nanoencapsulation - nanoemulsions
Shefer,A. (2005) www.foodtech-international.com/papers/images/application-nano/fig1



http://nanogreensinfo.com
Functional ingredients are essential components in many foods
 e.g., vitamins, colours, flavours, preservatives, antimicrobials,
etc.)
Usually need some sort of delivery system to optimize activity.
Pay load substantially decreased
Stability of Iron Sources
Nano Fe
Clear
Ferric pyrophosphate
White
precipitation
Ferrous sulfate
Brown
precipitation
Sodium ferrous citrate
Yellowishbrown
5 mg Fe / 100 ml, pH 7.0, stored at 40˚C under dark conditions
Storage time: Nano Fe for 3 months, all others 2 days
Protein Consumption
“FAO and other institutions[1] suggest that global meat production (Figure 1)
and consumption will rise from 233 million tonnes (2000) to 300 million tonnes
(2020), and milk from 568 to 700 million tonnes over the same period. Egg
production will also increase by 30 percent. These predictions show a massive
increase in animal protein demand, needed to satisfy the growth in the human
population, and the increasing affluence of the emerging economies.”
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5019e/y5019e05.htm
Protein Utilization
Major industrial protein ingredients from plant sources [Day, L. (2013) Trends Food Sci. Technol. 32: 25-42]
Plant source
Soy
Wheat
Rice
Protein products
Soy protein concentrates
(SPC)
Soy protein isolates (SPI)
Texturised soy proteins
Vital wheat gluten (VWG)
Isolated wheat protein (IWP)
Texturised wheat proteins
Enzyme hydrolysed protein
Rice protein concentrate
Rice protein isolate
Maize/corn
Zein
Peas
Pea protein concentrate
Pea protein isolate
Canola
Potato
Canola protein isolate
Hydrolysed protein
Potato proteins
Protein content
Major manufacturer and/or
supplier
65–70%
www.solae.com
>90%
60%
75–80%
90%
www.adm.com
www.cargill.com
www.manildra.com.au
www.mgpingredients.com
www.cargill.com
>90%
∼80%
90%
www.foodchem.cn
88–96%
www.freemanllc.com
www.showa-sangyo.co.jp
85–90%
www.nutripea.com
www.roquette.com/
www.burcon.ca
90%
83%
Day, L. (2013) Proteins from land plants – Potential resources for human nutrition and food
security, Trends in Food Science & Technology 32: 25-42.
www.bioexx.com
www.burcon.ca
http://www.solanic.eu
Multicomponent solution
http://www.campbellsoup.ca/en-ca/products/nourish/campbells-nourish-six-grain-vegetable
Way of the future?
http://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/web/Main/Research1/ResearchUM/FirsteverPublicTastingOfLabgrownCulturedBeefBurger.htm
Innovative strategies
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/flour-made-with-insects-wins-1m-for-mcgill-team-1.1866685
http://www.foodnavigator.com/Financial-Industry/Reduce-reuse-recycle-FAO-says-food-waste-costs-750bn-ayear/?utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BDaily&c=w92LS4%2BNc5sgI%2BmmWm8YcQ%3D%3D
Solar Dehydration
http://www.iufost.org/publications/books/documents/Mercer.pdf
Vacuum Microwave Drying
http://www.enwave.net/
Potable Water
http://akvopedia.org/wiki/images/0/0c/CPF1.jpg
Food insecurity - Canada
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/1-in-8-canadian-families-struggle-to-put-food-on-table-study-says-1.1346620
Food Deserts and Swamps
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/susan-blumenthal/food-deserts_b_3822428.html
New technologies – beyond science?


Consumer attitude
Consumer acceptance
Food Security Challenge




Solution – complex
Produce more food?
Huge opportunities
Social/Consumer Science
IUFoST - 2014
IUFoST 2014 World Congress
Montreal, Canada
17-21 August 2014
Acknowledgements










Brian Bryksa
Kara Griffiths
Julia Mirotta
Rhiannon Jamieson-Williams
Doug Grahame
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of
Canada
Canada Research Chairs Program
IUFoST
University of Toronto
Consul General’s Office of Italy

similar documents