Nanoelectronics in Indian Academia: Present and Future

Report
Nanoelectronics in Indian Academia:
Present and Future:
a policy & implementation perspective
Udayan Ganguly
June 10, 2014
Collated based on discussions with
Saurabh Lodha, Swaroop Ganguly, Bipin Rajendran, Souvik Mahapatra, Anil
Kottantharayil, V Ramgopal Rao, Juzer Vasi
Agenda
Policy Goal: To enable academic training to address national
challenges and achieve international excellence
Policy
Descriptions
Organizations
Lab Units
Numerous scientific grants
for individual scientists;
Labs within IITs, IISc,
NITs etc
Centers of
excellence
(2006-present)
Joint projects by multiple
faculty;
common platform;
open access;
CENs/ INUP by DeitY;
DAE; DST Centers at IITs,
IISc, NITs etc;
a case study of IITBNF
Consortia (2014 …)
Consortia of
academia/industry for
prototyping, incubation &
training;
A proposal for future
Academic training infrastructure must respond to evolving national interests
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Outline
• Mission and Vision
• Nanoelectronics Research Evolution @ IITBNF
• Key Achievements
• IITBNF Organization and Operational Highlights
• Future of Nanotechnology @ IITB – A Proposal
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IIT Bombay Nanofabrication Facility
“I have been extremely impressed … one of the leading universities
in the world in the field of technology” - Mr. Joe Biden, July 2013
250 Crores ($ 50M) facility
More than 300 researcher students & 66 faculty members
Mission & Vision
Create a research platform to facilitate hands on
experiments
Establish strong connection between science and
technology
Bridge gap between research and commercialization
Encourage users from other Departments (IIT Bombay)
and other Institutes to avail experimental facilities
IITBNF outreach and national service
Standards
and
Roadmap
Hands-on
Indian
Workshops
nanoelectronics
&
users’
Research
programme
Project Support
(INUP)
ITRS
JEDEC
National
Tech
Education
(NPE)
IITBNF
First Certification
course on
Semiconductor
Manufacturing
National Policy on Electronics (NPE)
12th National Plan (R&D Center)
Nanosniff
Powai Labs
Incubation
GoI Policy
IITBNF plays a strategic and academic role
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Timeline & Funding of IITBNF
Centre for Excellence in Nanoelectronics (CEN), DeitY, 50 Cr
CEN, DeitY, 80Cr
Infrastructure - IITB, 15 Cr
Sponsored projects - R&D Organizations (~ 58 Cr)
INUP DeitY, 12 Cr
NCPRE MNRE, 45 Cr
INUP
35 Cr
Industry partners (Intel, TSMC, IBM, TI, Micron, Synopsys, Maxim, Renesas, 7.5 Cr)
Equipment donation - Nanomanufacturing Lab, CLEAN Lab (~ 32 Cr AMAT)
Sponsored projects (7.5 Cr AMAT)
2006
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2007
2008
2009
2010
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2011
2012
2013
7
Sim
Device Char
Device Fab
Materials
Infrastructure timeline
Ellipsometry,
CEN,
DIT, $10MPL, AFM
TEM Prep
Magnetic
SEM, Hall, Four-Probe
PPMS
UV-Vis, FTIR, SECM
PLD, PVD/CVD, Evaporation, Sputter
ALD
MBE
CMP
Litho (photo, eBeam)
IITB, $ 3M
PIII
Comb
Sputter
AMAT etch, gate stack
RF, ns pulse
Optical
Process & Device (Elec)
2006
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2007
Cryo
Magnetic
DC, AC, pulsed
2008
Ab-initio
MultiPhysics
2009
XPS,
XRD
2010
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2011
2012
2013
8
8
Materials
Gate
CEN,
DIT, $10M
Dielectric
Device Fab
Expertise timeline
MOS Stacks
Biomaterials
GaAs
IITB, $ 3M
GaN
NC/CT
Perovskites
Ge
Graphene, 2D Materials
Organics
HEMT
Biosensors
Cantilevers
Organics
Gr Flash
Device Char
CHISEL Flash
Sim
IR sensors
BTI
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Spintronics
Quant/Neuro
Si, Ge CMOS FETs
SONOS, CT
FINFET
2007
DLTS
FLASH, ESD
2008
2009
LED
Cryo
Micro sec Pulsed
BTI
2006
ReRAM
Solar Cell
ns Pulsed
MultiPhysics
2010
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Quantum
2012
2013
9
9
National outreach – the INUP program
Participating Number
Institutions
Academic
80
R&D
11
Industries
11
Total
102
Facility open to researchers all over the country
Research Output and Achievements
• Papers in High Impact Journals
(2006-2013): >200
– IEEE Transactions on ED,
Nanotechnology, IM
– IEEE EDL
– AIP APL, JAP
– ACS Nano
– J-MEMS
– Organic Electronics
– IOP Nanotechnology
Key Conference Publications (2006-2013)
20
18
16
14
Logic and
Memory
Devices
PV
MEMS
Spin
12
10
Materials
Growth
8
Simulation
6
4
2
• Presence in top international
conferences
–
–
–
–
–
Logic and Memory Devices
Photovoltaics
Spintronics
MEMS
Material Growth
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IITBNF enables high impact
research in diverse areas
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Product Development
More than 40 National
and International
Patents Filed
Silicon locket for
cardiac diagnostics
Low cost portable SPR
Cantilever based low cost
explosive detector
Lab on chip for cardiac
diagnostics
Explosive detection by
Fluorescence Quenching
Wireless sensor node
for explosive detection
IITBNF Organizational Structure
Equipment
Operations
Committee
Facility
Committee
Safety
Committee
[3F + 14S]
[3F+ 8S]
[3F+ 8S]
IT
Committee
Disciplinary
Committee
FOC [Facility Oversight
committee, 24F + 41S]
[3F + 4S]
Equipment
Maintenance
Committee [3F
+ 3S]
Public
Relations
Committee
[2F + 3S]
[5F + 2S]
Faculty [F] : Making
Rules/Policies
Admin
Committee
Staff [S]: Implementing
Policies
[3F + 15S]
Inventory
Committee
HR
Committee
[2F + 3S]
[2F + 2S]
1
2
2
EE
Physics
19
Energy Sciences
Biosciences
Dept
Number
EE
19
Physics
2
Energy Sciences
1
Biosciences
2
Total
24
Professionally run national facility with 24x7 operation
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Transparent 24x7 open access: online slot booking
Covers ~ 90 tools @ IITBNF
Software to be adopted by NNF @ IISc
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Lab and Personnel Safety
Fire extinguishers in all
lab and corridors
32 Toxic Gas Detectors
45 min Backup Spill Kits, First Aid, Eye
Showers at multiple locations Auto-shut OFF
• Emergency Response Team (24X7)
• PA System
• Biometric access for head counts in Emergency
• Regular safety drills
• New materials go through rigorous safety checks
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Issue logging & tracking: building maintenance
Jun 12
Jun 13
Jul 13
IITBNF
EE
Scalable, online ticketing and tracking
Data-driven approach
identify and track issues
to
Now adopted for IITB
campus-wide maintenance
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How are we doing?
“The fact that so many of my students are
able to use the facility on a regular basis,
basic training is provided to them and they
are made aware of the safety issues, etc.
speaks volume about how the facility is
maintained, and open to others for
use…Thanks for being generous and
allowing others to use the unique facilities!”
– Prof. Amit Agrawal (Mechanical)
“Easily allowing interested people to
use the facility, which significantly
enhances the utility of the installed
facilities.” – Prof. Dipti Gupta
(MEMS), on highlights of IITBNF
“From the point of view of an user I
find that the facility is administered
very professionally. Online slot
booking system, billing details, issue
of consumables, etc. are very
transparent.” – Anonymous faculty,
on highlights of IITBNF
“We have never faced any
difficulty in accessing any
facility.” – Anonymous faculty
C
A
B
“Uniqueness
is
the
accessibility
aspect…Simply register and things happen as
they should. I am happy as my students have
not cribbed till date about something not
made available to them.” – Anonymous
faculty, on highlights of IITBNF
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“Some processes need to be
opened for all users irrespective
of the substrate they are using.”
– Anonymous faculty
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“The facility caters primarily towards electronic
device fabrication. However, there is an
increasing number of users in the institute who
are
working
at
the
interface
of
physics/engineering and biology and would like
to use the IITBNF facility. Therefore, it will be
good to have dedicated a few soft lithography
equipments to avoid potential contamination
issues.” – Anonymous faculty
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Faculty and Student Participation
PhD Students
Faculty
biosciences
6%
biosciences
8%
physics
21%
physics
19%
energy
11%
chemical
1%
chemistry
2%
crnts
8%
chemical
6%
chemistry
3%
metallurgical
15%
metallurgical
15%
electrical
32%
electrical
30%
mechanical
6%
mechanical
5%
environmental
1%
energy
11%
Strong inter-disciplinary focus and
open access
biosciences
chemical
chemistry
crnts
electrical
energy
environmental
mechanical
metallurgical
10
2
3
13
51
17
1
8
24
physics
30
159
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EE Nanoelectronics Growth
EE faculty (Microelectronics & VLSI)
30
Sq. Ft.
25
~4X Growth
25000
20
20000
Characterization
Fabrication
~2X Growth
15
15000
10
10000
5
5000
0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Year
From 8 to 29 Faculty over 10
years
0
EE Annex
EE Annex + Nano bldg
From 10,000  20,000 sq. ft. in
10 years
Similar growth across institute; Increased cross-disciplinary
research
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What should the future look like?
Stanford Nano Center
Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue
CENSE, IISc
A State-of-the-art Nanotechnology Center
• A greenfield made-to-custom 200,000 sq. ft center: 20+ years vision
2018-2040
• An INTEGRATED IIT Bombay Nanotechnology Center
• 40,000 sq. ft. (approx) ground floor clean room space, allied specialty nanolabs
• Faculty, technical staff and graduate student offices
• Technology Incubation and Entrepreneurship
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India’s Need for Semiconductor
Manufacturing
Electronics production value chain
Design
+
Manufacturing
=
Source: Applied Materials
Products
• Semiconductors are the basic building block for all electronics products
– 25-30% of product value (even higher for PDA, Tablets, Mobile Phone etc.)
• Semiconductor fabs are a catalyst for development of large number of
downstream electronics industries
– Significant driver for employment growth
Strong need for semiconductor manufacturing
to increase electronic production
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Two India Fabs
approved by
union cabinet
in 2013;
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Sustaining a Semiconductor Ecosystem
-Role of Academia
Example: Semiconductor Tech & Manuf. Course
1,500
specialists
Process and equipment & 10,000
engineers
related
skilled
Operators and
jobs/fab
Technicians
Managers and Admin
Skilled
Workforce
Training on production
tools
R&D
Foundry
Source: Applied Materials, CP presentation 2012
Prototyping of
new technology
Incubation of
technology start-ups
Example: IMEC (Belgium), ITRI (Taiwan)
Training & R&D are two key areas where academic institutions and industry
haveU Ganguly
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role to play
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http://www.itri.org.tw/eng/econtent/about/about05.aspx
R&D Organization Value: ITRI
Del Solar
Epi Star Supply Chain
2
Standard Labs:
National Measurements Lab; Fire and Explosion Lab
World Leader by 2010
Top 100 world R&D awards: 4
Wall Street Journal Technology Innovation: 3
2008-13
2003-08
1998-03
1993-98
Year
Long time horizons > 10 years
ITRI has played a vital role in transforming
Taiwan’s economy from a labor-intensive
industry to a high-tech industry.
Imported Tech/knowledge  Do It Yourself  Innovation:
U Ganguly Assocham 2014
1978-83
0
Products: 14000 Patent
IBM compatible PC (1983); Carbon Fibre Bicycle, rackets (1985);
TFT Display; CD ROM; Std First common car engine, WiMAX,
FlexUPD;
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Indigenous 8” tech.
& Mirle Automation
4
1988-93
6
TSMC
8
1983-88
Corporations Incubated: 163
UMC (1980);
TSMC (1987)- Largest foundry
Taiwan Mask Corp (1989);
Mirle Automation (1989)
Epistar Corp (1996): supply chain
Phalanx Biotech (2002);
Del Solar (2004);
Daily Care Biomed (2004);
10
1973-78
Growth in various core/ non core segments
Technology core: 1976 RCA tech transfer and training
Milestones
12
Time horizons > 10 years
UMC
14
Acquired 4” technology
Initiation: In 1973, three R&D institutes form a private company
Industrial Taiwan Research Institute
Culture of Leadership;
23
R&D Centers History and Geography
Year
1967
1973
Org
LETI
ITRI
Univ partner
Univ of Grenoble, France
Multiple
1982
IMEC
KU Leuven , Belgium
1986
1988
1991
2001
Sematech
ISRC
IME
SMC
UT Austin, USA
Seoul National Univ, Korea
Nat. U Singapore
U Edinburgh, Scotland
2001
Albany Nanotech
SUNY Albany, USA
2002
2010
NCRC
MCCI
U Tokyo
U Limerick, Tyndall Nat. Insti., Ireland
Corporate
IBM, ST Micro, Soitec
TSMC, UMC etc
Intel IBM TSMC, Samsung,
Micron, TEL etc
Intel, IBM, Micron, TI etc
Samsung, Hynix, LG
Intel, Applied Materials, etc
Intel, Logitech, Synopsis
IBM Global Foundries,
Toshiba, Applied, TEL
Toshiba, NEC, Hitachi, Fujitsu
Intel Analog, Xylinx TI etc
Recent Intel Ireland fab
Major corporations strongly partner with multiple University lead prototyping
Drivers for Corporations
- Corporate Research is expensive:
- Hedge against low probability disruptive
technologies
- Pre-competitive research cost sharing
- Human Resource development – “A company is
as good as its employees”
Drivers for R&D Center
- Corporation provide mid term technology vision
& highlight opportunities
- Ensure quality of research
- Provides consistent cost sharing (vis a vis start
ups)
- Future employment path to trainees
- Funds/support for disruptive tech incubation
R&D Center “canopy” is essential for sustainable Fab/Semiconductors ecosystem
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R&D Organization Sustainability
2006
2004
AIST (2001-present)
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
IMEC (1982- present)
100%
250
53% support
in 10 years
200
Revenue
90%
Grant
% of grant
80%
70%
60%
150
22% support
in 20 years
100
50%
40%
30%
% grant of revenue
Funding (Million €)
300
20%
50
10%
0%
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
0
Year
10 year grant: 189M€ = 130Cr INR
(http://www.imec.be/ScientificReport/SR2007/)
http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/about_aist/facts
_figures/fact_figures.html
AIST from Japan shows a similar 60%
subsidy after 10 years of operation.
IMEC used 189Million € (~1300 Cr INR at 69
INR=1€) of subsidy and 315 Million € of
revenue over initial 10 years.
From 10 to 20 years, subsidy percent reduces from 60 -22% (essentially non-subsidy
revenue increase)
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Proof of
concept
Optimization
Integration
Production
h/w test
Tech. Concept /IP
h/w
Manufacturing
Exploratory
Development
Flexible
Barrier to Materials / Tech
Flow (e.g. 4” vs 12”, clean)
Research
Nano-Engineerng Ecosystem Model
Reliable
Yield
Product
Materials/Process
High Tech Human Resources
Academia or Industry
Research
Industry-Academia
Development Centers
Industry Fab
Yorktown Heights
Albany Nanotech
Fishkill
KU Leuven
IMEC
Various Corporations
Nano-Centers @IISc, IITs etc
R&D Center
India Fab
Strong need for a connecting entity between Research and Manufacturing
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Proposed R&D Center Model
Technology Focus & Diversity
Broad Stakeholders
Broad user base around standard baseline
Strategic
Device
ISRO,
DRDO,
DAE
Govt.
Logic, RF,
MEMS
R&D Foundry
“Skilled HR and
Tech for
Electronics
ecosystem”
Industry/
India Fabs
Academia:
IITs, IISc,
Nano
Centers
Incubation
/ Start-ups
Multiple stakeholders – how to engage?
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Fab
Baseline
Develop
R&D Foundry
Materials
& Process
CMOS e.g.
28nm inverter
capable
baseline
International
Collaborations
Circuits &
Systems
Multiple technology development focus –
what to prioritize?
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Organizational Structure
Board
Representing Major
Stakeholders e.g.
CEO, President
Fab &Industry
Assignees
Temporary
University
Researchers
Staff
Permanent
Temporary
CEO, President
DeitY
Fab
DRDO/ISRO/DAE
Industry
Academia
CEO must have international experience in managing large R&D Labs/Centers
Staff preferably have strong background in semiconductor industry or large R&D labs
R&D Center must be autonomously & professionally managed with vision from stakeholders
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Prologue
SEMI and IESA industry forum to develop
ecosystem consensus with GoI Leadership
A globally time-tested R&D model needs to
be implemented to support the bold vision of
Indian semiconductor manufacturing and
innovations
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