How useful are microclasses? - staff.stir.ac.uk

Report
How useful are microclasses?
An analysis of detailed parental occupational differences and
their effects on filial school attainment in Britain
Professor Vernon Gayle & Dr Paul Lambert
University of Stirling
Modelling Patterns of Social Stratification
ESRC NCRM Lancaster-Warwick-Stirling Node Sociology Strand Research Meeting
1
August 31st 2011 – 2nd September 2011, University of Stirling
Microclass Analysis
•
Motivation: There might be extra insights somewhere
between ‘big class categories’ and ‘individual
occupations’?
•
Exciting debate emerging
•
Punch up between heavyweights…
For microclasses Grusky, Weeden and Jonsson
Against Goldthorpe and Erikson
 Jonsson et al (2009) AJS; Grusky and Weeden (2005, 2006)
 Erikson, Goldthorpe and Hällsten (2011)
2
Microclass Analysis
•
There might be extra insights somewhere between ‘big
class categories’ and ‘individual occupations’?
For example, between the eight categories of an
agglomerate scheme and the 371 administrative (and
sociologically unorganised) occupational unit groups,
could there be 80-120 microclasses defined by their
professional cultures and practices?
3
Microclass Analysis
‘Microclass regime —The microclass approach shares with
the big-class model the presumption that contemporary labor
markets are balkanized into discrete categories, but such
balkanization is assumed to take principally the form of
institutionalized occupations (e.g., doctor, plumber, postal
clerk) rather than institutionalized big classes (e.g., routine
nonmanuals, proprietors)’
(Jonsson et al 2009 pp.982-983)
4
Microclass Reproduction
Mechanisms of Intergenerational Reproduction
(Jonsson et al 2009 Table 1 p.986)
•
Human capital
Occupation-specific skills (e.g. carpentry)
•
Cultural capital
Occupation-specific cultures and tastes
(e.g. aspirations, medicine, help with UCAS application)
•
Social networks
Occupation-specific networks
(e.g. doing ‘the knowledge’, job interviews, internships)
•
Economic resources
Fixed resources (e.g. farms, market stalls, business in general)
5
Initial Appeal
• The initial appeal is the prospect of clearer resolution regarding
1. Occupation-Specific Human Capital
2. Occupation-Specific Cultural Capital
3. Other Occupation-Specific Mechanisms
• First attempt (that we are aware of) to construct a British microclass
scheme
• Example (from Gayle and Lambert 2011)
http://www.staff.stir.ac.uk/vernon.gayle/documents/gayle_lambert_rc28_v1.pdf
6
General Certificate of Education
•
The Education Reform Act 1988 led to rapid changes in the secondary school
curriculum, and to the organisation, management and financing of schools
•
A major change for pupils was the introduction of the General Certificate of
Secondary Education (GCSE)
•
GCSEs differed from the qualifications that they replaced
•
A new grading scheme was established and all pupils were entered for a common set of
examinations
•
There were also changes in the content and format of examinations and assessment by
coursework was introduced
•
School league tables are published (and targets are set)
•
A newsworthy item each summer
•
Previously only teachers, parents and pupils knew when exam results day was
7
General Certificate of Education
• General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) introduced in the late 1980s
• The standard qualification for pupils in England and Wales in year 11 (aged 15/16)
• Usually a mixture of assessed coursework and examinations
• Generally each subject is assessed separately and a subject specific GCSE awarded
• It is usual for pupils to study for about nine subjects, which will include core subjects
(e.g. English, Maths and Science) and non-core subjects
• GCSEs are graded in discrete ordered categories
• The highest being A*, followed by grades A through to G
(A* from 1994)
• Arran Fernandez gained A* in Maths at age 8 !
8
Why Explore GCSE Attainment?
•
GCSEs are public examinations and mark the first major branching point in a young person’s
educational career
•
Poor GCSE attainment is a considerable obstacle which precludes young people from
pursuing more advanced educational courses
•
Young people with low levels of GCSE attainment are usually more likely to leave education
at the minimum school leaving age and their qualification level frequently disadvantages
them in the labour market
•
Low levels of qualifications are also likely to have a longer term impact on experiences in the
adult labour market
•
Therefore, we argue that gaps in GCSE attainment are sociologically important
9
Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales
•
Major Longitudinal Study began Mid-1980s
•
Designed to monitor behaviour of young people as they reach the minimum school leaving
age and either stay on in education of enter the labour market
•
Experiences of Education (qualifications); Employment; Training; Aspirations; Family;
Personal characteristic & circumstances
•
Nationally representative; Large sample size; Panel data (albeit short); Possible to compare
cohorts (trends over time)
•
Study contacts a sample from an academic year group (cohort) in the spring following
completion of compulsory education
•
The sample is designed to be representative of all Year 11 pupils in England & Wales
•
Sample are tracked for 3 (sometimes 4) waves (called Sweeps) of data collection
•
We concentrate on the cohorts attaining GCSEs (1990 - 1999)
10
Parental Occupations and Filial Attainment
Extended analyses of the Youth Cohort Study of England and Wales
• Overall trend
• Increasing proportions getting the benchmark 5+GCSEs (A*-C)
• Increasing mean number of A*-C grade GCSEs
• Increasing mean GCSE points score
• Gender
• Female pupils outperforming male pupils
• Ethnicity
• Some groups doing better than white pupils (e.g. Indians)
• Other groups doing worse (e.g. blacks)
• Parental Occupation
• Observable gradient
• Lower levels of GCSE attainment from those pupils with less occupationally
advantaged parents
11
Sensitivity analysis of 10 popular occupational measures
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Regression Models: GCSE Point Score
Cohort
Cohort+Sex
Cohort+Sex+Ethnicity
+NS-SEC9
+ESEC
+RGSC
+EGP11
+NS-SEC3
+Man/Non
+Skill
+ISEI
+MCAMSIS
+NES
0
.05
.1
.15
Adjusted R Squared
Source: SN5765, n=54614 (unweighted data) ('conventional' occ. measures); 1990s YCS Cohorts.
.2
Exploring parental influences at occupational unit group (OUG) level
National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC)
NS-SEC
No. of SOC90 Occupations*
1.1 Large Employers and higher managers
1.2 Higher professional occupations
2 Lower managerial and professional occupations
3 Intermediate occupations
5 Lower supervisory and technical occupations
6 Semi-routine occupations
7 Routine occupations
10
38
78
42
41
88
74
Total
371
* Employees
Possible interesting variations within NS-SEC categories?
13
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, Parents' SOC90 (large SOC groups)
Illustrations of occupations
50
Uni teach
40
Solicitor
Works manager
30
Nursery nurse
Plumber
Kit porter
20
Driver
1.1
1.2
2
3
4
5
Family Social Class
6
7
Mean for NS-SEC Class
Source:1990s YCS Cohorts; Comprehensive school pupils.
121 larger SOCs; Pupils per SOC Mean 380; Min 101; Max 1836 (Nurses).
14
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, Parents' SOC90 (large SOC groups)
Illustrations of extreme occupations
50
Uni teach Medics
Teachers (secondary)
Other teachers
40
Other Eng
Elec fitters
Other misc
Educ ass
30
Metal mates
Publicans
Aux Nurses
Gardeners
Food pro
20
Bar staff
1.1
1.2
2
3
4
5
Family Social Class
6
7
Mean for NS-SEC Class
Source:1990s YCS Cohorts; Comprehensive school pupils.
121 larger SOCs; Pupils per SOC Mean 380; Min 101; Max 1836 (Nurses).
15
SOC90
NS-SEC
1.2 Higher
professional
occupation
2. Lower
managerial and
professional
occupations
3. Intermediate
occupations
Male graduates
Female graduates
Medics
Solicitors
Other engineers
Teachers (secondary)
92%
94%
37%
85%
86%
97%
47%
71%
Works managers
Publicans
22%
4%
20%
1%
Teachers (dance etc)
42%
42%
Nursery nurses a
Auxiliary nurses
11%
3%
4%
1%
a. We suspect that the parental age profile might be consequential (e.g. younger
mothers who are nurses are increasingly more likely to graduates).
McKnight and Elias (1998) 371 Database: Source UK Labour Force Survey 1994
SOC90
NS-SEC
5. Lower
supervisory
and technical
occupations
6. Semiroutine
occupations
7. Routine
occupations
Higher level technical
(e.g. BTEC)
Males
Females
No Qualifications
(less than GCSE)
Males
Females
Electrical fitters
5%
18%
15%
82%
Plumber
Gardeners
Education
assistants
13%
1%
22%
27%
5%
20%
55%
41%
22%
49%
8%
11%
(38% graduates)
(3% graduates)
Kitchen porters
3%
2%
23%
2%
Food
production
Metal mates
Drivers (goods)
1%
1%
38%
39%
44%
19%
32%
16%
28%
Bar staff
McKnight and Elias (1998) 371 Database: Source UK Labour Force Survey 1994
Microclass Analyses
• Description of the composition of the microclasses
• Summary results of GCSE attainment by microclasses
• Examine some microclasses in detail (teaching and managerial)
• Think about within-microclasses?
• Sensitivity analyses with the microclass measure
• Gelman and Hill (2007) style random effects
18
1101.
1102.
1103.
1104.
1105.
1106.
1107.
1108.
1109.
1201.
1202.
1203.
1204.
1301.
1302.
1303.
1304.
1305.
1306.
1307.
1308.
1309.
1310.
1311.
1312.
1313.
1314.
2001.
3101.
3102.
3103.
3104.
3105.
3201.
3202.
3203.
3204.
4101.
4103.
4104.
4105.
4107.
4108.
Jurists
Health professionals
Professors and instructors
Natural scientists
Statistical and social scientists
Architects
Accountants
Journalists, authors, and related
Engineers
Officials, government and non-pro
Managers
Commercial Managers
Building managers and proprietors
Systems analysts and programmers
Aircraft pilots and navigators
Personnel and labor relations work
Elementary and secondary school teacher
Librarians
Creative artists
Ship officers
Professional, technical, and related
Social and welfare workers
Workers in religion
Nonmedical technicians
Health semiprofessionals
Hospital attendants
Nursery school teachers and aides
Proprietors
Real estate agents
Other agents
Insurance agents
Cashiers
Sales workers and shop assistants
Telephone operators
Bookkeepers and related workers
Office and clerical workers
Postal and mail distribution clerical
Craftsmen and kindred workers
Electronics service and repair workers
Printers and related workers
Locomotive operators
Tailors and related workers
Vehicle mechanics
4109.
4110.
4111.
4112.
4113.
4114.
4115.
4116.
4117.
4118.
4119.
4120.
4201.
4202.
4203.
4204.
4205.
4206.
4207.
4208.
4209.
4210.
4301.
4302.
4303.
4304.
4305.
4306.
4307.
4308.
4309.
4310.
4311.
4312.
5101.
5201.
5202.
9990.
Blacksmiths and machinists
Jewelers, opticians, and precious
Other mechanics
Plumbers and pipe-fitters
Cabinetmakers
Bakers
Welders and related metal workers
Painters
Butchers
Stationary engine operators
Bricklayers, carpenters, and relates
Heavy machine operators
Truck drivers
Chemical processors
Miners and related workers
Longshoremen and freight handlers
Food processors
Textile workers
Sawyers and lumber inspectors
Metal processors
Operatives and kindred workers, n
Forestry workers
Protective service workers
Transport conductors
Guards and watchmen
Food service workers
Mass transportation operators
Service workers, n.e.c.
Hairdressers
Newsboys and deliverymen
Launderers and dry-cleaners
Housekeeping workers
Janitors and cleaners
Gardeners
Fishermen
Farmers and farm managers
Farm laborers
Members of armed forces
Examples of the Composition of Microclasses
Health Professionals
220 Medical practitioners
221 Pharmacists / pharmacologists
223 Dental practitioners
224 Veterinarians
Workers in religion
292 Clergy
Elementary and Secondary teachers
233 Secondary school teachers
234 Primary school teachers
235 Special education
239 Other teaching (e.g. dance)
Health Semi-Professionals
222 Ophthalmic opticians
340 Nurses
341 Midwives
342 Medical radiographers
343 Physiotherapists
344 Chiropodists
345 Dispensing opticians
347 Occupational and speech therapists
348 Environmental health officers
349 Other health associated professionals
Microclass
Mean GCSE score
S.E. Mean
GCSE score Median GCSE score
n
Health professionals
52.96
0.69
55
426
Statistical and social scientists
Professors and instructors
Natural scientists
51.18
51.13
51.12
1.55
0.52
0.78
54
53
53
83
738
299
Elementary and secondary school teachers
Jurists
50.45
49.81
0.28
1.03
52
51
2521
219
Systems analysts and programmers
Workers in religion
Librarians
Architects
49.11
49.01
48.81
48.54
0.46
1.13
1.29
0.64
51
52
50
50
948
180
111
471
Sawyers and lumber inspectors
Food processors
Truck drivers
Textile workers
Heavy machine operators
29.39
29.31
29.28
28.92
28.49
1.67
3.7
0.51
1.52
0.8
29
29
29.5
30
28
84
13
1062
127
445
Longshoremen and freight handlers
Miners and related workers
Housekeeping workers
Fishermen
Launderers and dry-cleaners
28.47
27.28
26.93
26
25.37
1.29
1.2
0.58
2.88
2.23
29
27
26
23
25
139
183
859
29
43
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, Parents' SOC90 (large SOC groups)
Illustrations of extreme occupations
50
Uni teach Medics
Teachers (secondary)
Other teachers
40
Other Eng
Elec fitters
Other misc
Educ ass
30
Metal mates
Publicans
Aux Nurses
Gardeners
Food pro
20
Bar staff
1.1
1.2
2
3
4
5
Family Social Class
6
7
Mean for NS-SEC Class
Source:1990s YCS Cohorts; Comprehensive school pupils.
121 larger SOCs; Pupils per SOC Mean 380; Min 101; Max 1836 (Nurses).
22
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, comprehensive school pupils
35
40
45
50
Parents in teaching occupations
NS-SEC3
Secondary
Other (e.g.dance)
Special
Primary
Microclass
Source: SN5765;1990s YCS Cohorts.
23
Multiple Occupations (SOC90) and
Single Occupation Microclasses
Microclass
n
Mean
s.e.
mean
lower upper
1202 Managers
5339 42.25
0.22 41.82 42.67
Commercial
1203 Managers
2391 46.49
0.30 45.90 47.08
76 45.55
1.50 42.56 48.55
180 49.27
1.14 47.02 51.51
1302 Aircraft Pilots
1310 Clergy
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, comprehensive school pupils
50
55
Parents in Microclass 1202
45
108
1644
40
1058
5339
216
293
104
79
31
1456
35
191
Microclass
Production
Transport
Warehouse Entertainment
Other
General
Mines
Store
Catering
Service
SOC90
GCSE Attainment Year 11
Mean GCSE Score, comprehensive school pupils
45
Parents in New Microclass
40
216
2529
293
104
79
31
1456
30
35
191
New Microclass
Mines
Transport
Warehouse
Store
SOC90
Entertainment
Catering
Service
No. parameters
{# unique units}
(no occ data)
Full R2
R2 increment
0.077
CAMSIS
1 {405}
0.191
0.115
ISEI
1 {59}
0.184
0.107
8
0.184
0.107
Educ_Scale (YCS)a
1 {365}
0.217
0.141
Educ_Scale (BHPS)
1 {76}
0.184
0.108
Microclass
81
0.201
0.125
ISCO88 (3-digit)
236
0.214
0.137
SOC90
369
0.220
0.143
NS-SEC
n=54793. Linear regression with controls for cohort, gender and ethnicity. Excludes
SOC90=999 (‘All other miscellaneous’).
a. Tom DiPrete suggested the inclusion of such a measure.
Sensitivity Analyses – Random effects models
Level 3
Level 2
Level 3
ICC
Level 2
ICC
Level 2 + Level 3
ICC (loglike)
(1)
SOC90
0.165
0.165 (227221)
(2a) {+i.microclass}
SOC90
0.032
0.032 (226808)
(2b) {+i.ns-sec}
SOC90
0.058
0.058 (227029)
(3)
Microclass
0.163
0.163 (227411)
(4)
NS-SEC
0.138
0.138 (227828)
(5)
Microclass
SOC90
0.151
0.027
0.178 (227077)
(6)
NS-SEC
SOC90
0.110
0.052
0.162 (227052)
(7)
NS-SEC
Microclass
0.053
0.063
0.117 (227176)
Estimated using xtmixed in Stata with reml ,except (4) using mle. (6) and (7) are crossclassified models, (5) is nested.
Sensitivity Analyses – Random effects models
(5)
Level 3
Level 2
Level 3
ICC
Level 2
ICC
Level 2 + Level 3
ICC (loglike)
Microclass
SOC90
0.151
0.027
0.178 (227077)
At the present time we believe that this results indicates
that the bulk, but not all, of the parental occupational
variation is accounted for by microclass.
This clearly requires more thought…
Conclusions
There might be extra insights somewhere between ‘big class categories’ and
‘individual occupations’?
• Microclasses are sociologically plausible
• First attempt to construct a British microclass scheme
• Extra explanatory power (for GCSE attainment) questionable?
• Alternative operationalisations of micro classes
• Many UK data sources now don’t include occupational unit group information so a
microclass approach may be restricted?
• Possibilities for primary data collection
• Survey question with microclass lists (e.g. librarian, butcher etc)
• Harry Ganzeboom has made this point previously
30
Conclusions
• Parental occupations are important for GCSE attainment
• Message to head teachers (on performance related pay) enrol the sons and
daughters of dance teachers rather than publicans!
• Unwillingness to collect parental occupational information (Govt and
schools)
• Free school meals a measure of social background (in research and
league tables)
• About 15% of pupils in state funded secondary schools
• Unstable measure - panel data regularly reveals a high level of ‘income churning’
from year to year (for the UK see Jarvis and Jenkins 1997)
• Possible end of Youth Cohort Study!
31

similar documents