Nomenclature Lecture

Report
Nomenclature Notes
Introduction
Nomenclature: System for naming
compounds
 Avoids “common name” confusion
 System – Name tells something about
the composition of the compound
Introduction
Binary Compounds: Compounds
composed of 2 elements
Categories of Binary
Compounds
Compounds that contain a metal and a
nonmetal.
Called
binary ionic compounds
Involves a positive cation (metal) and a negative
anion (nonmetal)
NAME them by simply naming the ions!
There are 2 types of the metal / nonmetal
compounds
Type I Binary Compounds
Contain metal atoms that only form cation that
has 1 possible charge
Atom Name
Sodium
Calcium
Aluminum
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Type I Binary Compounds
Contain metal atoms that only form cation that
has 1 possible charge
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Sodium
Sodium Ion
Na+1
Calcium
Aluminum
Type I Binary Compounds
Contain metal atoms that only form cation that
has 1 possible charge
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Sodium
Sodium Ion
Na+1
Calcium
Calcium Ion
Ca+2
Aluminum
Type I Binary Compounds
Contain metal atoms that only form cation that
has 1 possible charge
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Sodium
Sodium Ion
Na+1
Calcium
Calcium Ion
Ca+2
Aluminum
Aluminum Ion
Al+3
Type I Binary Compounds
 Naming Rules
1.
2.
3.
Name cation (metal) first and then the anion
(non-metal) second.
Simply use the atom’s name for the name of the
cation.
For the anion, take the root from the atom’s
name and change the ending to –ide. NOTE:
Sometimes the root gets more modification.
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Chlorine
Oxygen
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Chlorine
Chloride
Cl1-
Oxygen
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Chlorine
Chloride
Cl1-
Oxygen
Oxide
O2-
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Chlorine
Chloride
Cl1-
Oxygen
Oxide
O2-
Sulfur
Sulfide
S2-
Nitrogen
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Chlorine
Chloride
Cl1-
Oxygen
Oxide
O2-
Sulfur
Sulfide
S2-
Nitrogen
Nitride
N3-
Type I Binary Compounds
Atom Name
Ion Name
Symbol of Ion
Chlorine
Chloride
Cl1-
Oxygen
Oxide
O2-
Sulfur
Sulfide
S2-
Nitrogen
Nitride
N3-
 Remember symbols for ions show the charge
but ionic compound formulas don’t.
Type I Binary Compounds
 For each of the following identify the ions
and name the compounds.
Formula
Ions
Name
Example
CsF
Cs+1 and F-1
Cesium Fluoride
1.
AlCl3
2.
MgI2
3.
KCl
4.
Sc2S3
Type I Binary Compounds
 For each of the following identify the ions
and name the compounds.
Formula
Ions
Name
Example
CsF
Cs+1 and F-1
Cesium Fluoride
1.
AlCl3
Al+3 and Cl-1
Aluminum Chloride
2.
MgI2
3.
KCl
4.
Sc2S3
Type I Binary Compounds
 For each of the following identify the ions
and name the compounds.
Formula
Ions
Name
Example
CsF
Cs+1 and F-1
Cesium Fluoride
1.
AlCl3
Al+3 and Cl-1
Aluminum Chloride
2.
MgI2
Mg+2 and I-1
Magnesium Iodide
3.
KCl
4.
Sc2S3
Type I Binary Compounds
 For each of the following identify the ions
and name the compounds.
Formula
Ions
Name
Example
CsF
Cs+1 and F-1
Cesium Fluoride
1.
AlCl3
Al+3 and Cl-1
Aluminum Chloride
2.
MgI2
Mg+2 and I-1
Magnesium Iodide
3.
KCl
K+1 and Cl-1
Potassium Chloride
4.
Sc2S3
Type I Binary Compounds
 For each of the following identify the ions
and name the compounds.
Formula
Ions
Name
Example
CsF
Cs+1 and F-1
Cesium Fluoride
1.
AlCl3
Al+3 and Cl-1
Aluminum Chloride
2.
MgI2
Mg+2 and I-1
Magnesium Iodide
3.
KCl
K+1 and Cl-1
Potassium Chloride
4.
Sc2S3
Sc+3 and S-2
Scandium Sulfide
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium (II)
Chromium
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Chromium (II)
Chromium (III)
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Chromium (II)
Chromium (III)
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper (I)
Copper
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Chromium (II)
Chromium (III)
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Copper (I)
Copper (II)
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Chromium (II)
Chromium (III)
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Copper (I)
Copper (II)
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold (I)
Au+1
Au+3
Gold
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
Contain metal atoms that can form 2 or more cations.
Atom
Ions
Symbol
Chromium
Chromium (II)
Chromium (III)
Cr+2
Cr+3
Copper
Copper (I)
Copper (II)
Cu+1
Cu+2
Gold
Gold (I)
Gold (III)
Au+1
Au+3
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
 Naming Rules
1.
2.
Name cation (metal) first and then the anion
(non-metal) second.
Use Roman numeral after the cation’s name to
indicate the charge.
 Ni+2  Nickel (II) Ion
 Ni+3  Nickel (III) Ion
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
 Naming Rules
3. Name the anion as in Type I ions.
 Take the root of the atom and change the ending to –ide.
As before sometimes the root gets more modification.
 P-3  Phosphide Ion
 Br -1  Bromide Ion
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
 How do know to use the Roman Numerals?


Look on you Periodic Table (from the bookstore).
If the METAL atom shows more than one
possible cation charge you must use a Roman
Numeral in the NAME.
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
 How do we know which charge it is?


Know that the cation (positive) charge must
balance the total anion (negative) charge.
Examples:
1.
FeCl2
2.
PbO2
Type II Binary Ionic
Compounds
 Another system (not used much anymore) for
naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
exists.


Ion form with the higher charge has the name
ending in –ic.
Ion form with the lower charge has the name
ending in –ous.
 We will use the Roman Numeral System but
you may at times see the other system.
Binary Compounds –
Categories
 Compounds that contain a metal and a non-
metal


Type I – Cation formed has only 1 possible
charge.
Type II – Cation formed has 2 or more possible
charges.
 Compounds that contain only non-metals –

Type III Binary Compounds
Type III Binary Compounds
 Contain ONLY NON-METALS
 Rules for naming!
1.
2.
3.
1st element in the formula is named first and full
element name is used.
2nd element is named as if it were an anion (-ide
ending)
Prefixes are used to describe the number of
atoms present.
Type III Binary Compounds
Prefixes





1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
monoditritetrapenta-
6 =
 7 =
 8 =
 9 =
 10=

hexaheptaoctanonadeca-
Type III Binary Compounds
 Rules for naming! (Continued)
4.
5.

Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element.
Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an
element that starts with the vowel – O or A
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
N3S5
P7O9
S2O
CO6
Type III Binary Compounds
 Rules for naming! (Continued)
4.
5.

Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element.
Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an
element that starts with the vowel – O or A
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
N3S5
P7O9
S2O
CO6
Trinitrogen pentasulfide
Type III Binary Compounds
 Rules for naming! (Continued)
4.
5.

Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element.
Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an
element that starts with the vowel – O or A
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
N3S5
P7O9
S2O
CO6
Trinitrogen pentasulfide
Heptaphosphorus nonoxide
Type III Binary Compounds
 Rules for naming! (Continued)
4.
5.

Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element.
Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an
element that starts with the vowel – O or A
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
N3S5
P7O9
S2O
CO6
Trinitrogen pentasulfide
Heptaphosphorus nonoxide
Disulfur monoxide
Type III Binary Compounds
 Rules for naming! (Continued)
4.
5.

Never use the prefix mono- in naming the first element.
Drop the ending o or a ending on a prefix before an
element that starts with the vowel – O or A
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
N3S5
P7O9
S2O
CO6
Trinitrogen pentasulfide
Heptaphosphorus nonoxide
Disulfur monoxide
Carbon hexoxide
Writing Formulas
 For Type I and Type II Compounds
1.
Determine the charge on the ions present.
a.
b.
2.
For type II compounds the roman numeral gives
you the charge of the cation.
For Type I compounds the position on the periodic
table helps you determine the charge.
Use subscripts for each atom so that the total
charge on the compound is zero.
Writing Formulas
 For Type III – (identified because they are both
non-metals)
1.
2.
Use the prefixes to determine the subscripts.
Remember that the subscript for the first element
is 1 if there isn’t any prefix
Writing Formulas
 Practice Problems- Identify the type and then
write the formula.
1.
Sodium phosphide
2.
Tricarbon tetroxide.
3.
Lithium selenide
Writing Formulas
 Practice Problems- Identify the type and then
write the formula.
4.
Iron (III) sulfide
5.
Aluminum iodide
6.
Boron octafluoride
Writing Formulas
 Practice Problems- Identify the type and then
write the formula.
7.
Manganese (VII) phosphide
8.
Diphosphorous monoxide
9.
Chromium (III) nitride
Type IV - Compounds
 Identified because
They contain more than two elements.
 A POLYATOMIC ion (ion made of 2 or
more different atoms) is present

Type IV - Compounds
 How is it named?
Locate the polyatomic ion and name it the
name of the ion.
 Follow the rules for the other ion

 as
an anion or as a cation with one or more
charges.
 Type I or Type II Rules Apply for it.
Type IV - Compounds
 Oxyanions

A series of polyatomic anions that contain an
atom of a given element and different numbers
of oxygen atoms.
Type IV - Compounds
 Oxyanions

There are rules for naming it.
The smaller number of oxygen atoms is – ite
 SO3-2 = Sulfite
 PO3-3 = Phosphite
The larger number of oxygen atoms is – ate
 SO4-2 = Sulfate
 PO4-3 = Phosphate
Type IV - Compounds
 Oxyanions (continued)
more than two anions – hypo (less than)
as the smallest and – per (more than) as the
largest.
 ClO-1 = hypochlorite
 ClO2-1 = chlorite
 ClO3-1 = chlorate
 ClO4-1 = perchlorate
For
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
(NH4)3P
Al(CN)3
Fe2(SO4)3
Ca(OH)2
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P
Al(CN)3
Fe2(SO4)3
Ca(OH)2
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
Fe2(SO4)3
Ca(OH)2
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3
Ca(OH)2
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3 =
Ca(OH)2
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Iron (III) sulfate
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3 =
Ca(OH)2 =
Pb(CO3)2
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Iron (III) sulfate
Calcium hydroxide
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3 =
Ca(OH)2 =
Pb(CO3)2 =
MgCrO4
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Iron (III) sulfate
Calcium hydroxide
Lead (IV) Carbonate
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3 =
Ca(OH)2 =
Pb(CO3)2 =
MgCrO4
=
(NH4)3PO3
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Iron (III) sulfate
Calcium hydroxide
Lead (IV) Carbonate
Magnesium chromate
Type IV - Compounds
 Practice








NaOH
=
(NH4)3P =
Al(CN)3
=
Fe2(SO4)3 =
Ca(OH)2 =
Pb(CO3)2 =
MgCrO4
=
(NH4)3PO3 =
Sodium hydroxide
Ammonium phosphide
Aluminum cyanide
Iron (III) sulfate
Calcium hydroxide
Lead (IV) Carbonate
Magnesium chromate
Ammonium phosphite
Acids
Acids are molecules that
produce H+1 (protons) in
water.
Naming Acids
1. If the anion does not contain oxygen,
the acid is named with the prefix –
hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the
root name for the element.
HCl =
HBr =
H2S =
Naming Acids
1. If the anion does not contain oxygen,
the acid is named with the prefix –
hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the
root name for the element.
HCl = hydrochloric acid
HBr =
H2S =
Naming Acids
1. If the anion does not contain oxygen,
the acid is named with the prefix –
hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the
root name for the element.
HCl = hydrochloric acid
HBr = hydrobromic acid
H2S =
Naming Acids
1. If the anion does not contain oxygen,
the acid is named with the prefix –
hydro and the suffix – ic attached to the
root name for the element.
HCl = hydrochloric acid
HBr = hydrobromic acid
H2S = hydrosulfuric acid
Naming Acids (continued)
2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name
is formed from the root name and the central
element of the anion or the anion name with a
suffix of –ic or –ous.
Naming Acids (continued)
2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name
is formed from the root name and the central
element of the anion or the anion name with a
suffix of –ic or –ous.
a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix
–ic is used
H2SO4 =
Naming Acids (continued)
2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name
is formed from the root name and the central
element of the anion or the anion name with a
suffix of –ic or –ous.
a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix
–ic is used
H2SO4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate)
Naming Acids (continued)
2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name
is formed from the root name and the central
element of the anion or the anion name with a
suffix of –ic or –ous.
a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix
–ic is used
H2SO4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate)
b. When the anion name ends in –ite, the suffix –
ous is used.
HNO2 =
Naming Acids (continued)
2. When the anion contains oxygen, the acid name
is formed from the root name and the central
element of the anion or the anion name with a
suffix of –ic or –ous.
a. When the anion names ends in –ate, the suffix
–ic is used
H2SO4 = Sulfuric acid (from sulfate)
b. When the anion name ends in –ite, the suffix –
ous is used.
HNO2 = Nitrous acid (from nitrite)
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
=
=
=
=
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
=
=
=
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
= Hydrofluoric Acid
=
=
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
= Hydrofluoric Acid
= Hydroiodic Acid
=
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
= Hydrofluoric Acid
= Hydroiodic Acid
= Sulfuric Acid
=
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
= Hydrofluoric Acid
= Hydroiodic Acid
= Sulfuric Acid
= Phosphoric Acid
=
Naming Acids (continued)

You should memorize the following
strong acids







HCl
HBr
HF
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3
= Hydrochloric Acid
= Hydrobromic Acid
= Hydrofluoric Acid
= Hydroiodic Acid
= Sulfuric Acid
= Phosphoric Acid
= Nitric Acid

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