Review of Concepts from 9th Grade Science

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Section Outline
Section 2-1
•
2–1 The
Nature of Matter
A. Atoms
B. Elements and Isotopes
1. Isotopes
2. Radioactive Isotopes
C. Chemical Compounds
D. Chemical Bonds
1. Ionic Bonds
2. Covalent Bonds
3. Van der Waals Forces
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Matter –Anything that has mass and occupies
space
•1 The basic unit of matter is called
the_____.
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Matter –Anything that has mass and occupies
space
•1 The basic unit of matter is called the atom.
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Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
2, 3 Atomic __________________(electron clouds, nuclei) contain
_________ and _________. (protons, electrons, neutrons).
(+, -, 0)charge
size (0.0005 amu, 1 amu) where (nucleus, e cloud)
•Protons
___ charge
size _____
Where? ________
•Neutrons
___ charge
size ____
Where? ________
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•Electrons
___ charge
size ____
Where? ________
Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
•2, 3 Atomic Nuclei contain protons and neutrons.
•Protons
1+ charge
size 1 amu
•Neutrons
0 charge
size 1 amu
•Electrons
1- charge
size 1/1840 =0.0005amu
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6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
nucleus
nucleus
el cloud
4 Atoms are neutral because they contain the same #
of _________ & protons
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4 Atoms are neutral because they contain the same #
of electrons & protons.
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5 Chemical elements are groups of atoms having the same
atomic number, that is, atoms having the same
number__________. The number of protons in an atom
control its identity as an element.
These are all atoms of Carbon. All have atomic #_____.
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5 Chemical elements are groups of atoms having the
same atomic number, that is, atoms having the same
number protons. The number of protons in an atom
control its identity as an element.
These are all atoms of Carbon. All have atomic # 6.
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An Element in the Periodic Table
Section 2-1
6
C
12.011
•6.
Proton # = 6 : shown by the ____________ number
•
•Also, C atoms have 6 electrons: Since atoms are neutral, if
you know proton #, you also know ___________ #!
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An Element in the Periodic Table
Section 2-1
6
C
12.011
•6.
Proton # = 6 : shown by the atomic number
•
•Also, C atoms have 6 electrons: Since atoms are neutral, if
you know proton #, you also know electron #!
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Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
•7 Isotopes are forms of the same element that
have the same number of protons but a different
number of _____________ (electrons, neutrons).
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Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
•7 Isotopes are forms of the same element that
have the same number of protons but a different
number of neutrons.
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Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
8 Isotopes are identified by isotopic notation:
Names Carbon-12, carbon-______, carbon-14 OR
14C
• 12C
C
6
6
• 6
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Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
8 Isotopes are identified by isotopic notation:
Names Carbon-12, carbon-13, carbon-14 OR
13C
14C
• 12C
6
6
• 6
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9 Isotopes of the same element have the
same properties because they have the same
atomic number--the same number
___________(electrons, neutrons, protons).
For C isotopes, this is _____ .
•
•
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12
C
6
13
C
6
14
C
6
9 Isotopes of the same element have the
same properties because they have the same
atomic number (the same number protons).
For C isotopes, this is six protons.
•
•
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12
C
6
13
C
6
14
C
6
10 Chemical compounds are groups of atoms held
together by chemical ________. Chemical
compounds are more stable than individual atoms
(except for n_______ gas atoms like Ne or Xe)
which have stable –filled—valence electron shells.
•Chemical compounds allow atoms to obey the
“_________ rule”. (2 electrons in the outer electron
shell in H and He, but 8 for other elements.)
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10 Chemical compounds are groups of atoms held
together by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds
are more stable than individual atoms (except for
noble gas atoms which have stable ---filled—
valence electron shells.
•Chemical compounds allow atoms to obey the “octet
rule”. (2 electrons in the outer electron shell in H and
He, but 8 for other elements.
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11 The position of an element in a group/family—
column—of the periodic table reveals it # valence or
___________ (lowest, highest) energy level electrons.
These valence electrons control its chemical reactions.
Members of family 16 have ___ valence electrons.
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11 The position of an element in a group/family—
column—of the periodic table reveals it # valence
or highest energy level electrons. These valence
electrons control its chemical reactions. Members
of family 16 have 4 valence electrons.
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12 The periodic table row (period) of an element reveals
which of its energy levels is its valence shell. The valence
shell for H is the ____ (1st, 2nd, 3rd) energy level, but for Al,
it’s the ______, while for C it’s the _____.
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12 The periodic table row (period) of an element reveals
which of its energy levels is its valence shell. The valence
shell for H is the 1st energy level, but for Al, it’s the 3rd,
while for C it’s the 2nd.
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13 Pure elements are rare because
most atoms under chemical reactions
to attain a valence energy level octet.
Carbon C and other members of family 16 have
_____ valence electrons, but to be stable they
need ______ more valence electrons.
Oxygen O and other members of family 17 have
_____ valence electrons, but to be stable, they
need _________ more valence electrons.
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13 Pure elements are rare because
most atoms under chemical reactions
to attain a valence energy level octet.
Carbon C and other members of family 16 have four
valence electrons, but to be stable they need four
more valence electrons.
Oxygen O and other members of family 17 have
seven valence electrons, but to be stable, they
need one more valence electron.
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14 C_________ f_________ show the numbers of different
kinds of atoms bonded together in a single formula unit of a
compound
•Al2O3
2 Al ions bonded to 3 O ions
•NaCl
______ Na ion bonded to one Cl ion
•Why do we know it’s composed of ions?
Because Na is a _______—an electron donor—
and Cl is a __________—an electron acceptor –If
a metal is present to give it an electron.
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14 Chemical formulas show the numbers of different kinds
of atoms bonded together in a single formula unit of a
compound
•NaCl
one Na ion bonded to one Cl ion
•Why do we know it’s composed of ions?
Because Na is a metal—an electron donor—and
Cl is a nonmetal—an electron acceptor if a metal
is present to give it an electron.
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15 Atoms in compounds are held together by
chemical bonds—either i______ or c_______.
Covalent compounds
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15 Atoms in compounds are held together by
chemical bonds—either ionic or covalent.
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Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding
16 Ionic bonds:
attraction of negative ions to positive
ions because a metal donates its __________ to a nonmetal atom,
forming stable ions with complete _________ shell octets.
Section 2-1
Sodium ion (Na+)
Sodium atom (Na)
Chloride ion (Cl-)
Chlorine atom (Cl)
Transfer
of electron
Protons +11
Electrons -11
Charge
0
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Protons +17
Electrons -17
Charge
0
Protons +11
Electrons -10
Charge
+1
Protons +17
Electrons -18
Charge
-1
Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding
16 Ionic bonds:
attraction of negative ions to positive
Section 2-1
ions because
a metal donates its electrons to a nonmetal atom,
forming stable ions with complete valence shell octets.
Sodium ion (Na+)
Sodium atom (Na)
Chloride ion (Cl-)
Chlorine atom (Cl)
Transfer
of electron
Protons +11
Electrons -11
Charge
0
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Protons +17
Electrons -17
Charge
0
Protons +11
Electrons -10
Charge
+1
Protons +17
Electrons -18
Charge
-1
17 _________ bonds form when nonmetal atoms share electrons to fill
their valence o_______, linking atoms because both nuclei attract the
shared electrons. The dots around the nuclei of each atom represent
___________ __________. The dots in between two nuceli in the
formulas are ________________ by the two atoms. The formulas for
the c_________ compounds formed below are _____, ______, ______,
and ________.
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17 Covalent bonds form when nonmetal atoms share
electrons to fill their valence octets, linking atoms because
both nuclei attract the shared electrons. The dots around
the nuclei of each atom represent valence electrons. The
dots in between two nuceli in the formulas are shared by the
two atoms. The formulas for the covalent compounds
formed below are H2, F2, CO2, and CF4.
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Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding
18 _____are atoms carrying a charge
Section 2-1
after losing or gaining valence electrons.
Sodium atom (Na)
Chlorine atom (Cl)
Sodium ion (Na+)
Chloride ion (Cl-)
Transfer
of electron
Protons +11
Electrons -11
Charge
0
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Protons +17
Electrons -17
Charge
0
Protons +11
Electrons -10
Charge
+1
Protons +17
Electrons -18
Charge
-1
Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding
18 Ions are atoms carrying a charge after
losing or gaining valence electrons.
Section 2-1
Sodium atom (Na)
Chlorine atom (Cl)
Sodium ion (Na+)
Chloride ion (Cl-)
Transfer
of electron
Protons +11
Electrons -11
Charge
0
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Protons +17
Electrons -17
Charge
0
Protons +11
Electrons -10
Charge
+1
Protons +17
Electrons -18
Charge
-1
19. True orFalse. ______Atom that loses
electrons becomes a positive ion. (sodium
atoms have 11 protons in the nucleus and 11
neutrons and 11 electrons. Sodium ions have 11
protons, 11 neutrons, and 10 electrons).
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19True orFalse. True_Atom that loses electrons
becomes a positive ion. (sodium atoms have 11 protons
in the nucleus and 11 neutrons and 11 electrons.
Sodium ions have 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and 10
electrons).
Sodium
atom Na
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Chlorine
atom Cl
sodium ion
Na1+
chlorine ion
Cl1-
20. True orFalse. _________Nonmetal atoms that gain
electrons becomes positive ions. (chlorine atoms have
17 protons in the nucleus and 18 neutrons and 11
electrons. Chlorine ions have 17 protons, 18 neutrons,
and 18 electrons).
Sodium
atom Na
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Chlorine
atom Cl
sodium ion
Na1+
chlorine ion
Cl1-
20. FALSE Nonmetal atoms that gain electrons
becomes positive ions. (chlorine atoms have 17 protons
in the nucleus and 18 neutrons and 11 electrons.
Chlorine ions have 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 18
electrons).
Sodium
atom Na
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Chlorine
atom Cl
sodium ion
Na1+
chlorine ion
Cl1-
21. When ionic compounds form, _______ (metals
or nonmetals) lose electrons to become
__________ (negative or positive) ions because
they have ______ (lower or higher)
electronegativity than the __________(metals or
nonmetals) which take the electrons to become
____________(negative or positive) ions.
Na
Cl
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Na1+ Cl1-
21. When ionic compounds form, metals lose
electrons to become positive ions because they have
lower electronegativity than the nonmetals which
take the electrons to become negative ions.
Metals
nonmetals
Na
Cl
Na1+ Cl1-
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17 M__________ (Not ionic compounds!)
form when atoms are joined with covalent
bonds.
Covalent bonds form when nonmetals react
together. These bonds form between two
atoms sharing electrons.
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17 Molecules (Not ionic compounds!) form
when atoms are joined with covalent bonds.
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18 _____ (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) shared electrons
between 2 atoms forms a single covalent bond. ___
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) shared electrons is a double
covalent bond. _____ (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8) shared
electrons is a triple covalent bond
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http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4f
v/page/covalent_bonds.html
18 Two shared electrons between 2 atoms
forms a single covalent bond. Four shared
electrons is a double covalent bond. Six
shared electrons is a triple covalent bond
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http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4f
v/page/covalent_bonds.html
19. In covalent compounds,
electrons are shared equally in
each covalent bond if the atoms
have similar electronegativity.
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19 Van Der Waals forces for nonpolar covalent
compounds and dipole-dipole interactions for polar
covalent compounds hold atoms of nearby molecules
together.
•Occasionally, valence electrons are nearer one
atom than the other in a covalent bond, creating
areas partial charge.
http://www.chem.unsw.edu.au/coursenotes/CHEM1/nonunipass/Haine
sIMF/images/dipoledipole.jpg
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