CE 510 Hazardous Waste Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Southern Illinois University Carbondale Instructors: Jemil Yesuf Dr. L.R. Chevalier Lecture 2: Nomenclature Course Goals Review the history and impact of environmental laws in the United States Understand the terminology, nomenclature, and significance of properties of hazardous wastes and hazardous materials Develop strategies to find information of nomenclature, transport and behavior, and toxicity for hazardous compounds Elucidate procedures for describing, assessing, and sampling hazardous wastes at industrial facilities and contaminated sites Predict the behavior of hazardous chemicals in surface impoundments, soils, groundwater and treatment systems Assess the toxicity and risk associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals Apply scientific principles and process designs of hazardous wastes management, remediation and treatment Naming Alkanes Name of Compound Number of Carbons Name of Compound Number of Carbons Methane 1 Undecane 11 Ethane 2 Dodecane 12 Propane 3 Tridecane 13 Butane 4 Tetradecane 14 Pentane 5 Pentadecane 15 Hexane 6 Hexadecane 16 Heptane 7 Heptadecane 17 Octane 8 Octadecane 18 Nonane 9 Nonadecane 19 Decane 10 Eicosane 20 Formula: CnH2n+2 Naming Alkyl Group Lacks one hydrogen atom relative to the parent molecule -CH3 methyl -CH2-CH3 ethyl Isomers Empirical Formula ---Chemical Formula---Structure ratio Number of each atom i.e. Glucose CH2O is the empirical formula C6H12O6 is the chemical formula Isomers Empirical Formula ---Chemical Formula---Structure - - -C-C-C-C-C- pentane isomers - - -C-C-C-C-C- 2-methylbutane - - -C- -C-C-C-C- 2,2-dimethylpropane - Isomers Isomers – Alkyl Groups -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 - CH3 -CH-CH2-CH3 n-butyl (n for normal or straight chain) sec-butyl bonding to the parent compound occurs from the second carbon from the end of the group Isomers – Alkyl Groups - CH3 -CH2-CH-CH3 - CH3 - -C-CH3 CH3 iso-butyl last two carbons are branched tert-butyl attachment carbon is bonded to the other carbons Isomers – Alkyl Groups Rules for Naming International Union of Pure and Applied Chemist, IUPAC Chemical Abstract System, CAS Rules for Naming Rules for Naming Class Exercise Text Problems Class Exercise Text Problems Solution 1a n-octane 1b 2-methylpropane 1c 2-dimethylpropane 1d 2,5-dimethylheptane 1e 3,4,7-trimethyl-6-isopropylnonane Solution 1f 7-ethyl-3,4,4,5,-tetramethyl-6-isopropyldecane 1g 6-tert-butyl-3,4,4,5-tetramethylnonane 1h 9-tert-butyl-7-ethyl-3,4,4,5,11-pentamethyl-6isopropylpentadecane Substitute Prefix Br Bromo- - Substitute Groups Cl Chloro- CH3-CH-CH3 F Fluoro- I Iodo- NH2 Amino- NO2 Nitro- Cl Isopropyl chloride 2-chloropropane Alkenes CnH2n Carbon-carbon double bond Ethene or Ethylene C = 2 H = 2(2)=4 H H C C H H Alkenes Class Exercise Solution 2,4-Dimethyl-1-pentene 6-methyl-cis-3-heptene Aromatic Compounds Often depicted by alternating single and double bonds between carbon atoms joined in a ring. The most common is benzene: Benzene NO2 Nitrobenzene Substitute Prefix Br Bromo- Cl Chloro- F Fluoro- I Iodo- NH2 Amino- NO2 Nitro- Benzene Some mono-substituted benzenes that are common hazardous waste have traditional names for which there is no systematic basis. OH CH3 phenol toluene NH2 aniline COOH benzoic acid Benzene Two or more groups on benzene ring Cl Cl Cl o- diclorobenze ortho-diclorobenzene 1,2-diclorobenzene Cl p- diclorobenze para-diclorobenzene Cl m- diclorobenze meta-diclorobenzene Cl Special di-substituted benzenes CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 o-xylene (1,2-xylene) m-xylene (1,3-xylene) CH3 p-xylene (1,4-xylene) Special di-substituted benzenes Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Two or more benzene rings sharing a pair of carbon atoms Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNA) PAHs Formed as a contaminant in incomplete combustion Fly ash Residues of incineration Found in heavier fraction of petroleum products Lubricating oils Asphalt Cigarette smoke Barbeque PAHs Major source of contamination has been manufactured gas plants Residential Industrial 1000 plants in operation in early 1900’s Soil and sludges around plants are difficult to remediate PAHs 35 IUPAC prescribed compounds Rules for naming Table 2.7 p. 70 Table 2.8 p. 74 PAHs PAHs PAHs PAHs PAHs Rules for PAHs PAH’s and Their Characteristics Class Problem Text problem 2.3 a-h Solution 1,2-xylene (o-xylene) benzo[a]anthracene anthracene toluene p-cresol phenanthrene 1,2,4,-trimethylbenzene pyrene Industrial Uses Petroleum Solvents Pesticides Nuclear Petroleum Contamination LUST Gasoline Home fuel oil Central storage tanks (fuel farms) Unintentional releases Oil rig blowouts Pipeline ruptures Petroleum Phases Natural gas Petroleum Crude oil Asphalt Petroleum Products gasoline Fuels fuel oil diesel Petroleum Petrochemical Feedstock solvents plasticizers Concentration of BTEX Compound Weight % in Gasoline Toxic Effect Benzene 0.12-3.50 Leukemia Toluene 2.73-21.80 Neurotoxicity Ethylbenzene 0.35-2.86 Neurotoxicity o-xylene 0.68-2.86 Neurotoxicity m-xylene 1.77-3.87 Neurotoxicity p-xylene 0.77-1.58 Neurotoxicity Total 6.43-36.47 Nonholgenated Solvents Used by industry for “cold cleaning” Metal degreasing Parts cleaning Paint stripping Paints Varnishes Printing Inks Nonholgenated Solvents Hydrocarbons Fraction of petroleum are solvents mineral spirits Additional hydrocarbon solvents Toluene, turpentine Also used as a starting material for the synthesis of polymers Ketones Alcohols Ketones General Formula = O = O R-C-R R-C-R' Here R and R’ are different alkyl groups Naming ketones involves naming each alkyl group and adding ketone to the end. The alkyl groups should be in alphabetic order. Alcohols Use the hydroxyl group –OH In IUPAC naming, the –ane of the alkane is replaced by –anol. In common naming, the term alcohol is added to the alkyl radical to name the compound. Halogenated Solvents Characteristics compared to Nonhalogenated Solvents Lower flammability Higher density Higher viscosity Improved solvent properties High tech pollutant Highly soluble in groundwater Low degradability Common Halogenated Solvents Methylene chloride Dichloromethane (IUPAC) Paint stripper Decaffeination H Cl-C-Cl Cl Chloroform Trichloromethane (IUPAC) Dry cleaning spot remover Cl Cl-C-Cl Cl Carbon tetrachloride Tetrachloromethane (IUPAC) Dry cleaning Fire extinguishers Banned for toxicity 70’s - - - - - - H H-C-Cl Cl Common Halogenated Solvents - - Cl Cl-C-CH3 Cl Cl 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) H C=C Cl Cl Cl Cl PCE Tetrachlorethene (IUPAC) C=C Cl TCE Trichloroethene (IUPAC) Cl Excellent degreaser Low toxicity relative to other chlorinated solvents Vapor degreaser nonflammable, slowly oxidized Dry cleaning Pesticides Over 900 different pesticides used in US 25,000 different trade names 500,000 tons applied to crops each year in US Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Pesticides Debate Improved public health Increased food production Disease vector reduction Degradation of environment DDT 1000’s of hazardous waste sites resulting from improper disposal Explosives Primary uses Mining Quarry Highway construction Demolition Military Problems with manufacturing and storage Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCB Heat-stable oils Transformers Hydraulic fluids Toxic Control Act Congress banned manufacture and limited distribution Still present in thousands of transformers, capacitors, and other electrical devises such as motors in refrigerators and freezers Metals 65 elements 30 widely used by industry Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, mercury, cyanides, asbestos Conducts electricity High density High thermal conductivity Malleability and ductility Most common source of hazardous waste from electroplating industry Nuclear Waste Waste management regulated by Nuclear Regulatory Commission Mixed hazardous waste and nuclear sites are regulated under RCRA Rocky Flats, CO Hanford, WA Maxey Flats, KY Nuclear Chemistry Simple but adequate model of an atom The nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons Nucleus containing uncharged neutrons and positively charged protons The atomic number of the atom is the number of protons Nuclear Chemistry 235 92 U Uranium-235 238 92 U Uranium-238 The mass number is the number of protons and neutrons. Elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers are isotopes Class Problem What elements are described by the following nuclear states? 214 82 X 131 53 X 226 88 X Solution 214 82 X Lead 131 53 X Iodine 226 88 X Radium Nuclear Chemistry Some atomic nuclei are unstable Also termed radioactive All elements having more than 83 protons are naturally radioactive Possible to produce unstable isotopes, or radionuclides, or virtually every element in the periodic table Spontaneous changes form radiation Alpha, beta and gamma Nuclear Chemistry Alpha radiation: two protons and two neutrons are emitted from the nucleus 2 protons 2 neutrons 239 94 Reduces the atomic number by 2 Reduces the mass number by 4 Pu U 235 92 4 2 Nuclear Chemistry Reduction in mass number 239 94 Pu U Reduction in atomic number 235 92 4 2 Emitted alpha particle as well as electromagnetic radiation, Nuclear Chemistry 239 94 Pu U 235 92 4 2 Alpha particle can be stopped by skin, but dangerous if inhaled. Nuclear Chemistry Electrons can be emitted from an unstable nucleus as a result of the spontaneous transformation of a neutron into a proton plus an electron. 90 38 Sr Y 90 39 Nuclear Chemistry The mass number remains constant 90 38 Beta (and possibly gamma) particles are released Sr Y 90 39 Note the increase in the atomic number Nuclear Chemistry particles penetrate deeper. Can be stopped with 1 cm lead. Gamma rays highly energetic. Easily cause biological damage. 90 38 Sr Y 90 39 Dangers of Radiation Molecules become unstable Breakage of chemical bonds Molecular damage Formation of new molecules that did not exist before irradiation Low level exposure can cause somatic and/or genetic damage on a slow time scale Decay Process Series of steps Reduce atomic number (-2) and mass number (-4) Increase atomic number (+1) Consider Radon Causes lung cancer Chemically inert gas that seeps out of soil and may accumulate in houses Intermediate product of naturally occurring decay chain Starts with uranium-238 Ends with lead Decay Process Decay Process Series of steps Reduce atomic number (-2) and mass number (-4) Increase atomic number (+1) Compare to Figure 2.13 p. 130 Source of figure: G.M. Masters, Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 1997, Prentice Hall. Class Problem For each step in the following decay chain, list the particles emitted 214 84 Po Pb Bi Po Pb 210 82 210 83 210 84 206 82 Solution 214 84 Po Pb Bi Po Pb 214 84 Po Pb 210 82 Pb210 83 Bi 210 83 Bi210 84 Po 210 84 Po Pb 210 82 210 82 206 82 210 83 4 2 4 2 210 84 206 82 Half-Life An important parameter in characterizing radioactive material Time for the decay process to reduce mass by 50% Wide range of values Br 6.4 minutes 238U 4.51 x 109 years 78 Information Source Contaminant Nomenclature, Structure and Properties Merck Index Most widely accepted first-cut reference Merck Index 2145. p-Chlorobenzotrifluoride. [98-56-6] 1-Chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene; (4chlorophenyl)trifluoromethane; PCBTF; 4-chloro-a,a,a-trifluorotoluene; Oxsol 100. C7 H4 ClF3 ; mol wt 180.56. C 46.56%, H 2.23%, Cl 19.64%, F 31.57%. Environmentally friendly solvent. Prepn: H. S. Booth et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 2066 (1935). Mass spectrum: F. Belsito et al., Ann. Chim. 69, 259 (1979). Photochemical reactivity: M. Khan et al., Atmos. Environ. 33, 1085 (1999). Use as chemical intermediate: E. R. Lavagnino et al., Org. Prep. Proced. Int. 11, 23 (1979); M. Beller, A. Zapf, Synlett 1998, 792. GLC/MS determn in fish: M. P. Yurawecz, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 62, 36 (1979). Tox-icology: P. E. Newton et al., Inhalation Toxicol. 10, 33 (1998). Review: C. H. Hare, Mod. Paint Coat. 88, 30-36 (1998). CF3 Cl Liquid, strong though not unpleasant aromatic odor. bp 1398. Freezing pt: 7368.mp7348. Flash point (closed cup): 1098F (438C). D 20 1.34 g/cc. d4 25 1.334. nD 21 1.4469. Vapor pressure (208): 5.3 mm Hg. Soly in water (258): 29 ppm. USE: Chemical intermediate for dinitroaniline herbicides, dyes. As dielectric fluid and as solvent. Copyright ©2002 by Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA. All rights reserved. Summary of Important Points and Concepts Because of the thousands of organic chemicals classified as a hazardous waste or hazardous substance, knowledge of organic nomenclature is essential to understanding hazardous waste management Petroleum and its refined products contain hundreds of different organic compounds. One of the common sources of petroleum contamination has been leaking underground storage tanks (LUST) A wide range of chemicals has been used as solvents, including petroleum distillates and benzene Summary of Important Points and Concepts Halogenated solvents have become common groundwater pollutants due to their high densities, relatively high water solubilities and long environmental persistence. Pesticides are agents that destroy insect, plants, fungi and other pest organisms, and include a wide range of toxic organic compounds. PCBs have been used primarily as transformer oils. They are highly hydrophobic and persistent compounds. Summary of Important Points and Concepts Heavy metals commonly present at hazardous wastes include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. They are predominantly used in electroplating. Disposal is a major problem. Nuclear waste are not regulated under RCRA. Mixed waste sites are. The sites at Hanford Washington and Savannah Georgia are the most contaminated of the 14 nuclear weapons facilities in the US Best starting source for information on the nomenclature, structure and industrial uses of most chemicals found in hazardous waste is the Merck Index.