plenary_session_ii_

Report
BIOMETRICS IN ABC:
COUNTER-SPOOFING RESEARCH
Hong Wei, Lulu Chen and James Ferryman
Computational Vision Group
School of Systems Engineering
University of Reading, UK
11th October 2013
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
1
Outline of the presentation
• Introduction
• Research on counter spoofing attacks
– for face
– for fingerprint
– for iris
• Challenges and future research
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Introduction
•
•
•
•
•
ABC requires: fast, secure identity verification.
EU FastPass project (www.fastpass-project.eu):
harmonised, modular reference system for future
European ABC.
Biometrics: face, fingerprint and iris – important for ABC.
Potential vulnerability: sensor-level attacks – “spoofing”.
Counter-spoofing measure: crucial for FastPass.
FastPass
Heavy traffic and pressure at current border control – how to ease these?
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
3
Face
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Face counter spoofing approaches
• Three categories in developing face antispoofing algorithms
− Motion analysis: make use of significant
difference between motions of planar objects
and real face (3D) in optical flow fields.
− Texture analysis: extract image texture
features which reflects difference between
real face and printed or replayed faces.
− Liveness detection: detection of life signs such
as eye blinking, lip movement, etc.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
5
Relevant competitions
• Competitions on counter measures to 2D facial spoofing
attacks
• First with IJCB 2011: 6 teams [Chakka, et al 2011] .
• Second with ICB 2013: 8 teams [Chingovska, et al
2013]
• Participants: academic teams
• Replay-Attack face spoofing database:
• Printed photographs
• Photographs on a mobile device (iPhone / iPad)
• Videos replayed on a mobile device
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
6
Summary of the 2013 competition
Methods used in algorithms development
Team
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Texture
based
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Motion
based
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Liveness
based
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Feature
Score
Score
Feature
Feature
Score
No
No
Fusion
• Database: Replay-Attack Face Spoofing Database
• Teams 1&4 achieved 100% accuracy in both development and test.
• All 8 teams developed highly sophisticated methods, and some
introduced methods beyond the three categories, such as human pulse.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Open issues and challenges
• Facial features:
• Change over time
• Similarity between family members:
e.g. twins, father and son.
• Capture:
• Moving subject
• Efficient sensor-level fusion
(VR+NIR, stereo vision)
• 2D face only: 3D attacks should be
added, e.g. 3D face masks.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Fingerprint
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Fingerprint sensing technologies
 Optical sensors
 Relatively big in size
 In border control, biometric enrolment
 Solid state fingerprint sensors
 Different types, most common: capacitive
 Can be compact
 Sensitive to electrostatic discharges
 Multiple spectral imaging sensor
 3D scanner
 Can be touchless
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
10
Fingerprint counter-spoofing methods
 Solutions: Hardware and Software based
 Hardware:
 Pulse oximetry, smell, temperature, blood pressure,
heart beat etc.
 Requires additional hardware
 Software:
 Perspiration pattern
 Skin distortion
 Pores
 Image quality measure
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
11
Software based
Pore
distribution
Perspiration patterns
Skin distortion
Image quality measure
Real
Fake
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
12
Fingerprint counter-spoofing competitions
 LivDet: Fingerprint Liveness Detection Competition
 Since 2009, every two years
 Software based methods
 Multiple sensors:
• Optical and swipe
 Various reproduction materials:
• Gelatin
• Silicon
• Play-doh
• Latex
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Fingerprint LivDet
Participants
Submissions
Best results (avg. across
datasets)
LivDet 2009
4
4
Dermalog: Ferrfake: 5.4%
Anonymous 2: Ferrlive: 20.1%
LivDet 2011
3
Part I: algorithms 3
Federico: 26.60% Ferrfake
Dermalog: 17.60% Ferrlive
2
Part II: system 2
Dermalog: 0.8% Ferrfake
Greenbi: 38.8% Ferrlive
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Part I: algorithms 11
Dermalog: 1.10% Ferrfake
Federico: 11.96% Ferrlive
Part II: system 2
Morpho: 0.0% Ferrfake
Morpho: 1.4% Ferrlive
LivDet 2013
•
•
Ferrfake: a false acceptance of a spoof image.
Ferrlive: a false rejection of a live subject.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
14
Open issues and challenges
• Various spoofing materials
• Recent approaches:
• Handles certain types well
• Poor performance on other materials
• New methods should:
• Detect and handle all types of spoofing materials
• Combine successful algorithms
• Enable more balanced ferrfake and ferrlive rates
• Touchless fingerprint scan
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
15
Iris
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Iris counter-spoofing approaches
• Spectrographics based: optical properties
• Purkinje reflection
• Retina light reflection: ‘Red eye’ effect
• Image quality measure
• Behaviour based: dynamic properties
• Eye hippus
• Pupil and iris constriction and dilation
• Eyelid blinking
• Other:
• 3D structure
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
17
Iris counter spoofing competitions
• LivDet-Iris: First Liveness Detection-Iris
Competition 2013
• Held by IEEE BTAS Conference (September 29
– October 2, 2013)
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
18
Open issues and challenges
• FastPass:
• Data capturing: involves additional noise
• Small target
• Long-distance
• On-the move
• Illumination, focus
• Research:
• Data collection: lack of data for training
• Lack of standardisation on spoofing experimental
datasets
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
19
Challenges
• Current biometric systems:
– Have counter-spoofing mechanism integrated.
– However, research show vulnerability from spoofing
attacks (e.g. TABULA RASA Spoofing Challenge
2013).
• Arms race: between spoofing and counter-spoofing.
– Spoofing using new technologies, e.g. Hand-held
mobile devices.
• Increased throughput and intuitive user-friendly devices.
• Lack of training data.
• Data interchange format.
• E-Passport storage capacity.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
20
Future of counter spoofing
• Multimodal:
– Increase difficulty to spoof multiple traits.
– Not every person has all biometric features.
• Multi-sensor system:
– Visible range and Near IR
– 2D and 3D
• Combined approaches:
– Handle different types of materials.
• Tackle continuously updated and practised
spoofing attacks.
• Increase difficulty for replication process.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
21
Future research
• Explore and develop new algorithms on counter
spoofing measures and attacks in ABC applications.
• Assemble ABC-specific databases with more realistic
spoofing attacks.
• Create a framework for counter spoofing measures.
• Analyse data fusion effects at a quantitative level:
– At the feature level for a single trait;
– At the decision (score) level for multiple traits;
– Combination of feature fusion and trait fusion;
– Adaptive fusion schemes taking additional
information (quality, thresholds) into account.
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
22
Summary
• ABC demands harmonized capturing devices
adopting international standards
– non intrusive and enable remote biometric capture
– faster, more secure, efficient, seamless
– robust counter spoofing detection
Subject to appropriate legal and ethical controls
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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Thank you.
&
Questions
www.fastpass-project.eu
FRONTEX - 2nd Global Conference and Exhibition on Future Developments of
Automated Border Control (ABC) 10/11 October 2013, Warsaw, Poland
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