CA2018 Attitude - Department of Advertising, Albert Laurence

Report
*Class 15
Attitudes and
Persuasion
CA 2018 Consumer Insight
A.Kwanta Sirivajjanangkul
A.Panitta Kanchanavasita
Albert Laurence School of Communication Arts
Department of Advertising
*
*The Power of Attitudes
*The ABC Model of Attitudes
*Hierarchies of Effects
*How Do We Form Attitudes?
*The Consistency Principle
*Self-Perception Theory
*Social Judgment Theory
*How Do Marketers Change Attitudes?
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1
*Attitude is a lasting, general evaluation of
people (including oneself), objects,
advertisements, or issues.
*We call anything toward which one has an
attitude an attitude object.
*An attitude is lasting because it tends to endure
over time.
*An attitude is general because it applies to more
than a momentary event
1
*
*Psychologist Daniel Katz developed the
functional theory of attitudes to explain
how attitudes facilitate social behavior.
*According to this pragmatic approach,
attitudes exist because they serve some
function for the person
*Two people can each have an attitude
toward object for very different reasons
1
*
* Utilitarian function:
* Pleasure or pain, delicious or not delicious
* Value-expressive function
* What product says about him as a person
* Ego-defensive function
* We form attitudes to protect ourselves either from
external threats or internal feelings
* Knowledge function
* We need order, structure, or meaning
* Only when a person is in ambiguous situation
2
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2
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Affect
How a consumer feels
About an attitude
object
Behavior
Intentions to take
action about it
Cognition
What he believes to
be true about the
attitude object
*** interrelationships among knowing, feeling, and doing
3
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3
*
•
Which comes first: Knowing, feeling, or doing?
•
Each element may lead things off depending on the situation
•
Hierarchies of Effects explain the relative impact of the three
components
Feeling
Affect
Doing
Behavior
Knowing
Cognition
3
*
Knowing
Cognition
Feeling
Affect
Doing
Behavior
Attitude
Based on
cognitive
information
processing
•
Think  Feel  Do
•
A person approaches a product decision as a problem-solving process
3
*
Doing
Behavior
Feeling
Affect
Knowing
Cognition
Attitude
Based on
behavioral
learning
processes
• Do  Feel  Think
• The consumer initially doesn’t have a strong preference for one brand
over another
• The consumer forms an evaluation only after they have bought the
product
• The attitude is to come through behavioral learning
3
*
Feeling
Affect
Doing
Behavior
Knowing
Cognition
Attitude
Based on
hedonic
consumption
• Feel  Think  Do
• The consumers act on the basis of emotional reactions, hedonic
motivations
• Intangible product attributes such as package design, advertising,
And Brand names
4
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4
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* We all have lots of attitudes
* We are not born with the conviction
* Ex. Pepsi is better than Coke
* We forms attitude in several different ways, depending on
the particular hierarchy of effects that operates
* Ex. As in Chapter 3,attitude toward a brand due to classical
conditioning – Pepsi name + a catchy jingle (you are in
Pepsi generation)
* Ex. Due to instrumental conditioning – you take a swig of
Pepsi and it quenches your thirst
4
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Commitment to an attitude; the
degree of commitment relates to the
level of involvement with the
attitude object
4
*
THREE (increasing) levels of commitment:
1.
Compliance
* the lowest involvement, superficial – easy to change
* We form an attitude because it helps us to gain rewards or avoid
punishment
2.
Identification
* We form an attitude to conform to another person’s or group’s
expectations
* Imitating the behavior of desirable models
3.
Internalization
* The high level of involvement, deep seated attitudes, value system
* Very difficult to change because they are so important
5
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5
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*Why does a need to
maintain consistency
among all of our attitudinal
components motivate us to
alter one or more of them?
5
“Pepsi is my favorite soft drink. It
tastes terrible”
5
“I love my boyfriend. He is the biggest
idiot I have ever met”
5
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Principle of Cognitive Consistency
*Harmony among thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
and a need to maintain uniformity among these
elements
*We change our thoughts, feelings, or behaviors to
make them consistent with other experiences
*A big factor is how well they fit with other related
attitudes we already hold
5
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Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
*When a person is confronted with inconsistencies
among attitudes or behaviors, he will take some
action to resolve this “dissonance”
*He perhaps change his attitude or modify his
behavior to restore consistency
*Ex. Conflict between attitudes toward a product or
service and what we actually do or buy
*Postpurchase Dissonance: consumers tend to find
reasons to support for their decisions
5
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* Do we always change our attitudes to be
in line with our behavior because we
are motivated to reduce cognitive
dissonance?
* Observing our own behavior to
determine just what our attitudes are
5
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*The initial attitude acts as a frame of
reference
*We categorize new information in terms of
this existing standard
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6
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* Persuasion – an active attempt to change attitudes
* Basic psychological principles that influence people to change their
minds or comply with a request;
1.
2.
Reciprocity – We are more likely to give if first we receive
3.
Authority – Authoritative source is much more readily than less
authoritative one
4.
Consistency – people try not to contradict themselves in terms of
what they do or say about that issue
5.
Liking – we agree with those we like or admire
Scarcity – Like people, items are more attractive when they are
not available
*Any Questions

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