Behavior Basics: Supporting the Child with Challenging Behaviors

Report
Joanne Nelson, Inclusion Coordinator
Kevin Carraro, Family Resources Administrator
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Operationally define behavior
Importance of Environment
Functions
ABC’s
Data Collection
Proactive vs. reactive strategies
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How do they make you feel?
How does this impact your relationship with a
child and his family?
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Be prepared to support family and staff from
the first day of enrollment
Keep lines of communication open between
program and families
Support and encourage parental involvement
in activities
Learn from family members about their
culture, and home and family life
Caucasian Puerto Rican Filipino
Eat Solid Food
Training Cup
Utensils
Finger Foods
Wean
Sleep by Self
Sleep all Night
Choose Clothes
Dress Self
Play Alone
Toilet Trained Day
Toilet Trained Night
8.2
12.0
17.7
8.9
16.8
13.8
11.4
31.1
38.2
25.0
31.6
33.2
10.1
17.1
26.5
9.4
18.2
14.6
14.5
44.2
44.2
24.8
29.0
31.8
6.7
21.9
32.4
9.5
36.2
38.8
32.4
33.1
39.2
12.3
20.4
34.2
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Share resources with parents about how to
support the child’s development
Share positive things the child did at the
program
Conduct meetings with parents in an
environment and time convenient for them
Assure parents about confidentiality and
privacy rights
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Minimize large open spaces
Minimize obstacles
Have clear boundaries so that children know
where a center begins/ends
Have enough centers for the number of
children and enough materials so that
children are engaged and not continually
arguing over materials
Consider the size and location of centers
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Develop a schedule that promotes child
engagement and success
Balance activities: active and quiet, small and
large group, teacher directed and child
directed
Teach and post a visual schedule
Establish a routine and follow it consistently
When a change is necessary prepare children
ahead of time
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Minimize the number of transitions
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Give a warning before a transition occurs
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Post and teach class rules with visuals
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ANYTHING we SAY or DO:
• Focus on what is observable rather than
intentions
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HOW WE REACT to our environment
Behaviors are LEARNED and continue because
they serve a PURPOSE or FUNCTION
We engage in behaviors because we have
learned that a DESIRED OUTCOME occurs
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Thorough and specific description of behavior
Highly Objective
Measurable
Answer questions…
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Who
When
Where
How long
How often
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The 4 A’s
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Attention
Access
Avoidance/Escape
Automatic/Sensory Stimulation
Behavior Sequences Are Critical.
Simple as ABC!
Antecedent:
what’s going on before a person
engages in a targeted behavior
Behavior: what exactly the person does
Consequence: what happens following an
occurrence of a targeted behavior
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Antecedent: Teacher tells Stewie to clean up
his centers
Behavior: Stewie punches Meg
Consequence: Teacher gives Stewie a cookie
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Antecedents and consequences that
immediately precede and follow behavior are,
ultimately, what affect behavior (and whether
or not the behavior is likely to occur again)
Antecedents and consequences are things we
can change and things we control
Who else present?
What time? Where?
Antecedent
What was said? What
happened
immediately before
the student engaged
in the behavior?
Behavior
What exactly did the
student do?
Consequence
What did you do?
Praise? Scold?
Ignore? Yell? Gave
something? Time-out?
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Most Ethical
Antecedent-based interventions are ways to
prevent/or reduce behavior from occurring.
Examples:
◦ Pre-assignment attention
◦ Moving seats, line order, environmental
manipulations
◦ Frequent breaks and positive attention
◦ Teaching and prompting alternative/incompatible
behaviors
◦ Rehearsal and teaching of Replacement Behaviors
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Change what you do in order to change what they
do.
Be careful of exclusion
Self esteem may become problematic if always
criticized, tell what to do in a positive way.
Get buy in whenever possible
Establish consistent limits and boundaries
Establish enforceable, relevant rules
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Reduce or eliminate attention directed to the inappropriate
behavior, maximize attention given to the replacement
behavior.
◦ Sprick Ratio: 4 positive statements to 1 redirection
◦ hand raising – talk to the student when they raise a quiet hand
◦ Use Pivot Praise – ignore junk behavior, praise students doing the
right thing
◦ consider using “chat breaks”
◦ Pre-Assignment Attention
◦ Give the student a helper job
◦ Remember: Attention is your most valuable reinforcer… Praise is
a limitless, inexpensive and powerful positive consequence for
attention-seeking behavior
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Match the instructional level to the student’s ability level.
Premack Principle – do the least preferred before the
more preferred activity is accessed
Break tasks into smaller steps
Follow through with your directions, Be the Broken
Record!
Use “choice” language
Remind the student to ask for a break upon completion of
some portion of work
Remind the student to ask for help
Intersperse hard tasks with easy ones
Establish consistent routines
Remember, timeout for task escape behavior could result
in a continuation of the inappropriate behaviors!
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Follow the Premack Principle
Allow students to earn things they want, contingent on
following classroom rules.
Star chart, sticker chart or other token systems.
Use “if…then” or “when…then” statements
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Teach alternative behaviors:
◦ Use fidget toys in replacement of hand flapping
◦ Reinforce student for keeping hands in pockets
◦ Build in times for movement
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Enriched environment: high levels of access
to preferred items or activities, lots of
attention
Antecedent-Based Intervention
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Must know why behavior is occurring to
develop an effective intervention plan
When you understand what is happening at
your center and why it is happening, your
team will be able to change how things work
(the system) to increase appropriate behavior
and decrease inappropriate behavior
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Think
◦ Function
◦ ABC’s
◦ Premack Principle- use the most preferred to
get the least preferred accomplished
◦ Sprick Ratio- 4 positive comments for every
1 negative comment

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