Loralee Williams UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Topics What is sonar Snell’s Law Factors for ranges/how it is measured Military history of sonar Passive sonar - types -how it is used UNCLASSIFIED What is sonar? Sonar is actually not a word but an acronym SOund Navigation And Ranging UNCLASSIFIED Snell’s Law Sound is LAZY. It wants to take the slowest route possible. Example: Thunder and Lightning UNCLASSIFIED Factors for Ranges. Temperature Depth/Pressure Salinity 4388 + (11.25 × temperature (in °F)) + (0.0182 × depth (in feet)) + salinity (in parts-per-thousand ) UNCLASSIFIED Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT) UNCLASSIFIED XBT Drop UNCLASSIFIED Sonar and the Military World War I- 1915 passive systems to locate submarines World War II- saw the first active sonar systems 1945- sonobuoys UNCLASSIFIED Passive Sonar UNCLASSIFIED Types of Passive Sonar AN/SQS-53C Hull Mounted Sonar AN/SQR-19 TowedArray Sonar AN/SQQ-28 LAMPS MK III Sonobuoy Processing System AN/AQS-13F Dipping Sonar Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS) UNCLASSIFIED A sound wave turned into a digital picture. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED What can be determined with passive sonar? Blade rate Shaft rate # of blades Cylinder firing rate # of cylinders Power plant Turbine rate ‘Fog horns’ UNCLASSIFIED Waterfall Display Power Plant 50/60 HZ Engine UNCLASSIFIED BIG TROUBLE!!!!!!!!!!! UNCLASSIFIED Review What is sonar Snell’s Law Factors for ranges/how it is measured The military history of sonar Passive sonar - types -how it is used UNCLASSIFIED Work cited Basic Sonar System." Federation of American Scientists. 18 Apr. 2009 <http://www.fas.org/man/dod101/navy/docs/es310/asw_sys/asw_sys.htm>. "MMAD - Products - Kaon Ltd." Home - Kaon Ltd. 19 Apr. 2009 <http://www.kaon.co.uk/mmad.asp>. "NOAA/AOML UOTC What is an XBT?" University of North Carolina Wilmington. 20 Apr. 2009 <http://www.uncwil.edu/CMSR/capefear/tech/XBT.htm>. "Refraction and Snell's Law." 12 Apr. 2009 <http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Ultrasonics/Physics/refractionsnells.htm>. "Review - 688 Submarine Simulation." Easynet Connect - Quality Business Internet Access. 15 Apr. 2009 <http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~ianboys/688rev.htm>. "Sonar -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 17 Apr. 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonar>. "Torpedo Hit (ABC Science)." ABC.net.au. 21 Apr. 2009 <http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2005/09/01/1448475.htm>. "Understanding Sonar." The U.S. Navy. 15 Apr. 2009 <http://www.navy.mil/oceans/sonar.html>.