Addressing Academic Avoidance at Tier 2

Report
Addressing Academic
Avoidance at Tier II
My thanks to: Cynthia M. Anderson, PhD, BCBA-D
University of Oregon
Presented by Lea Brown, KY PBIS Network
Agenda
• Point card interventions—rationale and background
• Point cards within a multi-tiered system
• Tier II interventions—enhancing systems for positive and
durable outcomes
• CICO—a foundation for Tier II interventions
• Breaks are Better
• Academic Behavior CICO
Point Card Interventions in Schools
• Target behaviors operationally defined
• Assessment of student behavior
– Pre-determined times
– Numerical scale with defined values
• Contingencies for target behavior
• Home component
• Robust research base (e.g., Chafoulas et al., 2002, 2005;
Dougherty & Dougherty, 1977; Fabiano et al., 2010;
Schumaker et al., 1977)
• Reliance on home contingencies
• Selection process inconsistent
• Individualized
– Target responses
– Evaluation metric and schedule
– contingencies
Traditional “home-school
notes” may be difficult to
scale up
Tier
I
• Intervention for ALL
students
• Effective: 80% or more meeting
benchmarks
5
5
Tier I
• Intervention
– Explicit instruction
– Opportunities to practice in target settings
– Feedback
• Systems
– Defined and measurable outcomes
– Student progress monitored
– Team-based problem solving, coaching
Considerations
• Simply “having”
Tier I doesn’t guarantee
– Teachers are implementing
– All students have access
• “At risk” students need proactive behavior
management
• Before implementing more intensive support, ask
yourself…
At least 80% of
students are
successful…what
about the rest?
8
8
Tier III
9
9
Tier II
Core
+
Supplemental
10
10
Tier II Interventions
• Match needs of school
• Are implemented rapidly
– Similar across students
Enhance fidelity
– Staff trained in intervention
– Materials on hand
• Match problem
– Intensity
– Mechanism (skill, fluency, or contingency deficit
• Use data-based decision-making
– Who will likely benefit?
– Is the intervention working?
– Next steps
Tier II
Assessm
ent Tool
CHECK-IN/CHECK-OUT:
TIER II BEHAVIOR REPORT CARDS
Student Recommended for CICO
CICO is Implemented
CICO Coordinator
summarizes data
for decision making
Morning
check-in
Parent
feedback
Regular teacher
feedback
Afternoon
check-out
Bi-weekly coordination
Meeting to assess student
progress
• 10 studies to date
• Elementary school (7) & middle school (3)
• Decrease disruptive behavior & enhance
academic engagement (e.g.,Campbell & Anderson, in press;
Fairbanks et al., 2007; Hawken & Horner, 2003; Simonsen et al., 2010;
Todd et al.,2008)
• CICO most effective for students emitting
attention-maintained
behavior (Campbell
Empiricalproblem
Support
& Anderson, 2008; March & Horner, 2007; McIntosh et al., 2009)
ACADEMIC BEHAVIOR CICO
J. Turtura
• Shares several features with CICO
– Morning and afternoon checks in and out
– Daily point card is foundation
– Similar across students receiving intervention
– Data guide decision-making
• Modifications designed to
– Increase structure and feedback around recording
assignments
– Provide specific feedback for academic-related
expectations
– Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day
– Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
Academic Behavior CICO
Components of ABC
•
•
•
•
Morning check-in
Daily feedback sessions
Afternoon check-out
Home session
Morning Check-in
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Is student prepared?
• Are assignments complete?
• Review home note
• Provide point card & tracker
2 points
possible
3 points per
expectation &
1 point for
use
separate tracker
tracker
• Student keeps point card (or
and have student turn in to teacher)
• Student meets academic expectations
• Student completes assignment tracker
• Feedback at end of class period
– Academic expectations
– Homework recorded accurately
Daily Feedback Sessions
Afternoon Check-out
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Review point card--% points earned
– Provide incentives if using
– Positive verbal feedback
• Review homework tracker—plan for work
2 points
completion
possible
• Complete home note
• End with encouragement
Points
Possible
How Points
are Earned
Morning Check-in
2
Student has materials
(1) and work is
complete (1)
Feedback
Up to 3 per
expectation
Meet behavioral and
academic expectations
Homework Tracker
1 per feedback session
Assignments recorded
correctly
2
Attend checkout (1)
and have teacher(s)
signature (1)
Activity
Afternoon Check-out
• Location
• Materials available
– Minimum: pencils, paper, erasers, etc.
– Consider individual items such as textbooks
• Homework completion
– Complete now—get pass to be late to class
– Complete later—receive homework pass
– 3 or Morning
more incompletes
in 2-week period:
consider
Check-in
Logistics
new intervention
Home Component
• Parent workshop first!
Parent Workshop
•
•
•
•
•
Approximately 20 min
Overview of ABC
Establishing a homework routine
Planning for long-term projects
Organizing for success
Home Component
• Parents do:
– Review Assignments
– Problem-solve homework completion/study plan
– Complete home note
• Parents do not:
– Complete work for child
– Argue, use continued reminders
– Offer additional incentives or negative consequences
Justin Boyd
BREAKS ARE BETTER
Breaks are Better (BrB)
• Shares several features with CICO
– Morning and afternoon checks in and out
– Daily point card is foundation
– Similar across students receiving intervention
– Data guide decision-making
• Modifications designed to
– Provide specific feedback for academic-related
expectations
– Decrease likelihood of being “set up” for a bad day
– Provide incentives for positive academic behavior
– Provide “replacement skill” to obtain brief break
Morning Check-in
•
•
•
•
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
Is student prepared?
Review home note
Provide point card, timer, & tracker
2 points
possible
•
•
•
•
Daily Feedback Sessions
Student keeps point card
Student meets academic & social behavior expectations
Student takes breaks when needed
Feedback at end of class period
– Meeting expectations
3 points per
– Taking breaks if needed
expectation &
1 point for
tracker use
Afternoon Check-out
Student meets with coordinator/mentor
• Review point card--% points earned
– Provide incentives if using
– Positive verbal feedback
• Complete home note
• Student turns in timer
• End with encouragement
2 points
possible
• Student engages in academic routines
• Student can request a break
• 2 min break
• Specific activities during break
• Student returns to work after break
Breaks are
Bettter
BrB During Academic
Routines
Common Questions/Concerns
• Why should we allow breaks?
• Three breaks is too many!
Points
Possible
How Points
are Earned
Morning Check-in
2
Student attends checkin (1) and has materials
(1)
Feedback
Up to 3 per
expectation
Meet behavioral and
academic expectations
Break Tracker
1 per feedback session
Taking breaks
appropriately if needed
2
Attend checkout (1)
and have teacher(s)
ratings (1)
Activity
Afternoon Check-out
WORK TIME: PLANNING FOR
IMPLEMENTATION
Implementation Planning
•
•
•
•
Planning for ABC and BrB
Developing daily progress report
Progress monitoring
Implementing ABC and BrB
• Selecting coordinator(s)
• Modifying school-wide expectations
Planning for Implementation
•
Intervention
Coordinator
Roles and responsibilities
– Ensure materials are available
– Maintain staff buy-in
– Train teachers, students
– Inform parents
– Monitor outcomes
– Problem-solve
• Key characteristics
– Fluent with ABC or BrB
– Respected by adults and students
– Time and skills to “make things happen”
Coordinator options
• One coordinator for whole school (CICO, BrB, ABC)
• One coordinator for each intervention
• Multiple roles per or across interventions
– One person monitors data and trains across intervention(s)
– One or more individuals perform check in and out
– One or more individuals enter data*
Liberty Elementary School—300
• Counselor
students, 18 on CICO,• 14
on BrB
Counselor
ddddddddd
•
•
•
•
•
Organize Materials
Train staff, student, families
Graph data
Oversee progress monitoring
Check students in and out
• Counselor
• Counselor ddddddddd
• Counselor
•
•
•
•
•
– Program graduate/parent
Oceanside
Middle—520
students
28 on CICO, 24
Organize Materials
volunteer
ccccddddd
on ABC
• Counselor dddddbbbbbddd
Train staff, student, families
Graph data
Oversee progress monitoring
Check students in and out
• IA
• Counselor/IPBS team
• Counselor (12 ABC, 5 “advanced”
CICO) Librarian (12 ABC), CICO:
head receptionist, vice principal,
grandparent volunteer
Action Plan (ABC p 4, BRB p 5)
• Selecting coordinator
• Modifying school-wide expectations
Expectations are…
• Linked to school-wide expectations
• All students have same academic expectations
– Easy to implement
– May not always match each student’s needs
• Students have individualized expectations
– Easier to match student needs
– May reduce fidelity
p. 5 ABC; p 6, BrB
Implementation Planning
•
•
•
•
Planning for ABC
Developing daily progress report
Progress monitoring
Implementing
•
•
•
•
School-wide
expectations
academic
expectations
Designing
DailyAND
Progress
Reports
Age appropriate rating scale
Teacher friendly
Data easy to summarize and determine if goal is met
•
DPR
Variations
to
Consider
Morning check in
– Points tied to specific behaviors?
– Plan if homework isn’t completed
• Daily feedback
– BrB: how many breaks to be allotted?
– ABC: points for assignments after each class (1,0 or 2,1,0)
• Afternoon check out
– Points tied to specific behaviors
– Home component
Workbook (ABC, p 5; BrB, p 6)
Develop Progress Report (Appendix A)
• Modify point card to fit your school
• Homework tracker?
• Rationale: Enhance strength of intervention
• Ideal: Positive adult interaction functions as reinforcer
• Options
– No incentives, just adult contact/relationship
– Add incentive system for all
– Incentives are for participation only
– Students earn incentive for meeting point goal on
4/5 days
– Incentives purchased for varying points
Using Incentives in ABC and BrB
Acknowledgement Ideas
• Small tangible items (e.g., stickers, snack, art
supplies)
• “Secret teacher” note
• Extra time in preferred activity (e.g., library,
computer)
• Seat choice at lunch
• SWPBS points, trip to treasure chest
• Free ticket to school event (e.g., sports game)
• Parking pass for a day
• Lunch with principal or favorite teacher/staff
ABC P 6; BrB P 8
Implementation Planning
•
•
•
•
Planning for ABC
Developing ABC daily progress report
Progress monitoring ABC
Implementing ABC
Data-Based Decision-Making at Tier II
• Standardized assessment/SpEd eligibility
• Group conversations
• Best guess
• Determine progress goals
Monitoring Student Progress
• Identify measurement system
• Set timeline for achieving goals
80% of points for 4 out
of 5 days within two
weeks
Work book p 8
Options for Progress Monitoring
• CICO/SWIS
• IPBS spreadsheet
(http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)
• Make your own spreadsheet
ABC
BrB
Selecting Students for Intervention
• Standard selection criteria
• Consider
–
–
–
–
Students not succeeding on CICO
Students recommended by others
Teacher referral indicates work avoidance
Off-task behavior is key problem
Implementation Planning
•
•
•
•
Planning for ABC
Developing ABC daily progress report
Progress monitoring ABC
Implementing ABC
Introduce ABC to Parents
• ABC Parents Guide
(http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/)
• Hold parent meeting
– Purpose of ABC and why child was selected
– Develop homework routine with parents
– Review positive ways to respond to child when
• Daily goals are or are not met
• Homework is or is not completed
• Provide rationale
• Obtain student buy-in
– Student is eager
– Student uncertain
– Student unwilling
• Student contract (Appendix C, p. 15)
Introduce ABC to Students
GETTING STARTED: A FEW TIPS
What
Notcandidates
to Do
• Start with ALL
possible
• Begin with the most difficult students
• Begin with students of most challenging
teachers
Begin with 3-5 students
 Students and teachers most likely to succeed

Resources
http://coe.uoregon.edu/ipbs/
Click on Tools

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