Verbs - Florida Conference of Seventh

Report
VERBS – Unit 3
7th Grade
By:
Angélica Guerra, MS
Greater Miami Adventist Academy
LESSON COLLATED WITH
Houghton Mifflin – English 7
What is a verb?
The main word in the
predicate / The simple
predicate
KINDS OF VERBS – lesson 1
The are TWO major
kinds of verbs:
ACTION
BEING / LINKING
ACTION VERBS - 1
 What the subject does, has, or feels:
 I cook dinner.
- Ann owns a mac computer.
-Lucy hates Brussel sprouts!
 Action can be:
 PHYSICAL:
can be seen (I eat soup.)
 MENTAL or EMOTIONAL: cannot be seen
(I want a dog. / The boy studies his lesson.)
Make a sentence using action verbs:
BEINGVERBS & LINKINGVERBS
BEING VERBS
 Show what the subject is or
is like.
Ana seems tired.
The janitor was tired.
See and memorize:
common Being Verbs on
page 100
 A BEING verb is often a
LINKING verb – It links
the subject to a word in the
predicate.
 The word it is linked to is
either:
 Predicate Noun
 My mom is a doctor.
 Predicate Adjective
 My mom is tired.
Make a sentence with LINKING &
ACTION verbs:
Some verbs can be either linking verbs or action verbs:
LINKING
ACTION
 The pilot looks young.
 The boy looks at the dog.
 Lucy smelled sweaty.
 I smelled the rose.
•
•
•
•
•
Tell if the verb is ACTION or LINKING:
The new girl has become my friend.
The project appears copied.
The teacher tasted the soup.
It tasted too salty.
Jan feels the surface of the table.
MAIN VERBS & HELPING VERBS - 2
 VERB PHRASE: A verb that is made up of more than ONE
word
 VERB PHRASE is made up of:
 MAIN VERB – the verb that expresses the action or
state of being
 HELPING VERB – one or more verbs that work with
the main verb and don’t show any action or being
EX: Bill has eaten his dinner. / I would have gone
home!
Memorize list of Common Helping Verbs on p. 104.
MAIN VERBS & HELPING VERBS
continuation…
 Some verbs can be a MAIN VERB in one
sentence and a HELPING VERB in another:
 MAIN VB.=
I did my work yesterday.
 HELPING VB. = I did see you at the mall.
 Some time the verb parts may be separated
by interrupting words:
May I go with you? / Should we eat now?
The sun may not come out today.
Make sentences with VERB PHRASES:
SIMPLE VERB TENSES - 3
 Tense identifies WHEN the action or state of being takes place.
 PRESENT: Is happening now
 Remember: 3rd person singular – add –s
He sings a song.
Steve laughs.
Maria smells the rose.
 PAST: Already happened
 FUTURE: Is going to happen
4 principal parts of a verb:
 Base form: ex.
JUMP
 Present participle: (IS) JUMPING
 Past: JUMPED
 Past participle: (HAS) JUMPED
MEMORIZE THESE RULES AGAIN IF YOU’VE FORGOTTEN THEM!
Make a
sentence
that includes
past,
present,
and/or
future
tenses!
BE / HAVE / DO – lesson 4
These are the 3 most frequently
used verbs in the English
language.
They can be used as main verbs or
as helping verbs.
Memorize the rules for forming
their tenses – see p. 110.
THE VERB BE - The most common verb
Simple Tense Review
PAST
PRESENT
was
am
NUMBER
1st
singular
PERSON
I
FUTURE
will be
2nd
singular
YOU
were
are
will be
3rd
singular
HE / SHE /
IT
was
is
will be
1st plural
WE
were
are
will be
2nd
plural
YOU
were
are
will be
3rd plural
THEY
were
are
will be
Make a sentence with the proper form
of BE the teacher will tell you:
Make
sentences
using the
verb(s) the
teacher will
tell you.
PERFECT TENSES - 5
PRESENT PERFECT
PAST PERFECT
FUTURE PERFECT
Action that took
Action in the past
Action that will be
place at an
that was completed completed before
indefinite time in before another action another action in
the past; it may still
took place
the future
be going on
Lucy has studied her times
tables for 3 years.
Lucy had finished learning
the 8-table before she
entered 4th grade.
Lucy will have memorized
all the times tables up to
12 before the end of the
5th grade.
NOW PRACTICE WRITING SENTENCES WITH
THESE PERFECT TENSE VERBS:
PAST PERF. PRESENT
• arrange PERF.
• eat
• harvest
• organize
• glue
• laugh
FUTURE
PER.
• train
• masticate
• wrestle
8-PROGRESSIVE FORMS
The verb shows the action is continuing.
Helping
verb
SIMPLE
PROGRESSIVE
TENSES
PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
TENSES
Main verb
ending in –ING
PAST PROGRESSIVE
was/were
walking
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
am/is/are
walking
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
will be
walking
PAST PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
PRESENT PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
FUTURE PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
had been
walking
has/have been
walking
will have been
walking
Choose a verb from the list, and make
a progressive verb sentence.
Hug
Sleep
Play
Rest
TRANSITIVE & INTRANSITIVE VERBS
lesson 9
 TRANSITIVE VB.= A verb that SENDS its action
to a noun or pronoun
 DIRECT OBJECT = The noun or pronoun that
RECEIVES the action
The teacher writes a letter.
 INTRANSITIVE VB.= A verb that DOESN’T send
its action anywhere (no Direct Object)
The teacher writes.
TRANSITIVE & INTRANSITIVE VERBS
lesson 9 – continuation…
LINKING VERBS ARE ALWAYS
INTRANSITIVE BECAUSE THEY
DO NOT EXPRESS ACTION.
The Christian Warriors are the
winners of the tournament.
They looked tired after their victory.
Abigail
Make sentences: some Transitive &
others Intransitive
(ask the proper question on each)
DIRECT OBJECT - 10
 A noun or pronoun that tells WHO or
WHAT receives the action of the verb.
 A dragonfly has four fragile wings.
 D.O. may be a noun or pronoun.
 The little boy took the dragonfly.
 The little boy took it.
 D.O. may be compound (more than 1)
 Dragonflies like bananas and flowers.
Continuation – D.O.
 Intransitive Verb: Does not have an Object
Some verbs are ALWAYS Intransitive
The bird flew away. - Flew where?
The team played well. - Played how?
We will finish tomorrow. - Finish when?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Transitive OR Intransitive?
o Please get your book.
o The book closed noisily.
Tell if the
sentence is
Transitive
OR
transitive;
if transitive,
identify the
D.O.
 My beagle barks a lot.
 She eats apples and
potato peals.
 She sleeps all day long.
 I made breakfast for her.
 I took her and my friend
Raquel to the park.
DIRECT OBJECT
Use with Action Verbs
 Most verbs express ACTION. If that action is
directed toward another word, the verb is
TRANSITIVE.
 Direct Object: The word toward which the
action goes.
 Questions to ask: What? / Whom?
 The car needs gasoline and new tires.
 Needs what?
 My friend visits my family and me.
 Visits whom?
INDIRECT OBJECT – Still lesson 10
Indirect Object: tells to whom,
for whom, to what, or for what
the action of the verb is done.
It ALWAYS comes between the
verb and the Direct Object.
It’s a NOUN or a PRONOUN.
Indirect Object…
Which sentences have IO?
 The slithery python gave the trainer a
surprise.
 Hanna baked her sister a cake.
 My pastor delivered a great sermon for us.
 The athlete threw the referee his helmet.
 Dwayne Wade gave the trophy to me.
Write a sentence with DO & IO:
PREDICATE NOUNS &
PREDICATE ADJECTIVES - 11
 LINKING VERBS cannot have objects.
 A Linking Verb CONNECTS the subject with a word
in the predicate that describes or renames the
subject.
 If the words renames: Predicate Noun
o Mules resemble stubby horses.
 If the word describes: Predicate Adjective
o The story sounds marvelous.
PREDICATE NOUNS & PREDICATE
ADJECTIVES
MORE EXAMPLES:
 PREDICATE NOUN: Renames the subject
Quinoa is a grain. / It was a popular food for
the Incas.
 PREDICATE ADJECTIVE: Describes subject
It is delicious. / This grain tastes good.
Make sentences with PREDICATE
NOUN & PREDICATE ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE & PASSIVE
VOICES - 12
 ACTIVE VOICE: Most sentences are like
this. The subject DOES the action.
 Electric motors run high-speed trains.
 PASSIVE VOICE: The subject RECEIVES
the action.
 High-speed trains are run by electric
motors.
ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICE …
(rules)
1. Sentence has to be transitive (have DO)

(A) Magnets in the motor create a force.
2. To turn to passive, use the correct tense
of the verb BE and change the main
verb to its past participle.


(P) A force is created by magnets in the motor.
The D.O. becomes the SUBJECT!
3. Sometimes the performer of the action
DOES NOT appear in the Passive Voice.

The original model has been perfected.
Turn this ACTIVE sentence to PASSIVE:
A kangaroo
mother
nurses her
joey inside a
pouch she
has.
Turn this passive sentence to active:
An unusual
animal was
found in the
eighteenth
century by
Captain James
Cook.
Make these Active Voice
sentences into Passive
Voice (if you can):
Dr. Sato developed a cool train.
Dr. Sato travels by train often.
He loves his wife and daughter.
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT - 13
 A verb and its subject MUST agree in
number
 Singular verb = singular subject An ant
crawls.
 Plural verb = plural subject
Three ant
crawl.
 The verb BE doesn’t follow the usual
rules.
 Check chart on page 110
More Subject-Verb Agreement – 13
(Agreement with Compound Subject)
 When joining subject with words such as OR,
EITHER…OR, or NEITHER…NOR, the verb
may be singular or plural.
 Plural verb: if both subjects are plural.
 The dogs and cats were both eating.
 Singular verb: if both subjects are singular.
 Neither Jim nor Steve is here.
Continuation… (lesson 13)
 Verb Agrees with the SUBJECT CLOSEST:
When ONE subject is singular and ONE is plural.
 Either the twins or Marc is singing today.
 Either Marc or the twins are singing today.
****Choose the correct verb:****
 Ana or my parents ______ taking me to church.
 Neither the eighth graders nor
Mrs. Guerra ____ here.
Inverted & Interrupted Order
lesson 14
 In most sentences the SUBJECT appears at the
beginning.
 When ALL or PART of the predicate appear at the
beginning, the sentence is INVERTED.
 To identify the subject:
 First find the verb.
 Then ask WHO or WHAT is doing the action.
o In the bedroom is my bed.
o What is in the bedroom? MY BED
Continuation… (lesson 14)
 INVERTED SENTENCE – The subject IS NOT at the
beginning.
 When a sentence begins with HERE or THERE, the verb MUST
also agree with the subject.
 To find the subject, ask:


WHO or WHAT IS HERE?
Here is the book.
(What is here?)
There are my friends!
(Who are here?)
MAKE A SENTENCE
STARTING WITH “HERE” OR
“THERE”:
CONTINUATION – Lesson 14…
INTERRUPTED ORDER:
 This is when 1 or more words come between
the subject and the verb.
 Identify the subject carefully, and make the
verb agree with it.

Often exhibits on only one subject fill an entire
museum.
CONTRACTIONS
 Sometimes the verb is shortened in the cont.
 Notice that the apostrophe goes where the letter is
missing:
We are = we’re
I am – I’m
 Often a verb and NOT are combined.
 NOT is not part of the verb!
Ana isn’t coming today. / Ana is not coming
today.
THE END

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