Bio exam questions AS GM new

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Biological AS Exam Qs
June 2009
14) Manpreet’s family are proud of their daughter’s
10 A grades at GCSE. Her grandmother thinks that
Manpreet has inherited her intelligence, whilst her
parents think that it is due to the extra stimulation
she had as a child.
(a) (i) Outline the meaning of the term nature using
the example above. (3)
(ii) Outline the meaning of the term nurture using
the example above. (3)
(i) Outline the meaning of the term
nature using the example above. (3)
• The nature approach says that our characteristics
are determined by our biology/eq;
• It says that genes affect our brains and nervous
system/eq;
• These in turn affect our physical and
psychological characteristics/eq;
• E.g. Manpreet’s grandmother thinks her
intelligence has been passed down through her
parents’ genes/eq;
(ii) Outline the meaning of the term
nurture using the example above. (3)
• Nurture refers to the influence of our
environment on our characteristics/eq;
• It can include factors such as poor diet whilst a
child/eq;
• Nurture can include the influence of our
relationship with our parents/eq;
• Manpreet had extra stimulation as a child
which could include reading which may have
affected her IQ/eq;
14 b)
June 2009
June 2009
18 a) In the Biological Approach you studied
factors affecting gender development.
Describe how genes, hormones and/or brain
lateralisation affect gender development. (4)
Describe how genes, hormones and/or brain
lateralisation affect gender development. (4)
• Genetic sex is determined by the chromosomes in the egg and
those in the sperm/eq;
• The egg includes the X chromosome, the sperm contains either the
X or the Y chromosome/eq;
• If the sperm contains the X chromosome it will be a girl, if it’s the y
chromosome it will be a boy/eq;
• The Y chromosome will cause the male foetus to develop testes at
around 7 weeks/eq;
• In a female other genes cause the foetus to develop ovaries/eq;
• Hormones are released that stop the male foetus developing a
uterus/fallopian tubes/eq;
• Male speech and comprehension is controlled by the left
hemisphere, whilst females tend to be across both hemispheres/eq;
June 2009
18 b) Evaluate the biological explanation for
gender.
You may like to include comparisons with other
explanations as well as other evaluation points.
(12)
You may like to include comparisons with other
explanations as well as other evaluation points.
(12)
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A family had boys who were thought to be girls until the reached puberty, and the
boys had no problem becoming males, so supporting the biological approach/eq;
However, this may be because their community allowed them to become male as
it had happened before/eq;
Dorner destroyed sex centres in the brains of newborn male rats, and they
behaved like female rats/eq;
However, we may not be able to generalise the findings of this study to humans as
our brains are different from rats/eq;
Men are better at spatial tasks and women are better at verbal tasks suggesting
there is a brain difference/eq;
A meta analysis on human brains failed to show gender differences in the corpus
callosum/eq;
David Reimer was not happy when he was brought up as a girl, and had surgery to
turn back to a male supporting the approach/eq;
Female rats who were injected with testosterone behaved like male rats/eq;
You may like to include comparisons with other
explanations as well as other evaluation points.
(12)
• It can be argued that there are more similarities between the two
sexes than there are biological differences/eq;
• Female babies are more sensitive to noise from birth, so there must
be biological differences/eq;
• The learning approach would argue that gender development is due
to your upbringing not your genes/hormones/eq;
• The psychodynamic approach says we learn our gender appropriate
behaviour by identifying with the same sex parent/eq;
• The biological approach can’t explain why in some cultures
appropriate male behaviour would be seen as female behaviour in
our culture/eq;
• Some cultures have more than two gender roles which would be
hard to explain in terms of genetics/hormones/eq;
Outline one strength and one weakness of
using a correlational design in psychological
research.
(4)
Outline one strength and one weakness of
using a correlational design in psychological
research.
(4)
E.g. Strength.
• Correlations may show a relationship between two variables that
was not expected/eq; one mark this can then lead to further
research and possible experimentation/eq 2nd mark
• They can be used to determine a relationship when it is not
possible to carry out an experiment/eq; one mark
• They can be used to determine a relationship when it is not
possible to carry out an experiment, such as the research on twins
to see it schizophrenia has a genetic element/eq; two marks.
• Fairly easy to analyse using Spearman’s/eq; (one mark) compared
to case studies where data are a lot more complex or difficult/eq;
(second mark)
• It’s easy to read/eq; (one mark) because it is visual and the
trend/relationship is clear/eq; (second mark)
Outline one strength and one weakness of
using a correlational design in psychological
research.
(4)
• E.g. Weakness.
– A correlation does not tell us about cause and
effect/eq; one mark. So we do not know if violent
television causes aggressive behaviour or vice
versa/eq; 2 mark.
– The results may not be valid as the measurements are
– artifical/eq; one mark. E.g. How can the benefits of
– psychoanalysis be measured in an objective way/eq;
2 mark.
– A correlation does not tell us cause and effect/eq;
(one mark)
– there may be a third factor affecting the results other
than the variables of interest/eq; (second mark)
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June 2010
15 a) Describe the PET scanning technique. (3)
15 a) Describe the PET scanning
technique. (3)
• PET scanning allows us to see activity in the brain/working brain/eq;
• A radioactive chemical is injected into the blood of a person/eq;
• As it breaks down it releases radioactivity which can be picked up on the
scan/eq;
• The more active the brain for a specific task the more radioactivity will be
picked up by the scan/eq;
• The different colours/shades in the image are interpreted/eq;
• Darker/warmer areas show more activity OR lighter/cooler areas show
less activity/eq; (one mark for any combination/any direction)
• Red/orange shows high(er) activity and blue/green shows low(er)
activity/eq;
• It allows us to see which parts of the brain are using more
glucose/energy/eq; the more active the brain the more glucose/energy it
uses/eq;
June 2010
15
b) Another method used in the Biological
Approach is animal experiments.
With regard to practical issues, outline one
strength of the use of animals in experiments in
the Biological Approach. (2)
With regard to practical issues, outline one strength of
the use of animals in experiments in the Biological
Approach. (2)
e.g. 1.
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It is possible to have more control over extraneous variables when using animals compared to humans/eq; (ID)
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This allows us to be more certain about the cause of a specific behaviour as only one thing is changed between
the groups of animals/eq;
e.g. 2.
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Animals reproduce at a faster rate than humans/eq;
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This means that we can study the effect of something such as
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genes over the generations/eq;
e.g.3
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There are fewer demand characteristic issues as there can be with humans/eq;
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Animals may be less aware of the intentions of the study/eq;
e.g.4.
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Animals such as rats have similar brains to humans/eq;
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This means that the results can be generalised from animals to
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humans/eq;
e.g.5
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we can use animals when we cannot use humans/eq;
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so we can single out areas in the brain and see what
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behaviours are affected/eq;
June 2010
15
c) Name one method other than PET scanning
and animal experiments that is used in the
Biological Approach. (1)
15
c) Name one method other than PET scanning and animal experiments that
is used in the Biological Approach. (1)
e.g.
• MRI scanning/eq;
• Twin studies/eq;
• Adoption studies/eq;
• Correlations/eq;
• Laboratory experiments/eq;
• Case studies/eq;
• Case studies of brain damaged patients/eq;
• There are others.
Rejected answers
• Symbol analysis
• Free association
• Scanning
June 2010
16 c) Steve and Sue are non identical twins. Steve’s
bedroom is painted blue, he likes playing football
and his favourite television programme is Formula 1
racing. Sue’s bedroom is painted pink, she likes
dancing and her favourite film is Sleeping Beauty.
Use explanations of gender behaviour from both
the Learning Approach and the Biological Approach
to explain why Steve and Sue behave differently. (6)
Use explanations of gender behaviour from both the Learning Approach and
the Biological Approach to explain why Steve and Sue behave differently. (6)
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The answer must refer to Steve and Sue at least once otherwise MAX 4 marks.
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It could be that Steve was exposed to a high level of testosterone whilst in the
womb making him more masculine/eq;
If Sue has reached puberty it could be the high levels of oestrogen/progesterone
that are influencing her behaviour/eq;
It could be due to genes - boys have XY chromosome and girls have XX
chromosome/eq;
Steve could have been rewarded for showing masculine behaviour so he has learnt
that that is appropriate behaviour for him/eq;
Sue may have been punished for masculine behaviour, so in order to avoid the
punishment she display feminine behaviour/eq;
Steve’s father could also like football and motor car racing so Steve has imitated his
father’s behaviour as he sees him as a role model OR Sue has imitated her
mother’s behaviour as she sees her as a role model/eq; (one mark for either or
both)
Bandura Ross and Ross found that boys are more likely to copy an aggressive male
model than an aggressive female model/eq;
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June 2010
17)
In the Biological Approach you will have studied
one of the following studies:
• Gottesman and Shields (1966)
• Raine et al (1997)
• De Bellis et al (2001)
Describe one study from the list. Clearly identify the
study you are describing. (6)
Gottesman and Shields (1966)
(6 AO1)
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They aimed to see if there was a genetic or environmental influence of the development of
schizophrenia/eq;
They studied MZ and DZ twins, in each pair of twins at least one of them had schizophrenia/eq;
Each pair of twins was tested using blood group, fingerprints and how alike they looked to decide
whether they were identical or not/eq;
They used hospital records to determine whether one of the pair had schizophrenia as well as
interviews/eq;
The twins and their parents were tested for disorganised thinking and the twins also had a
personality test/eq;
They tested to see if both twins had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, and whether both twins
had a mental disorder but different diagnoses/eq;
They found that there was a stronger link in schizophrenia with regard to twins in MZ than in DZ
twins/eq;
They found that 42% (+/-5) of the MZ twins both had a diagnosis of schizophrenia compared to 9%
(+/-5) of the DZ twins/eq;
77% (+/-5) of the MZ twins of severe schizophrenics also had schizophrenia compared to `15% (+/5) of the DZ twins/eq;
They concluded that genes do play a role in the development of schizophrenia/eq;
Raine et al (1997)
(6 AO1)
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Raine aimed to see if the brain activity of murderers/people pleading not guilty of murder
through diminished responsibility was different to that of non-murderers/eq;
They wanted to see if there was a difference in the prefrontal cortex of murderers/people
pleading not guilty of murder through diminished responsibility and normal people/eq;
Their ppts. were 41 people charged with murder or manslaughter who pleaded not guilty by
reason of insanity (NGRI)/eq;
They were compared to a matched group of people not charged with murder or
manslaughter/eq;
Some/6 ppts. in both groups were diagnosed with schizophrenia/eq;
PPts. were injected with a radioactive substance and carried out a visual task/eq;
A PET scan was carried out when the task was finished to see how active the brain had been
in the prefrontal cortex/eq;
It was found that the murderers had less activity in areas of the prefrontal cortex/eq;
Murderers’ brains were more active in the right side of the thalamus compared to non
murders/eq;
They concluded that the areas that had abnormal activity were associated with lower self
control/increased aggression/eq;
They concluded that brains of murderers were significantly different from the brains of non
murderers/eq;
June 2011
16) The central nervous system has an
important role in human behaviour.
Describe the central nervous system. (4)
Describe the central nervous system.
(4)
• The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal
cord/eq;
• Nerves in our body send information via the spinal cord to the
brain/eq;
• The brain then processes this information and sends a message to
the body through the spinal cord/eq;
• E.g. our eyes send a message about a car coming towards us, the
brain processes how far away it is and sends a message back telling
us to cross the road/eq;
• Different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions,
e.g. the hippocampus is important for memory/eq;
• Neurons in the brain pass messages along through electrical
impulses/neurotransmitter/eq;
• Neurotransmitters are released and cross the synaptic gap to be
picked up by receptor sites/eq;
June 2011
17) Animal studies are often used in the
Biological Approach.
Evaluate the use of animals in psychological
studies in terms of the ethical issues. (4)
Evaluate the use of animals in psychological
studies in terms of the ethical issues. (4)
• It is possible to do things to animals (such as cause brain damage) that
would be unethical in humans/eq;
• E.g. Skinner gave electric shocks to the rats in the
• Skinner box, we wouldn’t be able to give electric shocks to humans in the
same way/eq;
• Some people argue that we should never do things to animals that we
would not do to humans and all animal studies are unethical/eq;
• Minimum numbers of animals should be used in studies making them
more ethical because any practices are not carried out unnecessarily/eq;
• Using Bateson’s cube animal studies are ethical if we are certain there will
be a benefit, their suffering is low and the research is of a high quality/eq;
(2 marks)
• However, whilst we may expect a benefit to come from the research we
cannot know there will be any benefit until after the research/eq;
• Results from animals such as rats may not be true for humans, meaning
that they have been used in vain so making it unethical/eq;
June 2011
19 a) Describe the role of hormones in gender
development. (3)
19 a) Describe the role of hormones
in gender development. (3)
• If the H-Y hormone is released when the foetus is 6 weeks
then testes will develop/eq;
• Testosterone makes males more aggressive/tough and
oestrogen makes females more emotional/eq;
• If the testes develop male sex hormones will be released
when the foetus is 3 months leading to male sex organs/eq;
• If no male hormones are released then the female sex
organs develop/eq;
• In puberty the hormone testosterone lead males to
develop facial hair and causes sperm to be produced/eq;
• In females oestrogen released at puberty causes breasts to
grow and fatty tissue to be deposited on the hips/eq;
June 2011
b) Mark was born genetically male but with an
undeveloped penis. His parents are trying to
decide whether it would be best for him to have
an operation to change him into a female.
With reference to Mark, use concepts (ideas,
theories, research) from the Biological Approach
to explain issues involved in gender
development. (5)
With reference to Mark, use concepts (ideas, theories, research)
from the Biological Approach to explain issues involved in
gender development. (5)
• Mark has already been exposed to male hormones in the womb so
his behaviour may remain masculine/eq
• Mark will have a male brain with language being more lateralised to
the left hemisphere so the operation may not be successful/eq;
• Due to his biological make up Mark may feel masculine even if he is
brought up as a female/eq;
• David Reimer was seriously affected throughout his life as he always
felt different even when he didn’t know he had been a boy/eq;
• Reiner found that of 14 boys raised as girls after surgery most of
them felt male, so it may not work/eq;
• Daphne Went is a case of a genetic male raised as a female who
was happy being female so showing sometimes people can be
successfully raised as the opposite sex/eq;
June 2012
16 a) Outline the results and conclusions of
Moneys original (1975) study. (3)
16 a) Outline the results and conclusions of Moneys original
(1975) study. (3)
June 2012
16
b) Evaluate Moneys(1975) study in terms of
validity and reliability. (4)
June 2012
18) In the Biological approach you will have
studied key issue.
Describe the key issue you studied in the
Biological Approach and apply psychological
concepts (theories and/or research) to explain
the key issue.
Clearly identify the key issue in your answer. (7)
June 2012
19) Compare the explanations of gender
development give by the Biological Approach
and the Learning Approach.
Comparisons include considering similarities
and/or differences. (5)
June 2013
June 2013
June 2013
20) In the Biological Approach you will have carried out a
practical investigation to test differences between groups
using a research method such as an experiment. Your
results will have included statistical analysis.
(a) Outline the aim/hypothesis of your practical
investigation from the Biological Approach. (2)
(b) Describe the results of your practical investigation
from the Biological Approach. (3)
(c) Evaluate your practical investigation from the
Biological Approach. (7)
June 2013
20) Describe and evaluate an explanation of
gender development from the Learning
Approach. In your evaluation you must include
at least one comparison with another
explanation of gender development. (12)

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