History of Manufacturing

Report
History of Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
© 2013 Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Overview
This presentation discusses:
• The need for manufacturing
• A brief history of manufacturing
• Key figures in manufacturing
• An example of the manufacturing process
Why Manufacture?
• Manufacturing
accounts for 20% of
the US gross
domestic product
• Manufacturing
employs 17% of the
U.S. workforce1
1according
Domestic Product
to the National Science and Technology Council
Workforce
History of Manufacturing
Prior to 19th century
– Artisans
– Handmade products
History of Manufacturing
Prior to the 19th century
– Eli Whitney
Photos courtesy of
www.eliwhitney.org
History of Manufacturing
Early 1900s
– Henry Ford
From Wiki
History of Manufacturing
Early 1900s
– Kiichiro Toyoda
– Lean Manufacturing
Five areas drive lean
manufacturing/production:
– Cost
– Quality
– Delivery
– Safety
– Morale
History of Manufacturing
Mid 1900s
– Jervis B. Webb Co. creates the first
electronically coordinated conveyor system
Photo courtesy of
Jervis B. Webb Col.
Manufacturing Today
Automatic Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS)
– Moves material vertically or horizontally between
storage compartment and transfer station or within a
process
Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV)
– Computer-controlled system using pallets to
transport work pieces to NC machine tools and other
equipment in a flexible manufacturing system
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Machines learn from experience
– Knowledge used to problem solve
Manufacturing Today
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
(CIM)
– Company-wide management
philosophy for planning, integration,
and implementation of automation
Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Customer-centered
People and teamwork
Shared knowledge
Key processes
Resources and responsibilities
Infrastructure
Photo Courtesy of Kettering
Communications
Manufacturing Today
Kaizen
– Japanese word for “improvement”
– Based on continuous improvement by everyone
Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)
– Adapts efficiently to changing need
– Possibly increase productivity by 50%
Manufacturing Today
Just In Time Manufacturing (JIT)
– Objective is to eliminate waste
– Capable of producing mixed products
– Utilizes cross-trained workers
Toyota Production System (TPS)
– Applied to automotive manufacturing
– Competes with mass production
– Employs lean production strategy
Lean Manufacturing
– Systematic elimination of waste
– Entire system must participate to
produce effectivity
Lean Manufacturing Video
Manufacturing Today
Six Sigma (6σ)
– Indicates measure of quality for near
perfection
– Produces fewer than 3.4 defects per million
opportunities
– Identifies and corrects causes of defects
– Utilizes the five “whys” to uncover root cause
6σ
Manufacturing Today
Rapid Prototyping
– Prototype made directly from a computer model
– Several technologies
•
•
•
•
Stereolithography
3D Printing
Selective Laser Sintering
Fused Deposition Modeling
Workcell
– Manufacturing resources
arranged into a group
Work Envelope
– Range of motion of a robot or machine
– Degrees of freedom are individual movements
References
Computer and Automated Systems Association of the Society of
Manufacturing Engineers (3rd ed.). (1993). The new manufacturing
enterprise wheel. Dearborn, Michigan: Author.
Elshennawy, A.K., & Schrader, G.F. (2000). Manufacturing processes
and materials. Dearborn, MI: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Ford Motor Company. (n.d.) Ford Model T turns 100: Centennial
celebrations underway for the historic icon. Retrieved from
http://media.ford.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=27864
Kettering University. (n.d.) Industrial engineering laboratories.
Retrieved December 18, 2007, from
http://www.kettering.edu/futurestudents/undergraduate/industrialengi
neering_labs.jsp
Kiichiro Toyoda. (2009). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiichiro_Toyoda
Microsoft Clip Art. (2009). Retrieved from www.microsoft.com
References
Rapid Prototyping. (2009). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_Prototyping
RobotWorx . (2009). Work envelope. Retrieved from
http://www.robots.com/faq.php?question=work+envelope
Rufe, P.D. (Ed.). (2002). Fundamentals of manufacturing. Dearborn,
MI: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
Six Sigma Dictionary (2009). In iSixSigma. Retrieved from
http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Work_Cell-128.htm
Toyoda, K. (2009). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
from
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kiichiro_Toyoda&oldid=168
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