Turkey is a secular country. Rural or urban women take place in social life Unveiled women vs Veiled women Along with unvelied women, some of the women in Turkey cover themselves with either traditional-old head scarves or new-Islamist head scarves. traditional-new veiling Dressing style has been changing since 1980’s in accordance with market economy. Women in Turkey Ideology of State: Kemalism After the foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, the state implemented a series of reforms in order to establish a secular state instead of a religious one. One of them was to adopt a dress code like the European dress code. In 1924, the state passed a bill regarding the adoption of a hat instead of the traditional fez and other traditional head coverings, a ban which under the current constitution may not be lifted. Transition from veil to hat, 1925. Hat Law of 1925 The Hat Law of 1925 introduced the use of Western style hats instead of the fez. Legislation did not explicitly prohibit veils or headscarves and focused instead on banning fezzes and turbans for men. Ataturk’s wife showed up in burqa. Government did not banned women to wear burqa instead some municipals between 1935-1939. Coupe in 1960 New constitution was introduced in 1961. New constitution gave more democratic rights in accordance with the political developments in the West. However, religious citizens could not benefit from this liberal rights. School principals and academics at the universities did not allow the girls to get in the school and attend the classes with their head scarfs. Hatice Babacan In 1968, a female university student, Hatice Babacan, refused to remove her headscarf and from then onwards, although there was not a uniformly applied ban, some problems began to arise for students wearing headscarves at universities. Hatice Babacan 1968 Coupe in 1980 Turkey banned to headscarf in the universities in 1982. Headscarf was banned in1984 officially. With a constitutional principle of official secularism, the Turkish government has traditionally banned women who wear headscarves from working in the public sector. teachers, parliamentarians, female lawyers and journalists, and others working on state premises. Students could not attend the classes with their headscarves Rulings of courts In 2000, Nuray Bezirgan, a Turkish female student, wore a headscarf at her college final exams. A Turkish court sentenced her to six months jail. The European Court of Human Rights upheld the ban in 2004, saying the rules on dress were "necessary" and did not violate the European Convention on Human Rights. In October 2006, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the university ban again, rejecting a complaint filed by another Turkish university student, Leyla Şahin Trakya University April 27, 2011 In the parliament: In May 1999, the ban on headscarves in the public sphere hit the headlines when Merve Kavakçı was prevented from taking her oath in the National Assembly because she wore a headscarf. She was the newly elected of Istanbul of the proIslamist Virtue Party. Dispute on headscarf AK Party and headscarf After winning a referendum in September 2010, the ruling AKP vowed to support any student who was disciplined for wearing the headscarf on a university campus. While this goes against the Constitutional Court ruling of 2008, most universities have started permitting students to wear the headscarf on campus. Politicians’ wives with their headscarves. In October 2006, Turkish president Ahmet Necdet Sezer refused to allow AKP politicians whose wives wore headscarves to a ball on Republic Day. President and his covered wife host receptions today. Any politician accompany with their covered wife can attend any official receptions. September, 2012 Republic Day Ceremony Snow means “Kar” in Turkish Ka- Kar- Kars Ka Quran (33:59) the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful. Secular women perceive headscarf as a symbol of suppression of women in Islam. If I had to go into a classroom full of covered girls, I would not dare go in uncovered. I’d wear a headscarf even if I did not want to. (44) I grew up Istanbul Nisantasi, among society people. I wanted to be like Europeans. I could not see how I reconsile my becoming a Europan with a God who requires women to wrap themselves in scarves. (96) Head scarf and identity construction Headscarf protect women from harassment, rape and degradation (45). The veil saves women from the animal instincts of men in the street (45). When a girl accepted head scarf as the word of God and symbol of faith (121). They do not have to live like sex object (45). Their mother and father brought up them to be as they are. So did religious instruction they received during their state education (113). Conflict between state and individuals State maintains its hegemony by its Repressive State Apparatus" (RSA) The basic function of the RSA (heads of state, government, police, courts, army, etc.) is to intervene and act in favor of the ruling class. Since the ruling class control the power of state, the RSA is controlled by them. (Louise Althusser) Coupe If there is a threat of its values which construct the state, the state turns to increasingly physical and severe measures in response : police force, and ultimately military intervention. Ideological State Apparatus gives power to hegemonic forces. Ideological State Apparatuses" (ISAs), which include the family, the media, religious organizations, and the education system. Education The State is an “educator” in the sense that its tendency is to create a new civilization type or level. It operates according to a plan, it impels, incites, requests, punishes. These actions lead to a “passive” revolution, in other words, to a constant reorganization of the power of the State in the sense of preserving its hegemony through the exclusion of the masses over the economical and political institutions. Islamist Militans Killer of the directorate of Institute of Education was related to the international Islamist groups.” Since the freedom Fighters for Islamic Justice condemned you to death.” (46) Blue in the novel. Green was in real politics in Turkey. He served for MIT (intelligence service) MIT admitted to Green. Religious dress was banned in the public sphere for religious zealots by law in 1934. Sufi lodges was banned in 1925. Sufi lodges are used by Muslims to practice rituals of a Sufi order. Shortly after the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed, the government banned all Sufi lodges, convents and visits to tombs of prominent Islamic scholars as part its drive to modernize. Sufi lodges have been functioning underground since 1925. Sheikh Efendi The Light movement is the largest religious network in Turkey. NECIP FAZIL (died in 1983) Religious poet, novelist, playwrite Philosopher and activist In the Sufi Naqshbandi Order Religious and Secular Characters Muhtar Necip Fazil Mesud Sheik Saadettin Blue Hande Kadife Sunay Zaim Funda Zeki Demirkol Turgut Bey Saffet Ipek and Kadife (Silk and Velvet) Kadife (velvet) is a romantic revolutionist. She was caught by the Islamic ideology. Ipek (silk) is more valuable than velvet, although both are precious. She respects religious people but she is not one of them. September, 2013 Dispute has not been solved between Islamist and secular students in Turkey.