### The AKM Video Meteor Network - IMO Video Meteor Network

```International Meteor Conference, Poznan/Poland, August 22-25, 2013
Meteor Showers Identified
from a Million Video Meteors
Sirko Molau, AKM, Germany
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
1/28
Agenda
• History
• Procedure
• Tools
• Statistics
• Results
• Conclusions
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
2/28
History
• Searching the IMO database for meteor showers is not new ...
188,068 meteors
(01/1993-07/2006)
Base procedure
•
based on Bayes' decision rule
•
two-step detection (radiant and shower search)
•
•
Gaussian distribution
IMC 2008
359,957 meteors
(01/1993-07/2008)
Improvements
observability function and activity profiles
•
corrected meteor counts
•
improved meteor altitude formula / velocity estimates
•
Laplace distribution
•
WGN 37:4
2009
451,282 meteors
(01/1993-04/2009)
Improvements:
Based on MDC meteor shower list
•
manual refinement of results
•
IMC 2006
WGN 38:5
2010
IMC 2013
IMC 2013
168,830 meteors
only SL 250-315°
(01/1993-12/2009)
1,063,057 meteors
(01/1993-12/2011)
Specific analysis of PER/AUR region in September/October
Improvements: see next slides
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
3/28
Base Procedure
• Cut the data into sol long slices of 2° length, 1° shift.
• Compute for each meteor M in each slice and all possible
radiants R (α / δ / vinf) the conditional probability P (M | R).
 Start: Accumulate P (M | R) over all possible R
 Loop: Select the radiant R` with largest probability P (M | R`)
 Determine all meteors M` belonging to R`
 Accumulate P (M‘ | R) over all possible R and subtract it from the original distribution
 End: Reassign the meteors to the radiants and recompute the shower parameters
• Connect radiants with similar position/velocity in consecutive
solar longitude intervals.
• Compute shower parameters: Radiant position, drift, velocity.
• Compare the showers against the MDC list.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
4/28
Enhancements 2012/13
• More than a million single station meteors available.
• Introduction of radiant rank, i.e. at which position a radiant is
located in the sorted radiant list of that sol long interval.
• Forward/backward radiant search during shower detection.
• Early publishing of unprocessed radiant and meteor shower list in
the web.
• Intermediate results presented in monthly video network reports.
• In preparation of IMC 2013, bi-directional match between IMO
video network meteor shower list and latest MDC list including
all showers.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
5/28
Analysis Steps
• Phase 1: Automatic detection of showers in the video meteor
database (minimum duration: 5° sol long), identification
according to MDC list, manual refinement/rejection of
showers → 101 showers.
• Phase 2: Detailed manual check for missing „established“
MDC showers → 6 additional showers.
• Phase 3: Manual check for all MDC „workling list“ showers,
completion of list with short duration and weak showers,
• Phase 4: Identification showers that belong to the Antihelion
source.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
6/28
Tools
• To match the IMO video network list with the MDC list, a little
„Excel tool“ (available to everyone) was created.
• Functions:
 Find the best matching MDC list shower given a radiant found in the IMO
 Find the best matching radiant in the IMO video network radiant list given
a MDC meteor shower.
 Find the best matching
MDC list shower and
IMO video network
sl/α/δ/vgeo values.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
7/28
Statistics (I)
• Observers contributing >1,000 meteors.
Name
Sirko Molau
Enrico Stomeo
Javor Kac
Jörg Strunk
Stefano Crivello
Rui Goncalves
Flavio Castellani
Robert Lunsford
Antal Igaz
Ilkka Yrjölä
Steve Kerr
Detlef Koschny
Bernd Brinkmann
Wolfgang Hinz
Rosta Štork
Klaas Jobse
Maurizio Eltri
Carl Hergenrother
Jürgen Rendtel
Erno Berkó
Stane Slavec
Mihaela Triglav
Orlando Benitez-Sanchez
Mitja Govedic
Zsolt Perkó
IMC 2013
IMO Code
MOLSI
STOEN
KACJA
STRJO
CRIST
GONRU
CASFL
LUNRO
IGAAN
YRJIL
KERST
KOSDE
BRIBE
HINWO
STORO
JOBKL
ELTMA
HERCA
RENJU
BERER
SLAST
TRIMI
BENOR
GOVMI
PERSZ
Nights
3,138
1,121
1,794
2,247
984
971
1,476
803
684
1,299
426
924
1,235
779
139
251
646
1,102
647
321
1,278
944
1,018
618
378
Teff Meteors
31,410.0 185,158
15,001.5
93,548
18,791.5
73,296
17,642.7
63,337
9,848.1
53,594
11,257.2
48,301
11,953.8
38,735
5,102.1
33,229
6,748.3
28,765
7,050.5
26,356
3,161.6
25,183
5,441.0
23,952
6,144.8
23,627
4,447.8
22,605
1,356.4
21,368
1,801.9
20,090
4,322.2
19,987
7,432.3
19,440
3,823.4
17,223
4,195.6
16,574
5,948.8
16,448
4,246.4
14,735
5,227.4
13,899
3,121.5
13,718
2,042.0
13,243
Name
Istvan Tepliczky
Stephen Evans
Eckehard Rothenberg
Steve Quirk
Mike Otte
Hans Schremmer
Carlos Saraiva
Paolo Ochner
other
Mirko Nitschke
Biondani Roberto
Rob McNaught
József Morvai
Maciej Maciejewski
Ulrich Sperberg
Karoly Jonas
Leo Scarpa
Martin Breukers
Malcolm Currie
Grigoris Maravelias
Stefan Ueberschaer
Zoltán Zelko
Milos Weber
IMO Code
TEPIS
EVAST
ROTEC
QUIST
OTTMI
SCHHA
SARAN
OCHPA
OTHER
NITMI
ROBBI
MCNRO
MORJO
MACMA
SPEUL
JONKA
SCALE
CSISZ
BREMA
CURMA
MARGR
UEBST
ZELZO
KLAGR
WEBMI
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
Nights
414
457
637
341
424
576
168
408
14
213
294
52
357
132
159
235
118
271
86
123
36
173
74
59
29
Teff Meteors
2,342.4
11,964
2,807.3
11,411
2,841.8
10,476
3,041.8
10,109
1,987.8
8,451
2,018.5
7,415
2,031.8
6,584
2,058.4
6,239
91.4
6,037
942.5
5,425
1,583.4
5,320
401.2
5,285
1,704.4
5,156
2,022.7
4,890
1,021.6
4,339
1,127.1
4,210
916.9
3,896
1,005.5
3,591
720.4
2,696
533.9
2,133
225.0
1,783
882.3
1,684
585.2
1,578
316.4
1,469
49.4
1,050
8/28
Statistics (II)
• Each meteor contributes to two consecutive intervals.
• Between 1,458 meteors (sol long 55°) and 35,000 (sol long
262°) meteors per interval.
40000
Meteor Count
30000
20000
10000
0
0
IMC 2013
30
60
90
120
150 180 210 240
Solar Longitude [°]
270
300
330
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
9/28
Statistics (III)
• 365,000 (35%) of all meteors were assigned to showers.
• 106 meteor showers detected (without Antihelion),
corresponding to 39 „established“ and 77 „working list“ MDC
showers.
• 23 segments of the Antihelion source detected, corresponding
to 2 „established“ (NTA/STA),18 „working list“ MDC
showers and 6 „unknown“ showers.
• 14 additional meteor shower candidates (too weak to be
sources, worthwhile to be checked and confirmed or rejected).
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
10/28
Statistics (IV)
• Meteor shower distribution over SL / α / δ / vgeo.
12
Number of Showers
Number of Showers
10
8
6
4
2
0
10
8
6
4
2
0
Right Ascension [°]
Declination [°]
8
30
Number of Showers
Number of Showers
35
25
20
15
10
6
4
2
5
0
0
Velocity [km/s]
IMC 2013
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
11/28
Results (I)
• The full list of meteor shower is presented as a poster.
 13 daytime showers: 100 XSA, 128 MKA, 144 APS, 152 NOC, 153
OCE, 156 SMA, 172 ZPE, 173 BTA, 188 XRI, 202 ZCA, 212 KLE,
221 DSX, 325 DLT.
 12 showers detected by radar: 110 AAN, 151 EAU, 165 SZC, 242
XRD, 320 OSE, 321 TCB, 324 EPR, 326 EPG, 327 BEQ, 328 ALA,
329 SSE, 390 THA.
 4 southern hemisphere showers: 102 ACE (δ=-60), 137 PPU (δ=-45),
185 BHY (δ=-75), 254 PHO (δ=-45).
 6 showers which should checked if they are indeed annual and
„established“.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
12/28
Results (II)
• 6 cases in question:
 27 KSE (kappa Serpentids): Listed by Cook (1973) , few photographic
orbits, confirmed by CAMS: very weak shower?
 61 TAH (tau Herculids): Listed by Lindblad (1971), few photographic
orbits, period & invisible these days?
 63 COR (Corvids): Observed by Hoffmeister, dormant shower?
 183 PAU (Pisces Austrinids): Listed by Kashcheev (1967), active in
 233 OCC (October Capricornids): IMO as reference, based on visual
observations, dormant shower?
 252 ALY (April Lyncids): Single telescopic observation in 1971.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
13/28
Results (III)
• 348 ARC and 409 NCY are probably the same shower.
330
50
ARC
320
Declination[°]
Right Ascension [°]
ARC
310
NCY
300
290
40
NCY
35
10
20
30
Solar Longitude [°]
40
50
10
20
30
Solar Longitude [°]
40
50
40
50
2.5
Relative Activity
50
Velocity [km/s]
45
45
ARC
40
NCY
2
1.5
1
0.5
NCY
ARC
0
35
10
IMC 2013
20
30
Solar Longitude [°]
40
50
10
20
30
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
14/28
Results (IV)
• 171 ARI – a daytime shower observed by video!
50
30
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
Video
45
40
35
25
Video
20
70
75
80
Solar Longitude [°]
85
70
50
75
80
Solar Longitude [°]
85
12
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
10
Video
45
40
8
6
4
2
35
70
IMC 2013
75
80
Solar Longitude [°]
Video
0
85
70
75
80
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
85
15/28
Results (V)
• 507 UAN is an early part of 411 CAN, 373 TPR is similar.
55
TPR
40
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
50
30
CAN
UAN
20
10
CAN
50
TPR
45
UAN
40
35
90
95
100
105
110
Solar Longitude [°]
115
120
90
95
100
105
110
Solar Longitude [°]
115
120
115
120
3.5
65
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
3
CAN
60
UAN
55
TPR
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
UAN
TPR
CAN
0
50
90
IMC 2013
95
100
105
110
Solar Longitude [°]
115
120
90
95
100
105
110
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
16/28
Results (VI)
• 175 JPE is „established, but „working list“ 415 AUP and 522
SAP fits much better to the data.
370
20
AUP
AUP
360
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
365
SAP
355
350
345
JPE
15
SAP
JPE
340
335
10
100
105
110
115
120
125
Solar Longitude [°]
130
135
100
75
105
110
115
120
125
Solar Longitude [°]
130
135
3
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
2.5
70
AUP
SAP
65
JPE
2
1.5
1
0.5
JPE
60
SAP
AUP
0
100
105
IMC 2013
110
115
120
125
Solar Longitude [°]
130
135
100
105
110
115
120
125
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
130
135
17/28
Results (VII)
• 505 AIC are a late part of 5 SDA.
0
370
Declination[°]
Right Ascension [°]
380
AIC
360
350
SDA
AIC
-10
SDA
-15
340
330
-20
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
160
170
25
Relative Activity
50
Velocity [km/s]
-5
45
SDA
40
AIC
35
20
15
10
AIC
5
SDA
0
30
110
IMC 2013
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
18/28
Results (VIII)
• 444 ZCS are an early part of 7 PER (?)
80
65
60
PER
Declination[°]
Right Ascension [°]
PER
60
40
20
55
ZCS
50
45
ZCS
0
40
100
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
100
65
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
160
170
60
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
50
PER
60
ZCS
40
30
20
ZCS
10
PER
55
0
100
110
IMC 2013
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
160
170
100
110
120
130
140
150
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
19/28
Results (IX)
• 337 NUE (?) and 226 ZTA are early parts of 8 ORI.
20
15
110
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
130
ORI
ZTA
90
NUE
70
ZTA
10
5
0
NUE
-5
50
150
170
190
210
Solar Longitude [°]
ORI
-10
230
150
170
190
210
Solar Longitude [°]
230
100
ZTA
80
Activity
Velocity [km/s]
70
ORI
65
60
40
NUE
20
60
NUE
ZTA
ORI
0
150
IMC 2013
170
190
210
Solar Longitude [°]
230
150
170
190
210
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
230
20/28
Results (X)
• Orbits between 160 and 200° sol long from 6 years of SonotaCo
network data.
• Each image
represents 4°
in sol long
with 1° shift.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
21/28
Results (XI)
• 28 SOA is an early, 286 FTA a late part of 2 STA.
20
FTA
STA
60
STA
FTA
50
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
70
40
SOA
30
15
SOA
10
5
20
10
0
175
195
215
Solar Longitude [°]
235
175
35
195
215
Solar Longitude [°]
235
8
STA
6
30
Activity
Velocity [km/s]
32.5
27.5
SOA
25
FTA
4
2
22.5
SOA
20
STA
FTA
0
175
IMC 2013
195
215
Solar Longitude [°]
235
255
175
195
215
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
235
255
22/28
Results (XII)
• 20 DLM were deleted from the MDC list, because they were
believed to be identical to COM.
45
180
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
190
COM
170
DLM
160
150
140
DLM
25
COM
15
5
250
260
270
280
290
Solar Longitude [°]
300
310
250
72
6
70
5
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
35
68
66
64
COM
62
260
270
280
290
Solar Longitude [°]
300
310
300
310
4
3
2
1
DLM
DLM
COM
0
60
250
IMC 2013
260
270
280
290
Solar Longitude [°]
300
310
250
260
270
280
290
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
23/28
Results (XIII)
• 11 EVI and 49 LVI are two identical showers.
15
10
LVI
210
(UNK)
KVI
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
220
200
(UNK)
190
NVI
EVI
180
5
NVI
0
EVI
-5
KVI
-10
LVI
-15
-20
170
330
340
350
360
370
Solar Longitude [°]
380
330
390
340
350
360
370
Solar Longitude [°]
380
390
2
(UNK)
KVI
Relative Activity
Velocity [km/s]
45
35
EVI
25
NVI
LVI
1.5
1
0.5
(UNK)
15
330
IMC 2013
340
350
360
370
Solar Longitude [°]
380
390
EVI KVI
NVI
LVI
0
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
24/28
Results (XIV)
• 55 ASC and 150 SOP are two identical showers.
260
-5
-10
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
SOP
250
ASC
240
-15
-20
SOP
-25
ASC
230
-30
40
50
60
Solar Longitude [°]
70
80
40
60
Solar Longitude [°]
70
80
70
80
2.5
2
35
Rel. Activity
Velocity [km/s]
40
50
ASC
30
SOP
25
1.5
1
0.5
ASC
20
SOP
0
40
IMC 2013
50
60
Solar Longitude [°]
70
80
40
50
60
Solar Longitude [°]
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
25/28
Results (XV)
260
20
250
15
Declination [°]
Right Ascension [°]
• Do 516 FMV intersect with the N Apex source?
240
230
FMV
220
10
FMV
5
0
-5
210
-10
325
330
335
Solar Longitude [°]
340
345
325
72
330
335
Solar Longitude [°]
340
345
330
335
Solar Longitude [°]
340
345
2
Relative Activity
Velocity [°]
70
68
FMV
66
64
1.5
1
0.5
62
FMV
60
0
325
IMC 2013
330
335
Solar Longitude [°]
340
345
325
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
26/28
Conclusions
• The MDC list has certain weaknesses which may results in
double registration of meteor showers:
 Only the peak sol long is given, but not the activity interval.
 Certain long-lasting meteor showers cannot be well described with a
single set of parameters (e.g. variable or radiant drift).
• It should be decided whether complex sources like Antihelion
are treated as one, or as a set of individual meteor showers.
 In the latter case we find half a dozen new showers.
• Dormant showers should be clearly marked as such.
• An (online) tool may help to identify meteor showers and
prevent double registration of showers.
IMC 2013
S. Molau: Meteor showers identified from a million video meteors
27/28