Common Pain Syndromes (with Anatomy!) Current Pain or Injury, by Anatomical Site and Instrument Type Head, Face, Lips Neck Upper limb and neck, left Upper limb and neck, right Trunk Brass (n=58) Woodwind (n=67) Lower Stings (n=68) Upper Strings (n=169) Percussion (n=12) 8.6 4.5 2.9 1.2 17.2 9 16.2 12.4 16.7 15.5 6 11.8 18.9 8.3 13.8 29.9 25 21.3 25 32.8 17.9 30.9 23.1 16.7 Total (n=377) 3.2 13.5 14.6 22.3 24.9 Ackermann B, Driscoll T, Kenny D. Musculoskeletal Pain and Injury in Professional Orchestral Musicians in Australia. Med Probl Perform Art 2012;27:181-187 Identification and Nominated Importance of Perceived Causative Factors for Pain or Injury Factor Excess muscle tension Muscle fatigue Insufficient rest Long practice sessions Sudden increase in playing Repertoire scheduling Poor posture Stress Poor injury management Performance anxiety Lack of fitness Instrument set-up Technical flaws Conductor approach Lack of flexibility Insuffieient warm-up Touring Identified (%) Importance (%) Had effect on pain Improtant factor 82.4 76.8 80.5 82 75.5 71.7 77.9 69.6 62.8 62 67 58.7 57.5 49.3 65.7 66.7 37.2 73.5 70.8 70.3 66.9 65.6 63.8 63.3 58.5 47.9 47.6 45.8 44.7 38 37.7 35.4 31.6 23.6 Ackermann B, Driscoll T, Kenny D. Musculoskeletal Pain and Injury in Professional Orchestral Musicians in Australia. Med Probl Perform Art 2012;27:181-187 Neck • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome – Compression or stretching of the neurovascular structures of the neck leading into the arm • Cause pain, tingling, numbness, heavy sensation, cold to the touch, or cold sensation • Can affect any part of the lateral neck or arm Comparison of Muscle Activity While Playing the Violin Muscle Activity Upper Trapezius, Right Upper Trapezius, Left Cervical Extensors, Right Cervical Extensors, Left Sternocleidomastoid, Right Sternocleidomastoid, Left Pain Group (n=9) 9.81 24.26 19.29 21.53 15.68 10.38 Control Group (n=9) 7.67 14.52 11.98 16.67 9.11 4.15 p 0.350 0.001 0.001 0.030 0.016 0.000 Participants who reported neck pain after playing were put into the pain group Park K, Kwon O, Ha S, Kim S, Choi H, Weon J. Comparison of Electromyographic Activity and Range of Neck Motion in Violin Students with and without Neck Pain During Playing. Med Probl of Perform Art. 2012;17:188-192 Shoulder • Impingement Syndrome – Compression of the structures in the subacromial space • Biceps tendon • Supraspinatus tendon • Subacromial Bursae – Compression of this space is significantly increased when the arm is elevated Elbow, Wrist, Hand & Fingers • Medial Epicondylitis – Aggravation of the wrist / finger flexors • Lateral Epicondylitis – Aggravation of the wrist / finger extensors • Carpel Tunnel Syndrome – Impingement of medial nerve in the wrist • Finger Pathologies Flexors of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Palmar wrist, hand, fingers the elbow Medial epicondyle of Flexors of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers • When the wrist is flexed, there is a: – Decrease in finger flexor muscle force – Decrease in precision and dexterity – Due to a phenomenon called active insufficiency of the flexors and passive insufficiency of the antagonists (extensor muscles) Grandjean E: Manual de Ergonomia: Adaptando o Trabalho ao Homem. Proto Alegre: Artes Medicas; 1998. Extensors of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers Dorsal wrist, hand, fingers the elbow Lateral epicondyle of Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Finger Pathologies Low Back Pain • Almost always related to postural asymmetries © Postural Restoration Institute Brachial Chain (BC): Anterior-Lateral Intercostals, Deltoid-Pectoral Muscle, Sibson’s Fascia, Triangularis Sterni, Sternocleidomastoid, Scaleni, Diaphragm Anterior Interior Chain (AIC): Diaphragm, Iliacus, Psoas, TFL, Vastus Lateralis, Biceps Femoris The Diaphragm is the overlap between the two chains © Postural Restoration Institute Physical Preparation Instrument and Environment Analysis • Making sure the instrument is placed in an ergonomically correct position – Support stands, straps, athletic taping, orthotic device • Correct seating • Lighting • Placement of music stand Recommendations Recommendations using everything we now know • Proper outside-of-music activity is important for increased performance ability and injury reduction • Reduce stress – Let pain be your guide • Appropriate warm-up is essential – Focusing on the problem areas discussed in this lecture Warm-up • Finger flexion and extension • Arm and trunk range of motion • Stretching – From fingers to low back, every muscle group has the potential to cause a pain syndrome • Simple music • More complex music When you Feel Pain… • “PRICED” –P –R –I –C –E –D Protect Rest Ice Compression Elevation Diagnosis Performing Arts Medicine at Appalachian State Performing Arts Medicine • At Appalachian State University: – College of Health Sciences – Department of Theatre & Dance – Athletics Department – Hayes School of Music • Staff with performing arts medicine education – Program implementation – Research PerformingArtsMedicine.appstate.edu Questions?